Quality Of Life Achievement Through
Socio-Spatial Configuration In Open SpacesMohammad Ischak, Bambang Setioko, Dedes Nurgandarum
Abstract - The urban growth that occurs in big cities, where the one of them is Jakarta city, is currently characterized by one of them with a tendency towards into rural areas in the form of planned settlements driven by developers who change the rural area into a sub-urban character. One of the impact of this changes was the emergence of enclave settlements, that is the rural settlements that had existed before the surrounding land was owned by the developers, and now is in confined condition by planned settlements. The aim of this study is to find out how the enclave settlement resident achieve a quality of life through the characteristics of open spaces utilization, and what the factors most influence to the achievement of quality of life. This research used the case study method and taking the enclave settlement in Serpong, Indonesia, which are the one of sub-urban areas around the city of Jakarta. As a research finding, there are two levels of socio-spatial configuration formed by the characteristics of open space. The two form of socio-spatial configuration turned out to reflect the achievement of quality of life by resident of enclave settlement because they bring comfort to life directly. The most influence factor in the formation of these conditions is access in and out of enclave settlement that still opened by planned settlement surrounding it. Index Terms— socio-spatial, quality of life, planned settlement, enclave settlement.
1 INTRODUCTION One important issue in designing cities especially in big cities in developing countries is the shrinking of the center and the escape of city boundary boundaries in the form of urban sprawl ,,,. One of the impacts currently seen is the growth of cities around the metropolitan city of Jakarta, where one of them is Tangerang city ,,,. The phenomenon of urban growth towards the periphery raises an area that is a mixture of village-city characters and is known as sub-urban as a process of combining population growth and economy with the expansion of urban space . One form of growth around major cities in Indonesia is the emergence of large-scale settlements, namely planned settlements produced by developers in meeting the residential needs of urban residents ,. This is basically a necessity related to the growth trend of cities in Asia ,, even throughout the world . The impact that arises later is the emergence of serious problems in the form of social and spatial segregation in large-scale planned settlements that reflect the disparity in socio-economic conditions of the community supported by the provision of housing according to market demand ,,.
In addition to the social and spatial segregation issues, the impact of extensive land acquisition with market mechanisms and sporadic development carried out by planned residential developers also produces an impact that is the emergence of enclave settlements . The character of this enclave settlement is still named as a village; there is a barrier wall that surrounds the settlement, and limited access. The occurrence of spatial restrictions carried out by planned settlements ultimately resulted in social and spatial changes in enclave settlements. Therefore, it is very important if the observation of the context of enclave settlements is done through an approach with a socio-spatial theme. Because in the context of settlements, there is a very strong the relationship between spaces and social life and can reflect the social structure that exists in the inhabitants of these settlements .
3601 Therefore, observations in research locations must be carried
out through spatial configuration patterns that accommodate these social interactions, because the configuration of social spaces is a pattern formed by the activities of residents of an urban environment ,,. Components that influence the formation of spatial configurations include: social, economic, and cultural activities , also include building and open space , and movement paths , besides the existence of physical space itself ,.
This research is interesting to do because the variables and levels of quality of life are different from the results of previous studies. The research area that has the character of settlements in the form of enclave settlements is very distinctive, so as to enable the occurrence of social interaction, as well as a space that is a distinctive place as well. The approach in this study is also a different approach with previous studies of the theme of quality of life. More previous studies emphasized physical and non-physical parameters. Whereas this research is actually based on socio-spatial elements, namely spatial space which is a social activity, especially which begins with economic activity as a form of social interaction. The characteristics of the study area are in the form of enclave settlement, and the focus of the socio-spatial study has never been done in previous studies, so the results of the research are important to be able to complement the theory and results of previous studies related to the theme of quality of life.
2 Research Methodology
2.1 Material Studied
Based on the background of the previous research and review of the literature, this research focused on data related to the formation of socio-spatial configurations triggered by the economic activities of residents of enclave settlements that were the area of research. To be able to formulate a socio-spacial configuration, physical and non-physical data are needed. Physical data involves physical elements forming space as a place of activity, such as building mass, building functions, circulation systems, and open spaces. Whereas non-physical data includes economic activities that allow for social interactions, the composition of indigenous people and migrants, the type and timing of social activities that occur, and the closeness of interactions that occur between residents of enclave settlements.
2.2 Area Description
The research area was carried out in the Serpong area which became the development area of Tangerang district. The study was conducted in three enclave settlements in two sub-districts, namely Kelapa Dua and Pagedangan Districts. Each case is in the midst of a large-scale planned settlement built by three different developers
2.2 Case Study Method
The study was conducted using a case study method with a multi-case type. The research steps include the steps of deduction and induction. The deduction step is a compilation of propositions which are conclusions from a review of the literature, especially those related to elements that influence the achievement of quality of life. The induction step is a step taken in the field including: a). field observations to get an indication of the prominent forms of economic activity of residents were carried out in a settlement. b). extracting aspects that influence the formation of socio-spatial through observation and interviews with economic activity actors. c). explore the response of residents as actors of economic activity through questionnaires to economic activity actors and enclave settlement residents. The questionnaire was distributed to respondents of the population of food stall buyers and settlement native residents around of the food stall
3 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
One element that indicates quality of life in one community is open space ,,. In the context of the socio-spatial discussion which was triggered by the economic activities of residents of enclave settlements, economic activity was found which triggered the interaction of occupants conducted in open spaces. The phenomenon that occurs is the presence of traders who move and park in an open space, then residents of settlements as consumers within a certain radius come to that location to make purchases something that they are needed. During the sale and purchase transaction, the interaction between the occupants occurred due to carrying out the same activities at almost the same time.
3602 The main principle of quality of life is the diversity of
activities in the neighborhood, where it can occur in spaces between buildings that can be used for mixed activities (dynamic space) and by anyone . Thus, one of the important elements is the configuration of residential buildings, which allows open spaces to emerge as a place of social activities for its residents. The pattern of building masses formed in all cases is almost the same which leads to linear patterns. The existence of roads as axes, both in the form of footpaths and main residential roads, is a guarantee that the mass blocks of residential buildings will always form linear patterns and will not experience many changes in the future (figure 2).
In the context of the socio-spatial configuration, the combination of the character of the building mass pattern and the setting of each building produces open spaces that are
very effective in accommodating interaction activities between residents. Interaction with neighbors is one of the main parameters for achieving quality of life ,. This condition is found in the research area with the characteristics of its dynamic nature of interaction. This is because the number of actors as well as the number of housing units involved in each activity will always be different at each occurrence of the activity, with the place always changing its place.
In a broader context there are almost the same cases but involve different territorial scales, namely the occurrence of economic activities in the presence of temporary markets or night markets. Temporary market phenomena appear in the form of a gathering of many traders from outside settlements that hold various kinds of merchandise housed in several open space spots on the main roadside settlements. It is called a temporary market or night market because activities that occur like a market and are valid for only a few days a week and are only open from 17.00 until around 22.00. (figure 3).
Thus, there are two levels of socio-spatial configuration triggered by economic activities involving residents as buyers, where the space settings that occur involve open spaces and the hierarchy of the road. The findings of the study that are different from the previous theory are that the level of quality of life correlates with the type of road. Micro level of qulity of life describes neighboring territories triggered by the socio-spatial configuration that occurs along the paths in the settlement that occur with dynamic space settings.
The frequency of activity occurs every day with using open space along the path. While the socio-spatial configurations that are formed in open spaces along the main residential road, do not occur every day and involve traders from outside the settlement who use open space on the edge of the main road. The socio-spatial that happened was involved visitors with territorial boundaries of one enclave settlement.
Figure 2. Organizational scheme of mass blocks of residential buildings that form a linear pattern and become a component forming a
Socio-spatial configuration formed by open space at neighboring environments
Figure 1: Economic activity that utilizes open space on the path way as well as a place for
interaction in neighbor
Figure 3. The Temporary market phenomenon which triggered the formation of a mezzo level
3603 Thus, the phenomenon of the formation of a socio-spatial
configuration triggered by economic activities at open space involving residents of enclave settlements directly acts as an indicator of the comfort and satisfaction of living in a residential environment as well as a reflection of achieving quality of life. The data obtained from the answers to the
questionnaire stated that the aspect of neighboring closeness in carrying out daily activities and easy access to daily necessities became the main aspects that caused residents to feel comfortable living in their current residential environment (figure 4).
On the other hand, the creation of a socio-spatial configuration triggered by the economic activities of residents of enclave settlements can occur due to guaranteed access to the enclave settlements and outflows from planned settlements. Availability of access guarantees the presence of traders from outside the settlement so as to enable the formation of a socio-spatial configuration. Thus, the existence of access to enclave settlements is a decisive component for achieving quality of life. Thus, availability of access through planned residential land owned by developers, is a very important factor that guarantees the quality of life in residents of enclave settlement. occupants can be formed due to harmony with planned settlements. That is in line with , which stated that one of the parameters for achieving quality of life is the availability of transportation access that makes it easy for individuals and communities to conduct activities outside their environment. Related to this, the research findings stated along with the previous theory, but still had different characteristics. Access which is the research finding basically also reflects the creation of integration between two forms of settlements, namely enclave settlements with planned settlements. In the context of connectivity between enclave settlements and planned settlement, the analysis is focused on indirect relationship. Economic activities that occur in open spaces in enclave settlements, both on a neighbor scale and on a settlement scale, can occur due to the arrival of sellers from outside the settlement. The traders came to the enclave settlement using equipment with a type of cart, motorbike, or goods car. Trader mobility can occur because of guaranteed access to enclave settlement. This guarantee is an initiative of the developer who develops planned settlement. In addition, to be able to enter enclave settlement areas, these traders must pass the planned settlement area that is controlled by the developer. Thus, the guarantee from the planned settlement for traders to pass through the access developed by developers in the planned settlement area is a key factor that
causes comfort for residents of enclave settlements to stay. Convenience due to the ease of buying household goods that residents feel is an indication of the achievement of quality of life. Even though it does not show close equality, the findings of this study can be said to be in line with the findings of previous research stating that quality of life parameters depend on the level of quality of life that is the level of the neighboring environment ,,, the level of settlement or settlement communities ,,, and the urban environment ,,. Therefore, the scheme for achieving quality of life triggered from socio spatial in economic activities at open spaces can be made as follows (Figure 5). Economic
Settlement main road Social Interaction
Quality of Life
Through the socio-spatial configuration triggered by economic activities, it can be used as an indicator of achieving quality of life in enclave settlement residents. Quality of life is achieved through the achievement of two parameters, that is comfort and satisfaction for stay, closeness between residents, interacting habits, and opportunities to increase family income. There are two levels of socio-spatial configuration formed in enclave settlement open spaces that can be looked as an indicator for achievement of quality of life, namely the level of neighboring territories, and the level of settlement territories. In addition to these parameters, there are typical research findings, namely the existence of a decisive aspect in the form of the availability of access to and out of enclave settlements which is the main factor for the entry of non-residents as an economic activity actors who also play a role in achieving quality of life for residents of enclave settlements.. The main aspect that greatly influences the formation of quality of life is the ease of access and proximity of the enclave to planned settlements or vice versa. The findings of this study if it is associated with the application of urban planning, it is very important to avoid social and spatial conflict or segregation between planned settlements and enclave settlements, namely guarantee of ease of access to enclave settlements integrated with the main circulation system of planned settlements. Thus, the interconnection of the socio-spatial configuration that occurs between enclave residential environments and the surrounding residential environment (planned settlements and unplanned settlements) is the main factor in achieving quality of life. The relationship conditions between the settlement environment, if analogous to the spatial pattern model by , produce a composition and socio-spatial configuration.
This research is a dissertation research from a doctoral school that is being undertaken by researcher that fully funded by the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning at Universitas Trisakti, Indonesia.
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