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New Haven, Con,z.


ARIOUS aspects of the rooming-in program from the point of view of the mother,

the nurse, and the pediatrician have been emphasized. The obstetricians are no

less enthusiastic. Thoms, Jackson and others have shown, after 1 8 months’ experience

with mothers in a rooming-in unit, that physically these patients recover as well if not

better than those patients not so fortunate as to enjoy an arrangement of this type. Psychologically the advantages are more obvious. The rooming-in mothers have a mental

attitude and a morale rarely seen in those mothers who experience the conventional type

of hospitalization. That a beneficial mother-child relationship is established in this unit

is, we believe, undeniable.

Accepting this as the basic philosophy of rooming-in, it is natural that the obstetrician would come to consider his own role in the furtherance of its establishment. If it is true

that the foundations of mental health are laid in infancy and since infancy begins at birth,

it seems reasonable to suppose that childbirth itself should be an emotionally satisfactory

experience for the mother if an adequate mother-child relationship is to be established. We may question whether childbirth is emotionally satisfactory for most mothers today.

Consider for a moment the course of many pregnancies and labors, particularly in urban areas, today. The woman begins her pregnancy with doubts and fears, many of

them ‘founded in ignorance and superstitution, and acquires misinformation from her

relatives and friends which contributes to her original anxieties. Despite the reassurance

which she receives from her medical attendant as to her physical safety, in his

preoc-cupation with the satisfaction of her somatic needs he may overlook the deep-seated

anxieties with which she began her pregnancy and which usually increase as the

preg-aancy advances. As she nears term, the woman who has had a preconceived idea that labor is a terrifying and dangerous ordeal has experienced little to disillusion her.

As-surance that she will be spared pain and suffering by the use of drugs strengthens rather

than allays her disquiet.

Such a patient enters the hospital in labor with manifest apprehension and with every

expectation of undergoing a traumatic experience. Her attendants, whose interest is often

chiefly concerned with her physical safety, may do little at this crucial time to allay her

fears. In fact, in assessing many traditional labor room practices in this light, it becomes

apparent that their effect is to increase rather than to allay fear. The usage of the word

pain as a synonym for uterine contraction, the practice of leaving the patient alone, the

routine use of drugs on a schedule rather than according to the patient’s needs, the lack

of explanation of what is happening, and the often impersonal attitude of the attendants

-these and other practices create an atmosphere which may in itself be terrifying.

From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University School of Medicine, and

the University Service, Grace-New Haven Community Hospital.

Presented at a panel discussion of rooming-in at a meeting of the New England Pediatric Society,

New Haven, Conn., June 9, 1948.

(Received for publication August 1, 1948.)


Frequently the patient is partially drugged long before her baby is born and the baby

is usually delivered for her while she is unconscious. When the mother does regain

consciousness, she often is disinterested in her baby, a disinterest which may last for

some time. Is it unreasonable to suppose that such a mother, after a traumatic experience of this kind, could develop an unconscious rejection of her baby incompatible with the establishment of a healthy mother-child relationship ? The father, too, relegated to another

part of the hospital during the whole process, receiving little more than nonspecific

reassurance about something he doesn’t understand, is hardly to be blamed if he looks

on the newborn as the cause of his wife’s suffering and forms conscious and unconscious resentments which may color his relationship to his child for some time to come.

Viewing the process of birth in this light, it is possible that the science of obstetrics,

in its concern for the safety of the mother and baby, may have been neglectful of the

mother as a personality. Due attention, therefore, should be given to the psychic as well

as the somatic needs of the mother, and the goal of modern obstetrics should be to make childbirth an emotionally satisfactory as well as a physically safe experience.

Dr. Grantly Dick Read of London brings this philosophy forcibly to the attention of mothers as well as obstetricians in the book published in this country under the title

“Childbirth Without Fear.” He suggests that childbirth can be emotionally not only

satisfactory but exalting. This is possible since, he points out, fear and its corollary,

ten-sion, are the chief causes of pain in normal labor. He demonstrates that by eliminating

fear and tension, women can be delivered without undue pain and without the necessity for the use of deep analgesia and anesthesia. He further proposes that the elimination

of fear is a more logical approach to the alleviation of pain in childbirth than is the blotting out of consciousness with drugs, which in themselves often complicate an

other-wise normal labor and can deprive the mother of an experience to which she is entitled,

and from which she and her baby may derive great benefit.

In this clinic our interest in Read’s hypothesis and its corroboration in this country by Dr. Blackwell Sawyer, of Toms River, N.J., was further stimulated by several of our clinic patients who asked to have their babies naturally. They had become convinced of the essential truth of Read’s ideas by reading his book and were enabled by this alone to

achieve their wish for a completely natural childbirth. In the course of a few months ap-proximately 20 of these patients were delivered here, which convinced us that natural

childbirth demanded further attention and study.

Consequently, we have been arbitrarily selecting for our program every third patient who registers in our prenatal clinic, provided that these patients are deliverable from

below and are not more than 28 weeks pregnant. In this group we include those patients, appearing in ever-increasing numbers, who request natural childbirth.

We attempt, by education, reassurance and constant attendance during labor to elimi-nate fear insofar as possible and to substitute knowledge and positive emotional values.

During the prenatal period these patients receive approximately five short classes in which they are taught the simple physiologic facts concerning pregnancy and labor,



and convinced that the experience she is about to undergo is a completely natural one.

In labor these patients are constantly attended by a nurse familiar with the technics

of relaxation as well as the philosophy of natural childbirth. The patient is visited

fre-quently by the doctor who will deliver her and kept informed of her progress. If the

use of analgesia or anesthesia becomes necessary, the appropriate drugs are administered

as indicated. There is no doubt, however, that the institution of the program outlined

above minimizes the necessity for the use of medication of this type. During the delivery

itself the mothers are kept informed of progress.

If episiotomy is necessary, it is performed after local infiltration of the area to be

incised with procaine 0.5% solution. This infiltration is unnecessary in many instances,

as the bulging perineum has its own natural anesthesia at the time ; however, this natural

anesthesia wears off soon after the baby is born and some form of anesthesia is usually

necessary for the repair.

As soon as the baby is born the mother usually experiences a profound euphoria, which

gives ample evidence of the strong bond which she immediately establishes with her child,

and leaves little room for doubt that this is a wholly worth-while procedure. This reaction

must be seen to be appreciated to its fullest extent. Third stage bleeding is usually minimal

and the expulsion of the placenta is usually prompt. The mother, not having been made

sick by an anesthetic, is ready to visit with her husband immediately after leaving the

delivery room and her return to normal vigor is prompt.

In addition to the usual hospital obstetric records, we keep complete psychologic records

of the pregnancies and labors. We have attempted to classify the labors as successful or

unsuccessful. While such a classification has of necessity been arbitrary, it has served a

useful purpose in helping us to define our general aims and in enabling us to find at

least partial answers to the many questions which natural childbirth poses.

We have considered as successful those mothers who require or receive a minimum

amount of analgesia or anesthesia or none at all. All mothers so classified are fully

con-scious at delivery and have favorable postpartum reactions; that is, they are pleased and

happy about their labors and deliveries, and give no evidence of psychic trauma. Those

mothers are called unsuccessful who appear to derive no benefit from the indoctrination, who are not conscious at delivery, although they may have received less medication than the usual patient, and whose postpartum reaction is of a negative nature. At the present

time we have delivered over 550 women who have been exposed to the technics described

above. Our results have convinced us that these technics are physically safe and

psycho-logically desirable for most pregnant women.


Un Comentario sobre el Parto Natural

Las ventajas psicol#{243}gicas obvias del plan “rooming-in” hacen que el obst#{233}trico considere los

aspectos emocionantes del parto y se pregunte si los dolores del parto y el parto mismo son

satis-factoriamente emocionantes para Ia madre en la cultura de hoy. En el cuiadado de Ia parturienta se ha

puesto m#{225}s#{233}nfasisen la satisfacci#{243}n de sus necesidades som#{225}ticas, descuidando amenudo las necesidades

psiquicas. Dr. Grantley Dick Read ha indicado que el miedo que existe en Ia mujer embarazada puede

ser Ia causa del dolor en el parto, y que si se puede quitar este miedo mediante educaci#{243}n y

esmerada atenci#{243}n durante ci parto, que las mujeres darIan a luz sin incomodidad excesiva y sin


Se han aplicado Ia fliosofia y las t#{233}cnicassugeridas por el Dr. Read a un grupo de pacientes en

esta clmnica, y hemos encontrado que esto es verdad. Se les da a nuestros pacientes, adem#{225}sdel cuidado prenatal, conferencias sobre Ia anatomla y fisiologia del embarazo, dolores de parto, y el

parto, yse les ensefia algunos ejercicios simples para aumentar su abilidad de relajar. Tambi#{233}nestos

pacientes son atendidos cuidadosamente durante el parto por miembros del cuerpo de medicos y

enfermeras. Dc esta manera un gran n#{252}merode estas mujeres pueden estar conscientes durante el parto y experimentar la reacci#{243}nemocionante que satisface tanto y que establece una relaci#{243}n deseable

al principio de la vida del infante.

Un an#{225}lisis estadIstico de los resultados de este estudio aparecer#{225} en otra comunicaci#{243}n. Sin embargo, los resultados convencen de que estas tCcnicas so fisicamente seguras y psicologicamente

deseables para Ia mayor parte de las mujeres embarazadas.







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