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Procedia Engineering 150 ( 2016 ) 2042 – 2048

1877-7058 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICIE 2016 doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.292

ScienceDirect

International Conference on Industrial Engineering, ICIE 2016

Urban Safety Development Methods

O.A Rastyapina*, N.V Korosteleva

State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 1 Akademicheskaya Street, Volgograd 400074, Russia

Abstract

Scientific and technical progress resulted in a rapid pace of development and transformation of many resources and inhabited areas which afterwards have an adverse impact on people themselves. The issue of the necessity for a sustainable development of the urban structure is very important today. Urban safety development is necessary to ensure a sustainable development of urban environment. Urban safety is a built environment which ensures safe life of the population on the basis of a combination of factors. The article contains a theoretical analysis of the classification of factors forming urban safety of an inhabited area. All factors forming the local urban safety are divided into groups: natural, architectural, social, environmental, technogenic, infrastructural and urban. One registers the influence of these factors on environment and population. Primarily, adverse factors forming urban safety of an area affect the human health. Many environmental factors notably have an impact on the man in a certain period of time as they tend to accumulate in the human body. Apart from the influence on the man, one can notice certain influence on animals and plants affected by a complex of adverse factors inherent in urban environment. The conducted urban safety factor analysis allows one to assess the level of liveability and safety of an inhabited area. The article contains the methods of urban safety development. These methods should be worked out and introduced on the local and regional levels.

© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of ICIE 2016.

Keywords: Sustainable development; safe environment; urban safety; urban safety factors; urban safety development methods; urban safety assessment; integral urban safety assessment.

1. Introduction

Due to a constant growth and development of cities as the urban structures increasingly greater attention is paid not only to ecological and economic development but also to the balance of architectural development of an

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +7-906-167-4284.

E-mail address: O_rast@list.ru

© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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inhabited area. Balanced urban development should be narrowed to building-up a comfortable urban space based on the created architectural and ecological layout. Thus, the urban growth and development should be considered in terms of both ecological and urban safety development. One of the tendencies of the achievement of sustainable development of an urban system is the provision of its urban safety, this fact being also mentioned in the works of several scientists [1-4].

Urban safety is not only a personal state and security for the population, it is a complex notion, defined on the basis of several factors and formed in a given territory of the inhabited area. Olenkov considers urban safety as the state when the population feels safe, the environment-forming facilities and other inhabited areas are not subject to environmental exposure [5]. Vilner believes that urban safety is the safety of the environmental assets of a settlement within the urban territory [6].

Urban safety is a combination of factors, including urbanization, architectural and ecological ones, which create favorable and safe living environment [7]. Favorable living environment – the environment meeting all up-to-date standards of engineering and ecology, and not generating a negative impact on people, buildings, facilities and nature-made objects. The safe environment means a secured urbanized environment, which is capable to sustain and resist the factors affecting the architecture and ecology of an area. The notion of urban safety itself, which is created on the basis of ecological and urbanized safety, is tightly linked with a notion of quality of the environment [8, 9]. Quality of the environment is defined by a set of indicators based primarily on environmental indicators, and existing individual natural and climatic characteristics of particular territories [10]. Creating urban safety in an inhabited area will make it possible to ensure a sustainable development of the urban structure. The requirement to achieve a sustainable development and ensuring a higher live quality is declared globally [11-13].

2. Classification of urban safety factors

2.1. Urban safety factors related to their incidence

In order to assess and create a favorable and safe environment it is necessary to identify the components of the urban safety. All factors can be divided into the following groups: natural, architectural, social, environmental, technogenic, infrastructural and urban. The assessment of the urban safety in terms of the above groups of factors is possible only conditionally as a favorable, adverse and partially favorable territory.

Natural environment is determined by existing natural and climatic conditions. All these factors can be divided into the groups: geophysical, geological, climatic and geochemical. Geophysical factors imply the identification of natural and artificial physical fields. Some researchers note the influence of geophysical factors on the climate change [14, 15]. It has been also registered that geophysical factors have an impact on the human health, one can observe mental disorders, the growth of heart diseases and cancers, immune system disorders, respiratory diseases [16, 17]. Geological factors determine land topography, the degree of its usefulness for construction and utilization for different economical purposes. It is worth noting the importance of studying the topography and structural geology aimed at the identification of area suitability for construction; unfortunately, recently not enough attention has been given to pre-design geological investigations. In result, when a building is used, various negative processes would happen: destruction, subsidence and etc. [18].

Climatic factors are determined by the existing climate at an urban area. It is possible to reduce negative impacts of climatic factors (strong wind, calm, solar radiation (active Sun)), by means of engineering and technical measures and specific techniques of inhabited area design.

Geochemical factors are the regional peculiarities of the mineral composition of soil, ground and water in natural reservoirs. Because of an abnormal combination of trace elements in soil, water and atmosphere, there appears a lack of some trace elements in the human body, thus, the human health being affected [19].

The group of architectural factors includes the factors, which determine the architectural value of the urban development, fulfillment of compositional conception, architectural entity. To assess urban safety in terms of this group it would be more reasonable to use the scale by which certain points are assigned to rate the architectural image of the urban environment.

The group of social factors include demographical processes, including the incidence of diseases, caused by anthropogenic impact, social and economic indicators of local development, life level indices, duration of life,

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mortality rate [20]. Social factors are assessed through their comparison with the average rate throughout the country.

The group of ecological factors contains the environmental indicators: air, soil and water pollution. This group of factors is the widest and have the greatest impact on people and the urban environment.

Technogenic factors determine the influence made on environment by production: physical and natural radiation, radar emission. This group of factors affects people and environment adversely and to the utmost.

Infrastructural factors determine the degree of infrastructure development: transport (road, railroad and air infrastructure), engineering (utilities), public services (medicine, education and science development).

Urban factors include the development of the urban area, the territory utilization according to its function, the compliance of the territory utilization with the social requirements, accounting for the territory functionality, availability of urban plantation and other amenities.

2.2. Urban safety methods related to their degree of effect

All factors, if considered by their degree of effect, can be divided into the great and low effect factors. The great effect factors include: climatic factors (humidity, temperature, and pressure), pollution at different levels (soil, water, air). The low effect factors include: geochemical, geophysical, and geological (depending on the scope of exposure), factors related to the change of the Earth magnetic level.

2.3. Urban safety factors as per GOST 12.0.003-74*

All urban safety factors can be categorized as hazardous and harmful. According to GOST 12.0.003-74* [21] all hazardous and harmful production factors are divided by the nature of their impact on the human body into four groups: physical, chemical, biological, psychophysiological. The physical factors include: high rate of dustiness and air pollution; air and surrounding surfaces temperature rise and drop; high or low barometric pressure; elevated level of ionizing radiation; elevated level of electromagnetic radiation, ultraviolet and infrared radiation. All these factors can be anthropogenic by origin or naturally-occurring. The chemical hazard factors include all substances generated in the course of production and emanated by other transient sources of air pollution. These are the anthropogenic factors. The biohazards are pathogenic organisms (bacteria, viruses), metabolic byproducts, plants and animals. These factors are man-made as they result from accidents at biotechnical factories, waste treatment facilities, discharge undertreatment. The psychophysiological factors are those determined by the environment condition, public improvements being in place, social development rate. All listed anthropogenic and natural factors influence the psychoemotional state of the urban population.

2.4. Urban safety factors related to the nature of their impact

If considered by the nature of the impact all factors are divided into two groups: active and passive. Active factors are shown and influence the environment in consequence of their appearance, for example, air pollution, electromagnetic oscillation, adverse natural processes, those can be both anthropogenic and naturally-occurring. Passive factors arise as a result of active factor occurrence, for example, reduction of public improvements and amenities caused by an unfavorable situation in general, underdeveloped infrastructure.

2.5. Urban safety assessment

On the basis of the analysis of the factors forming the environment, urban safety can be assessed as follows: Safe environment, the best-possible conditions for the urban environment and population have been created, the environment is capable to resist all loads arising inside the urban environment, medical and demographic, as well as sanitary and hygienic statistical indicators are within the established limits;

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Maximum acceptable environment – all sanitary and hygienic, medical and demographic indicators are within the established limits, however the factors affecting the environment are critically high and tend to create the basis for unfavorable conditions;

Hazardous environment – sanitary and hygienic, medical and demographic indicators partly exceed the maximum permissible limits, the factors have an adverse impact on the environment and population.

The influence of such unfavorable state can be estimated by analyzing the types and incidence of diseases the population suffer from. As the major part of the mentioned urban safety factors have an impact on the human health. The researchers link some adverse sanitary and hygienic factors with the disease incidence. A.A. Korolev lists the following diseases: respiratory diseases (including bronchial asthma); heart and gastrointestinal diseases; blood and blood-forming organ diseases; skin and nervous system diseases; endocrine pathology (including diabetes); neoplasms, allergies; congenital disorders, complications in pregnancy and birth [22]. The effect from air pollution can be classified as follows: acute effect, late and chronic effect. The latter is divided into two groups: specific and non-specific. Children are most subject to diseases.

The incidence of air pollution related diseases can vary dependent on a pollutant type, different harmful substances contained in the air can bring about different diseases. Besides some substances would not have an immediate effect, but accumulate in the human body. Thus, S.A. Moon notes that the diseases incidence is up to 30% with adults [23, 24] and up to 60% with children dependent on over-pollution of air with fuel combustion products (nitrogen oxide, hydrocarbons).

As mentioned above, the following indicators are taken into account in assessment of the urban safety: sanitary and hygienic, medical and demographic, and social indicators. The sanitary and hygienic indicators are related to the environmental assessment. The pollutant concentration is compared with the established limits. Medical and genetic indicators are those based on the diseases incidence measurement and calculation of several demographic indices via the analysis of disease rates as well. Social indicators mean the identification of the general social situation within the territory of a given urban area, the availability of public services and amenities, development of infrastructure.

2.6. Urban safety development methods

The methods to be used to develop urban safety are established on the federal and local levels. The federal authorities are to set the standard indicators of a favorable environment with regard to architecture, urban planning and social sphere. The regional (local) authorities are to adjust the set indicators in correspondence with the local conditions and natural and climatic characteristics of the area. Thus, to ensure urban safety it is required to establish the system of administrative and economical regulation of urban planning (urban and ecological) activities. The proposed system of methods can be grouped as follows:

Setting standards for environmental activities; licensing of construction and environmental operations; certification. These methods should be aimed at the management, monitoring, regulation of and control over the urban planning activities. At present there is a set of environmental standard indicators, governing almost all industrial and production, and urban planning standards. One of the main laws in the sphere of environmental regulation of urban planning activities is the Law on Protection of Environment (Ɂɚɤɨɧ «Ɉɛɨɯɪɚɧɟɨɤɪɭɠɚɸɳɟɣ

ɫɪɟɞɵ»). The other applicable laws are: Land Code (Ɂɟɦɟɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɞɟɤɫ); Russian Water Code (ȼɨɞɧɵɣɤɨɞɟɤɫ

ɊɎ); Federal Law on Protection of Air (Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɤɨɧ «Ɉɛɨɯɪɚɧɟɚɬɦɨɫɮɟɪɧɨɝɨɜɨɡɞɭɯɚ»); Forest Code of the Russian Federation (Ʌɟɫɧɨɣ ɤɨɞɟɤɫ ɊɎ); Federal Law on Fauna (Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɡɚɤɨɧ «Ɉ ɠɢɜɨɬɧɨɦ ɦɢɪɟ»); Federal Law on Fishing and the Conservation of Aquatic Biological Resources (Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɤɨɧ «Ɉ

ɪɵɛɨɥɨɜɫɬɜɟɢɫɨɯɪɚɧɟɧɢɢ ɜɨɞɧɵɯɛɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɪɟɫɭɪɫɨɜ»); Federal Law on Production and Consumption

Waste (Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣ ɡɚɤɨɧ «Ɉɛ ɨɬɯɨɞɚɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɚ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɥɟɧɢɹ»); Federal Law on Sanitary and Epidemiological Welfare of Population (Ɏɟɞɟɪɚɥɶɧɵɣɡɚɤɨɧ «Ɉɫɚɧɢɬɚɪɧɨ-ɷɩɢɞɟɦɢɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɦɛɥɚɝɨɩɨɥɭɱɢɢ ɧɚɫɟɥɟɧɢɹ») specifies the requirements to sanitary and hygienic standardization in the sphere of habitat protection.

The monitoring means activities including measurements and analysis of environmental indices. The monitoring findings are used to appraise the performance purposed to ensure, adjust, prevent and improve the environmental indices, characterizing its quality.

The group of methods based on the standardization and auditing the town planning activity. The town planning activity means the observance of town planning standards, regulated on the federal level. The main applicable

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regulatory document here is Town Planning Code of the Russian Federation (Ƚɪɚɞɨɫɬɪɨɢɬɟɥɶɧɵɣɤɨɞɟɤɫ ɊɎ). According to this law local authorities establish regulatory documents to manage town planning and territory planning with account of the local requirements. There are also Rules and Regulations used to govern separate fields of urban design.

The practice of urban safety audit is less developed, as urban safety requires precise determination of indicators, which characterize urban safety of an area. The audit is an activity aimed at improvement of environmental quality and reduction of expenses on providing urban safety at a given area. It is a sort of a tool to provide and achieve urban safety within a territory.

Economic methods are purposed to setting taxes, penalties for environmental pollution and violation of town planning standards. Environmental insurance would be an alternative. The intention of economic methods is to encourage businesses to introduce resource saving technologies, low waste technologies, set up non-waste production on the basis of several facilities, and use recyclable materials. Economic methods imply charging a fee for resource utilization. At the same time the most common method – paying taxes – should be considered not simply as a way of local budget replenishment, but as motivation to have pollution reduced and low waste and resources saving technology introduced. By means of economic methods it is necessary to encourage businesses to finding mutual solutions with regard to waste recycling within separate regions. State instruments encouraging protection of environment, such as subsidies and grants, should be used actively. In other words it is necessary to take legal and administrative measures aimed at working out a law to administer and simultaneously encourage the application of modern technologies. «Subsidies are to be granted to as an award for waste reduction or as a compensation for pollution control equipment. A grant for the equipment acquisition is only effective when it changes conduct of a business with regard to the pollution issue» [25].

As noted by Malakhovskaya and Mityugina, the introduction of resource saving technology and inline production based on recycling of waste generated by some other production process can be problematic and quite expensive for many industries. «In setting-up a modern iron and steel enterprise the cost of a waste treatment facility is almost equal to the production equipment cost. In such businesses the compliance with the environmental requirements increases the product cost minimum by 30-40%» [25]. This raises the necessity of determining economic indicators, which allow to calculate the cost of the action plan implementation aimed at creating the urban safety for an inhabited area.

In implementation of ecological and economic policy at an enterprise, it is recommended to use the instrument of subsidy on introduction of the measures mentioned above, the purpose of which is the preservation of the environment and resource saving.

The group of preventive measures, which should be permanently executed and improved. The group includes business incentives purposed to the construction of buildings and facilities using energy conservation techniques, electricity consumption reduction and avoiding heat losses while operation; disturbed land rehabilitation; the use of low waste and non-waste technologies in the extraction and processing of natural construction materials, and a complex of nature protection measures. Nature protection measures involve the use of specific architecture and town-planning solutions and engineering techniques for the protection from adverse natural phenomena. Functional and structural measures include the elimination of the technogenic impact consequences. Social and ecological measures are aimed at creating a safe environment with regard to its use by the man.

3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the measures to develop urban safety

In working out any measures, and in preparing any project as well, a cost-effectiveness analysis shall be conducted for all suggested improvements of the urban safety to be implemented in the considered territory. The effectiveness is understood as the ratio of expenses on the prevention of potential adverse effects from various environmentally unfavorable processes to the expenses on remedial actions. But, as a rule, the consequences are hard to predict with 100% accuracy, as the majority of environmental processes influence the human health. In the author’s opinion, it is reasonable to estimate the effect of the measures to develop urban safety, namely the expenses on the implementation of suggested measures.

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Town planning is one of profitable sectors of the regional economics, as it includes real estate market, transport infrastructure, housing and public utilities, setting of norms in civil engineering. That is why town planning should be developed from a perspective of the area development, and the urban safety should be developed as well. Taking into account the current economic situation, when investment in construction is mainly private, it is difficult to speculate and build up a policy of sustainable urban development, therefore, some instruments are needed to raise public investment to construction and to develop urban capability, which, in future, can be compensated for by private investment. Then with the public control and investment one can speak about the development of urban safety.

The effect of town planning is to be assessed by integral indicators, covering a variety of factors which characterize social, economic, environmental welfare of a territory. A social effect should be identified by the following indicators: a higher quality of human habitation environment, creating foundations for life quality improvement characterized by social, environmental and hygienic aspects, making the environment safe (technogenic disaster management, protection of population and infrastructure from natural disasters and catastrophes by urban techniques). Economic effect is made from the reduction of compensation expenditure caused by bad health of population and adverse man-made events. Environmental effect is calculated based on saving generated via waste management, lower pollution rate and microclimate improvement.

Here introduce the paper, and put a nomenclature if necessary, in a box with the same font size as the rest of the paper. The paragraphs continue from here and are only separated by headings, subheadings, images and formulae. The section headings are arranged by numbers, bold and 10 pt. Here follows further instructions for authors.

4. Conculusions

The mentioned urban safety factors classified by different characteristics would allow to conduct a detailed analysis of urban environment and, therefore, determine the level of the urban safety in a considered territory. The described classification criteria divide all factors of urban safety, however, one and the same factors recur inside different classifications. In summary, the main factors of urban safety development are listed below:

Natural factors, as noted above, have a slight effect on the man and urban environment, being the passive factors; Architectural factors, which form psychophysiological ones; they have to do with the availability of public services and amenities of the urban structure in general; they have a slight effect and are passive;

Social factors also belong to psychophysiological ones, as they do not affect the man and urban structure much; they are usually passive;

Technogenic factors is rather a large group of factors, in accordance with the GOST classification they are considered to be a physical factor category, which greatly affect the man and are active;

Infrastructure factors refer to a category of psychophysiological factors of a slight effect, being passive by nature; Urban factors cover a group of psychophysiological factors, they have a slight effect on the man and urban structure and are passive by nature;

Environmental factors form physical, chemical and biological factors, have a strong effect on the man and urban structure, they are active.

The described generalized classification will allow to set weight coefficients when assessing urban safety of a territory and give a generalized rating. The methods of urban safety development make it possible to work out an action plan aimed at creating an overall favorable environment with account of all listed factors. Such measures should be developed on a regional level based on the degree of urban safety and taking into account local natural and climatic characteristics.

There should be clear standards and norms for the assessment of urban safety and for a further assessment of quality characteristics of a territory. These standards should include those characterizing the ecology of an inhabited area. Monitoring of compliance with the established standards and proper control over the observance of set norms will allow to create safe living conditions within a territory of an inhabited area.

The following indicators are to be mentioned as the main indicators showing the low level of urban safety: high morbidity rate, infant mortality, medical and genetic disorders, specific and cancer environment-related diseases, degraded drinking water quality, chemical pollution, radioactive contamination, bad state of flora and fauna, change of an environment biological composition, degradation factor of land ecosystem. All the listed factors and methods

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of urban safety development will ensure a sustainable improvement of individual urban structures and create a friendly environment for living of a generation to come.

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[2] A.P. Kudryavzev, V.I. Travush, V.M. Bondarenko, Architecture and urban planning security for sustainable development, Izvestiya, Moscow, 2011.

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[5] V.D. Olenkov, Urban planning security, LCI Publisher, Moscow, 2007. [6] M.Y. Vilner, On urban security problems, Town planning. 31 (2013) 25௅27.

[7] O.A. Rastyapina, Areas of assessment of urban planning security, Internet messenger VolgGASU. 40 (2015).

[8] N.V. Savina, M.N. Petrova, V.B. Egorov, A.N. Argunova, Environment and quality of life, the environment and human health in the North, in: Proceeding of Collected materials IV- Congress with international participation, Yakutsk. (2013) 548௅556.

[9] D.S. Kirshina, Environment and Quality of Life, Youth and Science magazine, Publishing House of the Ural State Agricultural University, Ekaterinburg, vol. 4, 2015.

[10] T.E. Ivanov, E.S.Pershina, Environmental aspects of quality of life (for example, the Krasnodar Territory), Emergency situations: industrial and environmental safety. 13௅14 (2013) 149௅156.

[11] Rio de Janeiro Declaration on Environment and Development adopted by the UN Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, 1992.

[12] The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development Summit, Johannesburg, 2002.

[13] Declaration on the Human problems of the United Nations Conference Environment Adopted Konfrentsiey UN Human Environment, 1972. [14] E.P. Borisenko, Climate and human activities, Nauka, Moscow, 1982.

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[20] T.I. Zabortseva, O.A. Ignatova, Institutional environment and ecological safety of the city (on an example of Irkutsk), Scientific notes ZabGGPU. 1 (2013) 162௅170.

[21] GOST 12.0.003-74 * - Occupational Safety Standards, Dangerous and harmful production factors, Classification. (ST SEV 790-77), 1974. [22] A.A. Korolev, M.V. Bogdanov, Al.A. Korolev, A.A. Koroleva, Environmental health, textbook, Publishing Center Academy, Moscow, 2008. [23] S.A. Moon, S.A. Larin, V.V. Brailovsky, A.N. Glushkov, Effect of air pollution on public health of the Kemerovo region of stomach cancer,

the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 6 (2009) 1174௅1177.

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