Factors Affecting Consumer’s Perceived Advertising Value and Attitude
toward Mobile Advertising:
Focus on Company-factors and Consumer-factorsWen-Long Liu
Ph.D. Student, Dept. of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University Address: 201-404, 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea, 660-701 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hyeong-Yu Jang (Corresponding author)
Associate Professor, College of Business, Gyeongsang National University
Address: 201-405, 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea, 660-701 E-mail: email@example.com
Consumer's attitude toward mobile advertising has drawn lots of attention for a long time. Previous studies verified and emphasized that consumer’s attitude toward mobile advertising is significantly affected by the perceived entertainment, informativeness and credibility of an advertisement which affect the way consumers evaluate it. However, the general attitude toward how advertising manifests itself is not only through perceived advertisement value but also through factors from implementation process and consumers themselves such as the form of advertisement, agreement between company and consumer, involvement of consumers by the amount they pay to mobile advertising and their experience of using mobile advertisement for shopping. Thus, the aim of this study is to enlighten the role of company-factors and consumer-factors which may affect consumer's perceived advertising value and attitude. Based on the results of this study, some proposals were given to the mobile marketing managers for implementation.
Keywords: Mobile advertising, Perceived advertising value, Attitude toward mobile advertising, Company-factors, Consumer-factors
Over the years, with the rapid development of technology and society, mobile communication service has been widespread in many countries. There were only 297 million mobile users worldwide by the year 1997. But this figure increased during the last decade. According to the Wikipedia(2012), the number of global mobile users reached 5.6 billion by 20th April 2012. According to the Korea Communications Commission(KCC), South Korea has nearly 52 million cell phone users by February 2012, in which 24.8 million were smart-phone users which captured 47.7% of South Korea mobile market. The high penetration rate of mobile phones has resulted in the increasing use of handheld devices to deliver advertisements of products and service through Short Message Service(SMS), Multimedia Message Service(MMS), mobile applications, mobile websites and web banner as well as mobile TV.
Mobile advertising holds a strong promise to become the best targeted, one-to-one, and most powerful digital advertising medium offering new ways to target messages to users in which existing advertising channels can never do(Ramin and Asil, 2007). In order to perform mobile marketing activities more effectively, marketers and researchers pay more and more attention to mobile advertising which is considered to be an important marketing tool and a continuous area for research. As one of the issues, attitudes toward mobile advertising have been a focus of attention for a long time. Previous studies verified and emphasized that consumer attitude toward mobile advertising is significantly affected by the perceived entertainment, informativeness and credibility of an advertisement which
affect the way consumers evaluate its value(Tsang et al., 2004). However, the general attitude toward advertising manifests itself not only through perceived advertising value but also through some factors from implementation process and consumers themselves such as the form of advertisement, the agreement between company and consumer, the involvement consumers pay to mobile advertising and their experience of using mobile advertisement for shopping. Thus, the aim of this study is enlighten the role of company-factors and consumer-factors which may affect consumer's perceived advertising value and attitude. In this study, prior permission, incentive and form of advertisement are mentioned as company-factors, as well, involvement and experience are used as consumer-factors.
To achieve the above purpose, the following sub questions will be explored through an empirical research:
1) How different are consumers' perceived mobile advertising value according to company-factors or consumer-company-factors?
2) Does any company-factor or consumer-factor have a moderating effect between consumers' perceived mobile advertising value and advertising attitude?
This paper consists of three parts. The first part contains an introduction of this paper and a literature review of previous studies for building the theoretical background. In this part, we introduce the basic concept of mobile advertising and factors affecting advertising attitude. The second part presents the research model, methodology used to develop the analysis and empirical results. Finally, conclusions, implications and limitations of this study will be described in the third part.
2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 2.1 Mobile Advertising
There are lots of definitions about mobile advertising. From a marketing perspective, we are dealing with an extremely under-researched phenomenon. For instance, one of the largest professional associations for marketers, the American Marketing Association does not give any definition for mobile or wireless advertising(AMA, 2003). The Mobile Marketing Association (MMA, 2003), the world leader in promoting mobile marketing via mobile devices, defines m-marketing as the use of the mobile medium as a communications and entertainment channel between a brand and an end-user. Li and Lee(2006) defined mobile advertising as the communication of information about products, service or ideas using mobile devices.
Mobile advertising began with short message service(SMS). Recently, the multimedia message service(MMS), mobile applications, mobile websites and web banner are increasingly being used in mobile campaigns(Li and Stoller, 2007). In comparison with traditional advertising, the main advantage of mobile advertising is that it can reach the target customers anywhere, anytime. In order to promote the selling of products or services, all the activities required to communicate with the customers are transferred through mobile devices. Combining with the customers' user profile and context situation, companies can provide the target customers exactly the advertisement information they desire, not just “spam” them with advertisements they are not interested in(Shalini and Masood, 2008). So, Mobile advertising has the potential to be one of the most powerful one-to-one digital advertising media(Matti and Heikki, 2005).
2.2 Previous Research on Mobile Advertising Attitude
Brackett and Carr(2001) validated that the informativeness, entertainment, irritation and credibility consumer perceived are important predictors of its value and are crucial to the effectiveness of web advertising. Based on their web advertising research, in order to study how the above factors affect consumer attitude toward mobile advertising, Tsang et al.(2004) modified the model and practiced a research. They verified the effect of perceived informativeness, entertainment, irritation and credibility on the mobile advertising attitude. The empirical results of their study showed that entertainment and credibility, rather than informativeness and irritation, affect consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising.
David(2006) did a similar study using a Chinese sample to examine the effect of entertainment, irritation, informativeness, credibility, and personalization on consumer attitudes toward wireless advertising. He also found out that irritation is not factor that affects consumer attitudes toward wireless advertising. Jong and Lee(2007) got a slightly different conclusion from the previous studies. They proposed seven factors that may affect consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising, including mobility/convenience, fashion, information, entertainment/relaxation, functional service, multimedia service, and sociality. However, only convenience and multimedia service showed a significant effect in the empirical study.
The studies in this area had some limitations. First, most of these studies focused on the effect of consumers' characteristics. Second, the empirical results from previous studies are inconsistent. For example, Bauer, Barnes, Reichardt and Neumann(2005), Tsang et al.(2004) and David(2006) found that entertainment is influential in consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising, on the other hand, Jong and Lee(2007), and Tsang et al.(2004) found that informativeness does not affect consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising, but Bauer et al.(2005) concluded that information value is one of the central acceptance drivers of mobile marketing. To fully understand consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising, it is necessary to re-examine some of factors appeared in previous studies and find out some new factors which may affect consumer attitudes toward mobile advertising. In this study, besides perceived advertising value, we will examine the role of other factors in two aspects, company-factors and consumer-factors.
2.3 Company-factors and Consumer-factors
Some of factors discussed in this section appeared in previous studies, while some are not. In this study we divided them into two categories, company-factors and consumer-factors, and all of them will be analyzed as moderators based on the following theoretical background.
Three sub factors will serve as company-factors. They are prior permission, incentive and form of advertisement. First, one experimental study indicates that prior permission for an email marketing campaign would favor attitudes toward the advertisers and increase consumers' purchase intentions(Dufrene et al., 2005). Since the mobile phone is a highly personal communication tool of the user, prior permission is important for mobile advertising(Bauer et al. 2005; Kavassalis et al., 2003). In addition, perceived risk will determine an individual's behavior(Mitchell, 1999). The risk associated with mobile marketing is the loss of privacy of mobile phone users. Rather than maximizing benefits, people will try to minimize their risk(Bauer et al., 2005). Prior permission can minimize users' risk by reducing the chance of abusing their personal data. Thus, it shouldn't be ignored by the company. Second, incentive-based advertising provides specific financial rewards to individuals who may like to receive promotion information, discounts and coupons. Tsang's(2004) study pointed out that the respondents were more willing to accept incentive-based mobile advertising, and use the incentive to buy a product. Third, in Wang's(2002) research, they examined consumers' attitudes and perceptions of different types of advertising. They found people choose to attend to particular media or type of content/messages. And, they also found the Internet-based advertising is more effective than traditional advertising for both brand building and directional purposes. In the same manner, we suppose that different forms of mobile advertising can lead to different attitudes. In this study, we divide the mobile advertisement into two forms, SMS and Non-SMS(MMS, mobile applications embedded advertisement and mobile web banner et al.). Similarly, there will be two sub factors serving as consumer-factors. These are involvement and experience. First, involvement generally refers to a person's perceived relevance of the focal object based on inherent needs, values and interests(Zaichkowsky, 1994). According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model(ELM), a person's level of involvement during message processing is considered as a critical factor in determining the route to persuasion(Petty et al., 2005). The concept of involvement was linked to marketing following Krugman's(1967) measurement of involvement with advertising. Since then, and especially in the 1980's,
intensive attention from consumer researchers has generated a bulk of literature which has conceptualized and measured involvement in multiple contexts including involvement with: a product class, a purchase decision, a task or activity or event, service advertising or message processing(Nina and Sally, 2008). Jiang(2010) proposed and validated the positive effect of involvement on website involvement in their research. Therefore, we believe consumer's involvement level might also affect attitude toward mobile advertising. Second, Hammond, McWilliam, and Diaz(1998) found that experienced consumers place higher value on information and lower value on entertainment compared to less experienced consumers. In Michael's(2005) study, they verified that experience played a moderating role in strengthening favorable attitude toward web site. Recently, the study of Jang et al.(2011) showed that experience makes a positive effect on attitude toward mobile advertising to a certain degree. Thus, here we think it is necessary to examine it again through an empirical research.
In fact, some of the above factors have been verified in previous studies, but now people have become more and more accustomed to mobile advertising, so it is necessary to re-examine these factors. As well, some of them are first proposed as factors affecting perceived advertising value and attitude toward mobile advertising, and their role will be expected.
3. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK AND SCALES
Based on the theoretical background, a research framework is constructed to illustrate the factors affecting consumer attitude toward mobile advertising. The dotted lines represent study question 1), while the solid lines represent study question 2) mentioned in introduction.
Among the three parts of factors showed in Figure 1, perceived advertising value has been examined in many previous studies, thus, the main work of this research is to examine the role of company-factors and consumer-factors. Table 1 lists the measures used in this research. Some of them are adapted from previous studies, as well as some are developed by us.
4. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
The questionnaire was pretested on 60 individuals on November 20-30th, 2011, and was revised on the basis of their feedback. Then a total of 400 questionnaires were distributed between December 20th, 2011 and February 20th, 2012, and 312 of them were returned among which 244 are usable. The demographic characteristics of respondents are summarized in Table 2. The respondents included 133 males and 111 females. 78.3% are under 30 years old, 84.8% have at least a college degree and 73.4% are students and company employees. It indicates that the respondents are primarily young and well educated. Spss 16.0 and Amos 16.0 were used for data analysis. Firstly, all independent variables and dependent variable were used in previous studies, thus, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to verify the validity and reliability of measures. Then, T-test analysis was conducted to examine whether any company-factor or consumer-factor affects consumer's perceived mobile advertising value. Finally, hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine whether any company-factor or consumer-factor has a moderating effect between consumer's perceived mobile advertising value and advertising attitude. 4.1 Validity and Reliability Analysis
As mentioned in theoretical background, all independent variables and dependent variable were used in previous studies, thus, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to verify the validity and reliability of measures. The results can be summarized as follows: All of the indices provided evidence of good measurement model fit; all values of the composite reliability(C.R.) are above 0.7 and all values of average variance extracted(AVE) are above 0.5. In addition, all standardized loadings are significant and above 0.8. Thus, composite reliability and convergent validity of the scales used in this study are confirmed.
4.2 T-test Analysis
The first question of this study is to verify how consumer's perceived mobile advertising value is affected by company-factors and consumer-factors. The results in Table 3 revealed that the differences in means are significant within each of company-factors and consumer factors. Hence, we may know that all company-factors and consumer-factors affect the consumer's perceived mobile advertising value positively.
4.3 Hierarchical Regression Analysis
Before examining the influence of moderators, we verified the main model. The result shows that the three main factors affecting consumer's advertising attitude significantly which is consistent with previous studies. This can be supported by R2=0.735, p<0.01 in Table 4. In the main model, attitude toward mobile advertising is explained by three variables: informativeness(β=0.486, p<0.01), entertainment(β=0.193, p<0.01), credibility(β=0.286, p<0.01).
Then the moderating influence of company-factors and consumer-factors are examined through conducting hierarchical regression analysis. The results are showed in Table 5~Table9. As showed in Table 6, the change of explained variance(ΔR2) is 0.032 and p<0.01; in Table7, the change of explained variance(ΔR2) is 0.043 and p<0.01; in Table8, the change of explained variance(ΔR2) is 0.028 and p<0.01; in Table9, the change of explained variance(ΔR2) is 0.036 and p<0.01. Thus, we may able to know that all of the company-factors and consumer-company-factors moderate the impact of perceived advertising value on attitude toward mobile advertising.
However, when viewed the interaction effect of main factor and moderator specifically, we found that all of the interactions have moderating effects between perceived credibility and advertising attitude. It can be explained like that: compared with informativeness and entertainment, credibility is an invisible factor and it affects consumer's advertising attitude not only through the advertisement itself but also through the interaction with the company-factors and consumer-factors.
Based on the above results, we revised the research model as showed in Figure 2. Likewise the dotted lines represent study question 1), while the solid lines represent study question 2).
According to the results, among company-factors, incentive is the most attractive to consumers as expected; Prior permission is playing a role as always; As well, different forms of advertisement give different information of product and different visual experience which makes moderating effect on attitude to a certain degree. On the other hand, the result shows that both of two consumer-factors have a significant moderating effect between consumers' perceived credibility and advertising attitude. Consistent with common sense, the level of involvement and the using experience always lead people to evaluate some product or service differently.
The conclusion and implications of this study can be summarized as follows: first, the consumer's perceived advertising value, informativeness, entertainment and credibility affect their attitude toward mobile advertising as always. Thus, the company should never stop improving the quality of the advertisement sent to consumers to provide much more information, entertainment and credit. Here we would like to give a personal opinion: At present, different franchised stores of the same brand often send advertisements to consumers through different phone numbers. As a result, consumers are often confused because they would doubt that "it is 'False advertisement'?" That would lead to negative impact on perceived credibility. If possible, it is best to use one unified phone number or some related numbers.
Second, the result of t-test showed that all company-factors and consumer-factors affect consumer's perceived advertising value. In addition, the result of hierarchical regression analysis showed that both company-factors and consumer-factors moderate the impact of perceived credibility on attitude toward mobile advertising. Thus, all the results suggest that any of these factors cannot be ignored by mobile marketing managers. Meanwhile, according to the result of hierarchical regression analysis we may also know that when consumers express their attitude toward mobile advertising, they evaluate the informativeness and entertainment that they perceived from the advertising material and then define their attitudes accordingly. However, for credibility, it is an invisible factor, thus, when we evaluate its effect on attitude, we shouldn't only focus on the advertising material itself, we should also consider other foreseeable factors like prior permission, experience etc. mentioned above. In other words, it is faulty to evaluate the credibility and its effect on consumer's attitude only through the information provided by the advertising material, many company-factors and consumer-factors should be considered simultaneously.
In view of the above factors，to improve consumer's mobile advertising attitude and perceived advertising value especially perceived credibility, the mobile marketing managers should never forget the following proposals when implementing mobile advertising. Firstly, the mobile marketing managers of companies should respect consumers completely through getting permission of sending mobile advertisement to consumers and to compete with other companies of the same industry, incentive is the most effective instrument. We can even believe that the incentive through mobile advertising can reduce the cost of advertising than in other media. At the same time, the company should implement different advertising strategies for high and low involvement consumer groups to increase the involvement of all consumers. Besides, different forms of advertisement provide product information in different degrees. Compared with SMS, MMS and banner show the detailed information such as product's size, color and design of exterior; flash and video even can show the more detailed product information and instructions to consumer. On the other hand, if a consumer shops using mobile advertisement, company should provide the convenient, benefit or discount promised in the mobile advertisement to give the consumer a satisfactory experience. All the above mentioned categories are for the improvement of consumer's perceived advertising value and attitude toward mobile advertising. However, the ultimate aim is still to make more transactions and increase profits through mobile advertising.
Although some implications were acquired, there still are some limitations in this study. First, as a modern marketing method, people of different ages should have different attitudes toward mobile advertising. But because the numbers of samples in each age group have serious differences, the effect of age is beyond the scope of this study. Second, we divided the forms of advertisement into SMS and Non-SMS, but we believe that each form of advertisement (SMS and MMS, mobile applications, mobile websites and web banner et al.) lead to different consumer's reaction or attention, thus, we should have analyzed consumer's perceived advertising value and attitude of each form of advertisement, and find out which form of advertisement is most effective, but we didn't. Therefore, these problems should be considered in future research.
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<Figure 1> Research framework
<Table 1> List of measures
Variables Measures Sources
1. Perceived advertising values and Attitude
INF1: Mobile advertisements always can provide the information I need.
INF2: I think mobile advertising is a good source for timely information.
INF3: Mobile advertising always can help me keep up-to-date about products or service.
Tsang, M. M., Ho, S. C., and Liang, T. P. (2004), David, J. J. X. (2006) Entertainment
ENT1: I feel that receiving mobile advertisements is interesting.
ENT2: I feel that the content-designs of mobile advertisements are pleasant.
ENT3: I feel that the form-designs of mobile advertisements are various.
CRE1: I use mobile advertising as a reference for purchasing.
CRE2: I think the content provided by mobile advertising is credible.
CRE3: I think the mobile advertising is worthy of being trusted.
ATT1: I think using mobile advertising is a good idea. ATT2: I think mobile advertising is useful.
ATT3: Mobile advertising is positively perceived by me. ATT4: I am satisfaction with mobile advertising. ATT5: Mobile advertising makes me some behaviors.
Tsang, M. M., Ho, S. C., and Liang, T. P. (2004), David, J. J. X. (2006), Kim, C. J. (2009) 2. Company-factors Prior permission
Most companies send mobile advertisement to me after they got permission from me. 1. No, 2. Yes Incentive Companies always send me mobile advertisements which provided discounts or coupons. 1. No, 2. Yes
Compared to SMS advertisement, I always received Non-SMS advertisement (For example: MMS, mobile application embedded advertisement and mobile web banner et al.). 1. No, 2. Yes
Involvement I have a high involvement in mobile advertising. 1. No, 2. Yes Experience I often use mobile advertisement for shopping. 1. No, 2. Yes
<Table 2> Demographic characteristics
Characteristics Frequency Percentage
Gender Male 133 54.5
Female 111 45.5
Under 20 years old 28 11.5
20-29 115 47.1
30-39 85 34.8
40 years or more 16 6.6
High school graduate or lower 37 15.2 College graduate (undergraduate student) 163 66.8
Postgraduate or PHD 44 18.0
Student 90 36.9
Company employee 89 36.5
Privately owner 40 16.4
Government official (teacher, police et al.) 17 7.0
Others 8 3.3
<Table 3> T-test result Company-factors
Perceived value Group Prior permission Incentive Form of advertisement Frequency Mean t-value Frequency Mean t-value Frequency Mean t-value Informativeness 1 131 2.733 -11.941 *** 112 2.961 -6.173 *** 87 2.989 -4.901 *** 2 113 4.351 132 3.924 157 3.756 Entertainment 1 131 2.583 -10.270 *** 112 2.613 -8.099 *** 87 2.793 -4.384 *** 2 113 3.832 132 3.626 157 3.366 Credibility 1 131 3.051 -9.709 *** 112 3.062 -7.945 *** 87 3.149 -5.541 *** 2 113 4.183 132 4.010 157 3.811 Consumer-factors *<0.10, **<0.05, ***<0.01 Perceived value Group Involvement Experience
Frequency Mean t-value Frequency Mean t-value Informativeness 1 118 2.523 -15.439 *** 135 2.644 -15.403 *** 2 126 4.381 109 4.520 Entertainment 1 118 2.525 -10.583 *** 135 2.573 -10.956 *** 2 126 3.757 109 3.890 Credibility 1 118 2.881 -13.081 *** 135 2.968 -12.710 *** 2 126 4.225 109 4.327
<Table 4> Regression analysis of main model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
t Sig. B Std.Error Beta (Constant) 0.752 0.124 INF 0.369 0.040 0.468 9.231*** 0.000 ENT 0.182 0.050 0.193 3.666*** 0.000 CRE 0.284 0.053 0.286 5.344*** 0.000
<Table 5> Moderating influence of prior permission Result of Hierarchical Regression
Variables Beta T-value Sig.
INF 0.447 2.975 0.003*** ENT 0.195 1.141 0.255 CRE -0.122 -0.765 0.445 PER -0.081 -0.561 0.575 INF*PER -0.135 -0.518 0.605 ENT*PER -0.152 -0.532 0.595 CRE*PER 0.755 2.534 0.012**
(R Square)1=0.735, (R Square)2=0.767, △(R Square)=0.032, △F=8.083(p<0.001); **<0.05, ***<0.01
<Table 6> Moderating influence of incentive Result of Hierarchical Regression
Variables Beta T-value Sig.
INF 0.481 3.037 0.003*** ENT 0.057 0.358 0.720 CRE -0.235 -1.498 0.136 INC -0.332 -2.637 0.009*** INF*INC -0.049 -0.211 0.833 ENT*INC 0.088 0.337 0.736 CRE*INC 0.868 3.000 0.003***
(R Square)1=0.735, (R Square)2=0.778, △(R Square)=0.043, △F=11.322(p<0.001); ***<0.01
<Table 7> Moderating influence of form of advertisement Result of Hierarchical Regression
Variables Beta T-value Sig.
INF 0.504 2.563 0.011** ENT -0.073 -0.361 0.719 CRE -0.108 -0.512 0.609 FOR -0.320 -2.376 0.018** INF*FOR -0.069 -0.262 0.793 ENT*FOR 0.365 1.310 0.191 CRE*FOR 0.539 1.691 0.092*
(R Square)1=0.735, (R Square)2=0.763, △(R Square)=0.028, △F=6.907(p<0.001); *<0.10, **<0.05
<Table 8> Moderating influence of involvement
<Table 9> Moderating influence of experience Result of Hierarchical Regression
Variables Beta T-value Sig.
INF 0.488 3.045 0.003*** ENT 0.087 0.527 0.598 CRE -0.256 -1.602 0.110 EXP -0.253 -1.562 0.120 INF*EXP -0.208 -0.747 0.456 ENT*EXP 0.007 0.279 0.780 CRE*EXP 0.967 3.126 0.002***
(R Square)1=0.735, (R Square)2=0.771, △(R Square)=0.036, △F=9.392(p<0.001); ***<0.01
Result of Hierarchical Regression
Variables Beta T-value Sig.
INF 0.213 1.127 0.261 ENT 0.468 2.326 0.021** CRE -0.308 -1.653 0.100* INV -0.089 -0.543 0.588 INF*INV 0.159 0.536 0.593 ENT*INV -0.452 -1.482 0.140 CRE*INV 0.950 2.879 0.004***
(R Square)1=0.735, (R Square)2=0.771, △(R Square)=0.036, △F=9.319(p<0.001); *<0.10, **<0.05, ***<0.01