• No results found

American Sign Language and ASL Linguistics

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2021

Share "American Sign Language and ASL Linguistics"

Copied!
27
0
0

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Full text

(1)

American Sign Language

and ASL Linguistics

LING 200

University of Washington February 6, 2009

Lance Forshay, Presenter

Please do not copy, distribute, revise, photocopy or even sell. But you may download and keep for your own personal notes.

(2)

Agenda

„ Nature of ASL and relevant questions. „ American Deaf Culture

„ Brief History of Sign Languages „ ASL and Deaf Studies at UW. „ ASL phonetics and phonology

(3)

Presenter

„ Lance A. Forshay, M.S. LForshay@u.washington.edu

„ ASL Lecturer and Program Coordinator

Department of Linguistics

University of Washington, Seattle.

„ President of Washington ASL Teacher

Association.

„ (National) ASL Teacher Association member.

„ Washington State Association of the Deaf Member „ Deaf Bilingual Coalition - Washington

(4)

The Nature of ASL

The Nature of ASL

Is ASL

Is ASL

A Visual-Gestural Language? Yes.

ASL contains 60% Gestural-Body Language and Facial Expressions. Some iconic signs:

Ex. BASEBALL, CAR, SMILE, GRAB

However ASL is different from common gestures hearing people use. Some arbitrary signs:

MAN, NAME, HOPE, YESTERDAY, IMPROVE

(5)

The Nature of ASL

The Nature of ASL

Is ASL

Is ASL

A fully developed language?

Yes.

ASL contains all linguistic

characteristics that make ASL a

language different and independent

from English language.

(6)

The Nature of ASL

The Nature of ASL

Is ASL

Is ASL

A language you can use to

communicate complicated topics

with philosophical ideas, politics,

sports, education, science, comedy,

or express in drama, storytelling,

poetry or anything else like you do

with English?

(7)

The Nature of ASL

The Nature of ASL

Is ASL

Is ASL

A changing language?

Yes.

Like all languages, ASL does change

over time and varies within regions

(accents). Some old ASL signs

disappear, simplify or assimilate with

other word signs into new signs.

(8)

The Nature of ASL

The Nature of ASL

Is ASL

Is ASL

Universal?

No.

Almost every country has its own sign

language just like spoken language.

There are about 100 known sign

(9)

The Nature of ASL

The Nature of ASL

Is ASL

Is ASL

Used in other countries?

Yes, some

.

ASL is used by Deaf people in Canada

and few other countries with historical

background of deaf education

established by American educators and

church missionaries for the deaf such

as Nigera, Kenya, Philippines, Belize

and some parts of India.

(10)

The Nature of ASL

The Nature of ASL

Is ASL

Is ASL

Used in British countries?

No

.

ASL is totally different from British Sign

Language used in the United Kingdom

(Scotland, England, and Wales),

(11)

American Deaf Culture

„ What is Deaf Culture?

A group of Deaf people who uses American Sign Language, lives by a set of norms and values of the Deaf community, shares the Deaf heritage and traditions, and involves as a member of Deaf

community.

ASL is the key to the heart of Deaf culture and you have to understand Deaf culture to master ASL at higher level.

„ “D”eaf versus deaf.

„ Matter of identity and belonging to Deaf

community.

(12)

ASL Timeline

American Sign

Language 1817

Old

LSF

MVSL

(BSL?)

Old

ASL

(13)

ASL Timeline

A

m

eri

ca

n S

ig

n

La

ng

ua

ge

1817: American School for the Deaf 1817-30’s Methodological Signs

1860: Standardization / Deaf College

1880: Milan, SL banned worldwide / NAD 1910’s: Peak of Oralism / Veditz Video

1960’s: Stokoe’s ASL Research / NTD

1970’s: MCE / NAD: SIGN / Deaf Studies 1980’s: Bi-Bi / DPN / Deaf Way I

1990’s: ASL Education / ASLTA

(14)

ASL in Washington state

ASL in Washington state

Washington State Law passed in July 1984 to recognize ASL as a language and that it may be used for foreign language credit in

secondary and post-secondary level

education. (WAC 180-51-025 for secondary and postsecondary.) For more information on other state legislations on ASL.

(15)

ASL & Deaf Studies Program at UW

„ Regularly offered since Aut 2007

„ First year with one teacher. Two sections for each

class, ASL 101, 102 and 103.

„ Over 300 students on waiting list for ASL 101 classes

last year and again this year.

„ Permanent funds from the state and private

foundations.

„ ASL 305 Introduction to Deaf Studies.

„ ASL 134 Intensive first year summer ASL course. „ LING 403 ASL Linguistics

„ Signing community with Deaf staff, students and

(16)

Phonetic parameters of ASL signs

„ Manual ways in which signs can differ

„ Handshape „ Location

„ Movement „ Orientation

„ Number of hands

(17)

Handshape

„ Minimal pairs

„ APPLE vs. CANDY

„ SEATTLE vs. NEUTRAL „ LIKE vs. WHITE

„ Signs which change handshape

„ UNDERSTAND

(18)

Location

„ Minimal pairs

„ APPLE vs. ONION

„ LUCKY vs. CLEVER

„ THIRTEEN vs. CUTE

„ Signs which change location

„ DEAF „ FUN „ KING

(19)

Movement

„ Different types of movement

„ straight: SEPARATED „ angled: PERCENT „ looping: WASHINGTON „ wiggling: COLOR „ twisting: CHRISTMAS „ nodding: YES „ Minimal pairs „ TOUGH vs. PHYSICS „ CAN vs. SHOES „ BROWN vs. BEER

(20)

Orientation

„ Minimal pairs

„ MEET vs. I MEET YOU „ NAME vs. CHAIR

„ SOCK vs. STAR

„ Signs which change orientation

„ DIE/DEAD „ CLASS

(21)

Number of hands

„ One-handed signs

„ MOTHER

„ COOL (“with it”)

„ Two-handed signs „ DEER „ HERE „ BICYCLE „ Minimal pairs „ PURPLE vs. PARTY

(22)

Non-manual expressions

„ Signs articulated with non-manual

„ OH I SEE

„ Minimal pairs

„ HERE vs. WHAT „ LATE vs. NOT YET „ AGE vs. HOW-OLD „ HOT vs. VERY HOT

(23)

Assimilation

„ In handshape „ I „ NAME „ I AM NAMED „ BOY „ FRIEND „ BOYFRIEND

„ Change in handshape over time

(24)

Symmetry condition

„ ‘if both hands move independently during a given two-handed sign...then the

specifications for handshape and movement must be identical, and the orientations must be either identical or polar opposites

(reciprocals). Locations...must also be

specifed either as symmetrical or as polar opposites.’ (Battison 1974)

(25)

If handshapes identical

„ One hand can move

„ PAPER

„ Or both hands can move

(26)

But if handshapes not identical

„ Only one hand can move

„ DRAW

¾ no signs where both hands move

independently

(27)
http://www.aslta.org/legislation/index.html

References

Related documents

Our primal contribution is to theoretically show that density ratio estimation unifies three frameworks for unsupervised representation learning: Maximization of mutual

This paper explores the effects of historical paralysis on the Irish society and politics, as depicted by James Joyce in Dubliners and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

We have proposed an algorithm which uses artificial neural networks to detect cyber-attacks against the transmission network data of an electric power system, which is an

This offers another important layer of evidence for our overall finding that (1) religious institutionalization (of any major religion) has played a major role in limiting

Both operators are important operators in phase space and the trace of both with respect to the density operator gives the Wigner functions (displaced parity operator) and

In the future, more research is needed where different maize types are compared to one another in terms of their vitreousness, gas production, starch content, starch disappearance

The social and biophysical dimensions of the watersheds in Baltimore allowed BES to combine stress and disturbance gradient theory with water- shed theory to motivate a

Ö List of sequences containing words similar to the query (hits) Search for.