• No results found

Population Based Knowledge Assessment on Irrational Practice of Antibiotics Use in Community of Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2020

Share "Population Based Knowledge Assessment on Irrational Practice of Antibiotics Use in Community of Pulau Pinang, Malaysia."

Copied!
16
0
0

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Full text

(1)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

2

e

l

c

it

r

A

h

c

r

a

e

s

e

R

n

o

it

a

r

rI

n

o

t

n

e

m

s

s

e

s

s

A

e

g

d

e

l

w

o

n

K

d

e

s

a

B

n

o

it

a

l

u

p

o

P

a

l

P

r

a

c

it

c

e

o

f

A

n

it

b

i

o

it

c

s

o

y

ti

n

u

m

m

o

C

n

i

e

s

U

f

P

u

l

a

u

P

i

n

a

n

g

,

M

a

l

a

y

s

i

a

.

*Gillan iWa is fS1, AzharSulaiman S2 ,LingA iOh3 ,Azm iHassail4 ,YellyOktaviaSa ir5,6 , UsmanHaide rUzbek7

.

1 Lecture r&Researcher ,Departmen to fCilnica lPharmacy ,Universti iSain sMalay isa. .

2 Dean ,Schoo lo fPharmaceu itca lSciences ,Universti iSain sMalay isa. .

3 Schoo lo fPharmaceu itca lSciences ,Universti iSain sMalay isa. .

4 Senio rLecturer ,Departmen to fSocia landAdminsitra itvePharmacy ,USM ,Malay isa. .

5 Facutlyo fPharmacy ,Andala sUniverstiy ,Padang25163,I ndone isa. .

6 Dsicipilneo fCilnica lPharmacy ,Schoo lo fPharmaceu itca lSciences ,Universti iSain s a

is y a l a M , g n a n e P 0 0 8 1 1 , a is y a l a

M .

.

7 Schoo lo fDenta lSciences ,Universti iSain sMalay isa.

y e

K words :

An itbio itcr essitance , , e s u n o it p ir c s e r p l a n o it a r ri

, e g d e l w o n k d n a c it o i b it n a

, s c it o i b it n a P A K

. s c it o i b it n a d n a n o it p e c r e p

1 d e v i e c e

R 4 bF 1e 2 1 0 m r o f d e si v e r n i d e v i e c e

R 0 3March 12 1 0

d e t p e c c

A 04Ma r2011

*Authorfo rCorrespondence: ,

i n a ll i G f is a W d e y S . r D

, r e h c r a e s e R & r e r u t c e L

y c a m r a h P l a c i n il C f o t n e m t r a p e

D ,

, a is y a l a M s n i a S i ti s r e v i n U

a is y a l a M , g n a n i P u a l u P , r o g u l e G 0 0 8 1

1 .

m o c .l i a m g @ i n a ll i g fi s a w : li a m E

T C A R T S B A

e v it c e j b

O s :Thi sstudys oughtt oprovideagilmpseo f l a r e n e g f o s e d u ti t t a d n a e g d e l w o n k t n e r r u c e h t

. e s u c it o i b it n a n o e c it c a r p l a n o it a r ri s d r a w o t c il b u p

: s d o h t e

M A cros s secitona l survey u isng sel f g n it r a t s d e t c u d n o c s a w e ri a n n o it s e u q d e r e t si n i m d a

t n e it a p t u o t a 9 0 0 2 h c r a M o t y r a u r b e F m o r f

c a m r a h

p ydepartmen to fPenangHosptial .Reilablitiy l a c it si t a t S . 6 7 . 0 e u l a v α s ’ h c a b n o r C h ti w d e t s e t

l a i c o s r o f e g a k c a p l a c it si t a t S g n is u y b e n o d s is y l a n a

. ® 3 1 s e c n e i c

s Resutls : The mean age o f the e h t f o y ti r o j a M . s r a e y 4 1 ± 3 4 s a w s t n e d n o p s e r

m e r e w s t n e d n o p s e

r ale (53.9% ) a s compared to e h t f o ) 8 1 1 = n ( % 9 . 8 2 s a w e r e h T . ) % 1 . 6 4 ( e l a m e f

c it o i b it n a g n is u f o e c n e ir e p x e e h t d a h s t n e d n o p s e r

. d e t c u d n o c s a w y e v r u s e h t e r o f e b h t n o m e n o n i h ti w

d e t o n e r e w s e c n e r e ff i d t n a c if i n g is y ll a c it si t a t S

c a r , ) 7 2 0 . 0 < p ( p u o r g e g a n e e w t e

b e (p<0.014) ,and

2 1 t s a l e h t n i y c a m r a h p / c i n il c o t t is i v f o y c n e u q e r f

c it o i b it n a f o e s u e h t o t e s n o p s e r n i ) 1 0 0 . 0 < p ( s h t n o m

s a w e r e h T . y e v r u s e h t o t h t n o m e n o r o ir p n i h ti w

) 3 2 2 = n , % 7 . 4 5 ( s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o f l a h n a h t e r o m

o n k f o l e v e l e t a r e d o m e v a h o t n w o h

s wledge wtih

. 6 e g d e l w o n k f o e r o c s l a t o t n a i d e

m 28.9%( n=118 )o f

f o l e v e l r o o p g n i v a h f o y r o g e t a c r e d n u l l a f m e h t

d e r e d is n o c e r e w ) 7 6 = n ( % 4 . 6 1 y l n o d n a e g d e l w o n k

t n a c if i n g is y ll a c it si t a t s A . e g d e l w o n k d o o g g n i v a h s a

d e t o n e r e w l e v e l e g d e l w o n k f o e c n e r e ff i

(2)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

3 f o s l e v e l , ) 1 0 0 . 0 < p ( s e c a r , ) 3 0 0 . 0 < p ( s p u o r g e g a . ) 1 0 0 . 0 < p ( e m o c n i y l h t n o m d n a ) 1 0 0 . 0 < p ( n o it a c u d e r e g n u o y e h t n i d n u o f s a w e g d e l w o n k f o l e v e l r o o P 8 1 n e e w t e b e g a n o it a r e n e

g -30year sold (39.8%v s s y a l a M g n o m a e c n a r e d n o p e r p r e h g i h , ) % 2 3 < s r e h t o 6 3

( .1% v s other s <34%) , pirmary o r lowe r e m o c n i d n a ) % 6 3 < s r e h t o s v % 8 . 3 5 ( l e v e l l a n o it a c u d e o h w e s o h T . ) % 1 3 < s r e h t o s v % 9 . 1 5 ( 0 0 0 1 < M R p u o r g e h t h ti w p u o r g e g a g n o m a d e ir a v c it o i b it n a k o o t 1 3 f o n o it a r e n e g r e g n u o y e h t g n o m a e s u t s e h g i

h - 40

n a ) % 3 . 6 3 ( d l o s r a e

y d 18-30 year s old (32.3%.) n o i s u l c n o

C : The data relfecitng the area o f f o e s u si m e h t n i t n e m e v l o v n i c il b u p f o y c a u q e d a n i o t d e n n a l p e b d l u o c y g e t a r t s d n u o s a , c it o i b it n a . c il b u p e h t e t a c u d e N O I T C U D O R T N I c it o i b it n a f o n o it a l a c s e e d i w d lr o W t a e r h t l a b o l g t n a c if i n g is a s e s o p e c n a t si s e r t r o p e R h tl a e H d lr o W e h T . h tl a e h n a m u h o t l a i b o r c i m f o e u s si e h t d e t h g il h g i h s a h 7 0 0 2 f o e n o s a e c n a t si s e r c it o i b it n a d n a n o it u l o v e n i y ti r u c e s h tl a e h c il b u p o t t a e r h t r o j a m e h t 1 2 e h

t st century which ha scont irbuted to

e r d n a e c n e g r e m e e h

t -emergence o f

s e s a e si d s u o it c e f n

i [ . 1]

f o r e v ir d y e k a s i n o it p m u s n o c c it o i b it n A e r a s p i h s n o it a l e r e h t h g u o h tl a e c n a t si s e r . x e l p m o

c [2] .According to the Malay isan s c it o i b it n a , 5 0 0 2 e n i c i d e M n o s c it si t a t S e t n u o c c

a d a s the mos t commonly an it -e t a v ir p d n a c il b u p y b d e b ir c s e r p e v it c e f n i 5 5 . 9 h ti w a is y a l a M n i r o t c e s e r a c h tl a e h y a d / n o it a l u p o p 0 0 0 1 / D D

D [ .3] Penicliiln

d e s u y l n o m m o c t s o m e h t s i p u o r g s c it o i b it n a f o e s u l a t o t f o % 7 4 g n it u ti t s n o c ] 3 [ . x e l p m o c f o t l u s e r a s i c it o i b it n a f o e s u si M l a r o i v a h e b d n a l a r u tl u c , c i m o n o c e o i c o s s r o t c a

f [4 , 5]. Pa iten t a s an ul itmate e h t n i e l o r t n a t r o p m i n a y a l p r e m u s n o c , 0 0 0 2 r a e y n I . y a w h t a p n o it a zi li t u c it o i b it n a ) O H W ( n o it a zi n a g r O h tl a e H d lr o W e h t c i p o t e h t h ti w t r o p e

r Overcoming

e c n a t si s e R l a i b o r c i m it n

A ha s iden it ifed

n e m e v l o v n i c il b u p r o f s e u s si y e k e e r h

t t :

, s e c i v r e s l a c i d e m o t s s e c c a g n i v o r p m i l a i b o r c i m it n a f o e s u y r a s s e c e n n u g n i c u d e r , t n e m t a e r t f o e s r u o c l l u f a g n i k a t d n a s g u r d e l p o e p r e h t o h ti w n o it a c i d e m g n ir a h s t o n r e h t o n a r o f e s r u o c e h t f o t r a p g n i p e e k r o n o is a c c

o [6] . The msiguided beilef s and f o k c a l a h ti w d e t a i c o s s a e r a s n o it a t c e p x e w

a arenes so fthe danger so fan itbio itc use ]

8 , 7

[ .Therefore ,changing pubilc atttiude s e s u c it o i b it n a g n i d r a g e r s n o it a t c e p x e d n a e v r e s e r p o t p e t s t s ri f t n a t r o p m i n a e b l li w f o a r e e h t n i s s e n e v it c e ff e c it o i b it n a e c n a t si s e

r [12] . These have led to the s e v it a it i n i l a n o it a c u d e f o n o it a t n e m e l p m i f o m i a e h t h ti w c il b u p t a d e t c e ri d f o e s u e t a ir p o r p p a d n a l a n o it a r g n it o m o r p c it o i b it n

a [13 ,14] . T S E H T F O L A N O I T A

R U DY

f o e s p m il g a e d i v o r p o t t h g u o s y d u t s s i h T f o s e d u ti t t a d n a e g d e l w o n k t n e r r u c e h t e c it c a r p l a n o it a r ri s d r a w o t c il b u p l a r e n e g y g o l o i m e d i p e , a is y a l a M n I . e s u c it o i b it n a n o o t d e ti m il s a w a e r a s i h t g n i n r e c n o c y d u t s r e d i w a t u o h ti w e g d e l w o n k l a t n e r a p t e g a r e v o

c o the genera l pubilc [15 , 16] . y e v r u s n w o r u o t c u d n o c o t d e e n a s i e r e h T l a c o l e h t n i o ir a n e c s e u r t e h t t c e lf e r o t e v r e s n a c y e v r u s t n e s e r p e h t , s u h T . g n it t e s r e h t r u f e d i v o r p d n a a t a d e n il e s a b a s a g n i p o l e v e d d n a g n i n n a l p n i t h g is n i h tl a e h l a c o l r o f s e i g e t a r t

s educa iton

(3)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

4 f g n it r a t

s rom February to March 2009 a t g n a n e P f o t n e m t r a p e d y c a m r a h p t n e it a p t u o s t c e j b u s d e t e g r a t e h T . l a ti p s o H l a r e n e G d e ti si v o h w s t n e it a p / c il b u p l a r e n e g e r e w g n a n e P t a t n e m t r a p e d y c a m r a h p t n e it a p t u o g n il p m a s l a s r e v i n U . l a ti p s o H l a r e n e G s si h t n i d e s u s a w d o h t e

m tudy.

e ri a n n o it s e u Q f o t n e m p o l e v e D m o r f d e t p a d a s a w e ri a n n o it s e u q e h T e h t t i u s o t d e if i d o m d n a y d u t s s u o i v e r p g n a n e P n i n o it a l u p o p l a c o

l [8 ,10 ,11 ,18].I t t r a P e r e w h c i h w s t r a p r u o f o t n i d e d i v i d s a w : 2 t r a P , s c it si r e t c a r a h c c i h p a r g o m e D : 1 f o e g d e l w o n K : 3 t r a P , c it o i b it n a f o e g a s U s d r a w o t s e d u ti t t A : 4 t r a P d n a c it o i b it n a . e g a s u c it o i b it n a c i h p a r g o m e d e h t n i a t b o o t s a w 1 t r a P g n i d u l c n i , s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o s c it si r e t c a r a h c , s u t a t s l a ti r a m , e c a r , r e d n e g , e g a r i e h t t n e m y o l p m e , l e v e l l a n o it a c u d e t s e h g i h d e t a l e r n o it a p u c c o , e m o c n i y l h t n o m , s u t a t s r i e h t d n a s t n e d n o p s e r r o f e r a c h tl a e h o t m e m y li m a

f bers ,smoking ,d irnking alcohol , d n a n o it i d n o c l a c i d e m c i n o r h c f o t n e s e r p y c a m r a h p r o c i n il c o t t is i v f o r e b m u n . s h t n o m 2 1 t s a l e h t n i ) e t a v ir p / t n e m n r e v o g ( o t d e n g is e d s a w e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t f o 2 t r a P g n o m a e g a s u c it o i b it n a t n e c e r e h t s s e s s a t n e d n o p s e r e h

t sfo rthe pas tone month . e d i v o r p o t d e t s e u q e r e r e w s t n e d n o p s e R e c r u o s e h t g n i d r a g e r n o it a m r o f n i r e h t r u f d a h y e h t f i c it o i b it n a g n i k a t f o n o s a e r d n a . o g a h t n o m e n o c it o i b it n a g n i k a t n e e b 4 1 f o t si s n o c e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t f o 3 t r a P w o n k e t a u l a v e o t s t n e m e t a t

s ledge o f

e r e w d e s s e s s a g n i e b s a e r A . c it o i b it n a 5 ( c it o i b it n a f o e l o r e h t o t g n i n i a t r e p 4 ( c it o i b it n a f o n o it a c if it n e d i , ) s t n e m e t a t s c it o i b it n a f o s r e g n a d , ) s t n e m e t a t s d n a n o it c a e r c i g r e ll a , e c n a t si s e r c it o i b it n a ( s t c e ff e e d

is – 1 statemen tfo reach )and o

c mple iton o f treatmen t course (2 f o n o it c e s e h t r o F . ) s t n e m e t a t s s n o it a c i d e m r u o f , c it o i b it n a f o n o it a c if it n e d i r e ll i k n i a p s a d e s u y l n o m m o c e r e w h c i h w h g u o c n o m m o c f o t n e m t a e r t e h t r o f d n a , n il li c i n e p e r e w h c i h w , n e s o h c e r e w d l o c d n a a l o m a t e c a r a p , n ir i p s

a nd diphenhydramine . e s o o h c o t d e t s e u q e r e r e w s t n e d n o p s e R , ’ s e Y ‘ r e h ti e d e d i v o r p s n o it p o e e r h t g n o m a .’ e r u S t o N ‘ r o , ’ o N ‘ 8 , y e v r u s s i h t f o t r a p l a n if e h t r o f s A s d r a w o t s e d u ti t t a g n is s e r d d a s t n e m e t a t s t n i o p 5 . d e d u l c n i e r e w e g a s u c it o i b it n a a r e l a c s t r e k i

L ngingf rom‘ 1=StronglyAgree’ , o t ’ e e r g a si D = 4 ‘ , ’ e r u S t o N = 3 ‘ , ’ e e r g A = 2 ‘ s s e s s a o t d e s u s a w ’ e e r g a si D y l g n o r t S = 5 ‘ g n i d r a g e r s t n a p i c it r a p f o e s n o p s e r e h t o h w e s o h t d e if is s a l c e W . s e d u ti t t a s a ’ e e r g A ‘ d n a ’ e e r g A y l g n o r t S ‘ d e r e w s n a o h w e s o h t d n a d e e r g a g n i v a

h answered

g n i v a h s a ’ e e r g a si D ‘ d n a ’ e e r g a si D y l g n o r t S ‘ . si s y l a n a e h t y fi l p m is o t r e d r o n i d e e r g a si d o w t n i d e n g is e d s a w e ri a n n o it s e u q e h T . ) y a l a M d n a h si l g n E ( s n o is r e v e g a u g n a l s a w e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t f o n o is r e v h si l g n E n e h t s a w h c i h w y ll a it i n i d e p o l e v e d r

t an lsated into Malay language .Face and s a w e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t f o n o it a d il a v t n e t n o c d n a s r e r u t c e l , s r o si v r e p u s e h t y b e n o d n o is r e v y a l a M e h T . s t si c a m r a h p d e r e t si g e r t c e r r o c e r u s n e o t d e k c e h c r e t n u o c o sl a s a w t o li P . e d a m s a w n o it a ls n a r t e t a ir p o r p p a d n a y d u t

s wa s conducted wtih 20 subject s . e ti s y d u t s e h t m o r f d e t c e l e s y l m o d n a r e r e w s t n e d n o p s e r , y d u t s t o li p s i h t m o r F r e w s n a d n a d n a t s r e d n u o t e l b a e b o t d n u o f r e h t r u f o n d n a d e d i v o r p e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t e n o d s a w e ri a n n o it s e u q f o n o it a c if i d o m r u s l a u t c a e h t o t r o ir

(4)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

5 y

d u t

S Popula itonandSampleSize

d e d n e t t a s t n e it a p f o e g a r e v a y l h t n o m e h T , t n e m t r a p e d y c a m r a h p t n e it a p t u o o t r e b m u n s i h T . 0 0 0 , 3 3 s a w l a ti p s o H g n a n e P e l p m a s e h t e t a l u c l a c o t e d i u g a s a d e s u s a w e l p m a s g n is u y B . y d u t s s i h t r o f d e d e e n e zi s s o a R m o r f r o t a l u c l a c e zi

s oft® web ,[19] the

s a w d e d e e n e zi s e l p m a s e v it c e ff e m u m i n i m f n o c a h ti w 0 8

3 idence interva l 95% and s e l p m a s 0 2 4 , r e v e w o H . % 5 r o r r e f o n i g r a m r o f t n u o c c a o t y d u t s s i h t n i d e d u l c n i e r e w . e t a r e s n o p s e r n o n % 0 1 n o it a r e d i s n o C l a c i h t E l a c i n il C e h t y b d e t n a r g n e e b d a h l a v o r p p A l a n o it a N r e d n u ) C R C ( e r t n e C h c r a e s e R H I N ( h tl a e H f o e t u ti t s n

I ) ,Minsitry o fHeatlh . g n a n e P n i y e v r u s si h t t c u d n o c o t a is y a l a M s i s y l a n A a t a D s s e s s a o t d e s u s a w m e t s y s g n ir o c s y r a r ti b r A e h t n o d e s a b e g d e l w o n k f o l e v e l e h t s a w k r a m e n O . 3 t r a P n i d e d i v o r p s r e w s n a o r e z d n a r e w s n a t c e r r o c h c a e r o f d e d r a w a g n o r w h c a e r o

f o runsure response .The . 4 1 s a w e g d e l w o n k r o f e r o c s t c e r r o c l a t o t d e zi r o g e t a c e r e w e r o c s e g d e l w o n k l a t o t e h T , r o o p y b d e t a c i d n i s l e v e l e e r h t o t n i : w o l e b n w o h s s a d o o g d n a e t a r e d o m .

1 Poor( 0– )4 .

2 Moderate( 5– )9 .

3 Good( 10– )1 4

l a c it si t a t S e h t g n is u d e z y l a n a e r e w a t a d l l A , . c n I S S P S ( s e c n e i c S l a i c o S e h t r o f e g a k c a P e v it p ir c s e D . 0 . 3 1 n o is r e v ) L I , o g a c i h C a t a d e h t e zi r a m m u s o t d e s u s a w c it si t a t s , s c it si r e t c a r a h c c i h p a r g o m e d g n i d r a g e r d n a e g d e l w o n k , c it o i b it n a f o e s u t n e c e r e d u ti t t

a s o f an itbio itc usage . The i h C g n is u d e t s e t s a w a t a d l a c ir o g e t a c s a w t s e t t c a x E r e h si F . d o h t e m e r a u q S n i sl l e c e h t f o e r o m r o % 5 2 n e h w d e il p p a 5 n a h t s s e l t n u o c d e t c e p x e e v a h e l b a t e h t . 1 n a h t s s e l si y c n e u q e r f d e t c e p x e y n a f i r o is o lr a C e t n o M t l u a f e d

A mula iton in the

r e h si F e t a m it s e o t d e s u s a w e r a w t f o s S S P S p t c a x

E -value sast hedatase twasl argeand t a e r g a e ri u q e r n o it a t u p m o c t c a x e l a m r o n y r o m e m d n a e m it r e t u p m o c f o t n u o m

a [20 ,

] 1

2 .Spearman r ankcorrela iton wa susedt o d d n a n o it c e ri d e h t e z y l a n

a egree o f

d n a e g d e l w o n k n e e w t e b p i h s n o it a l e r f o l e v e l e h T . e t a ir p o r p p a e r e h w s e d u ti t t a . 5 0 . 0 < p t a t e s s a w e c n a c if i n g is l a c it si t a t s S T L U S E R f o s c it s ir e t c a r a h C c i h p a r g o m e D s t n e d n o p s e R e r e w s e ri a n n o it s e u q 0 2 4 f o l a t o t A t a c il b u p l a r e n e g e h t o t d e t u b ir t si d t u

o pa iten tpharmacydepartmen to fPenang s e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t f o 2 1 , r e v e w o H . l a ti p s o H e r o f e r e h t d n a e t e l p m o c n i d n u o f e r e w p u d e d n e s i h T . si s y l a n a e h t m o r f d e d u l c x e . y d u t s si h t r o f 8 0 4 f o e l p m a s l a t o t a h ti w f o y r a m m u s e h t m o r f n w o h s s A t si r e t c a r a h c c i h p a r g o m e

d ic s in Table 1 ,

r o f n o it u b ir t si d l a u q e n a t s o m l a s a w e r e h t 0 6 > e s o h t t p e c x e s p u o r g e g a e h t f o t s o m s s e l s a f l a h d n u o r a e r e w d l o s r a e y f o e g a n a e m e h T . s r e h t o e h t o t d e r a p m o c . s r a e y 4 1 ± 3 4 s a w s t n e d n o p s e r e h t e l a m e r e w s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o y ti r o j a M a ) % 9 . 3 5

( s compared to female (46.1%) . n w o h s s a w t i , s e c a r f o n o it u b ir t si d e h t m o r F t s e h g i h e h t r o f d e t n u o c c a y a l a M t a h t n a i d n I ,) % 8 . 5 3 ( e s e n i h C y b d e w o ll o f ) % 8 . 6 4 ( h g i h A . ) % 7 . 1 ( s r e h t o d n a ) % 7 . 5 1 ( s a w s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o ) % 8 . 0 7 ( n o it r o p o r p t f o l l a t s o m l A . d e ir r a

m he respondent s

(5)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

6 .

1 e l b a

T Summaryo fDemographicCharacte irs itcs.

s c it si r e t c a r a h

C Number( n=408) Percentage( %)

e g A

8 1 - 03

1 3 - 04

1 4 - 05

1 5 - 06

0 6 >

r e d n e G

e l a M

e l a m e F

e c a R

y a l a M

e s e n i h C

n a i d n I

s r e h t O

s u t a t S l a ti r a M

e l g n i S

d e ir r a M

d e t a r a p e S / d e c r o v i D / d e w o d i W

n o it a c u d E t s e h g i

H a lStatus r

e w o l r o y r a m ir P

y r a d n o c e S

y ti s r e v i n U / e g e ll o C

s u t a t S t n e m y o l p m E

s e g a w r o f d e y o l p m E

d e y o l p m e f l e S

e fi w e s u o H

d e y o l p m e n U / d e ri t e R

e m o c n I y l h t n o M

e n o N

0 0 0 1 M R <

0 0 0 1 M

R -2000 1 0 0 2 M

R -4000

3 9

1 9

3 9

3 8

8 4

0 2 2

8 8 1

1 9 1

6 4 1

4 6

7

8 0 1

9 8 2

1 1

3 1

9 0 2

6 8 1

0 0 2

8 4

7 4

3 1 1

2 0 1

2 5

8 1 1

3 0 1

8 . 2 2

3 . 2 2

8 . 2 2

3 . 0 2

8 . 1 1

9 . 3 5

1 . 6 4

8 . 6 4

8 . 5 3

7 . 5 1

7 . 1

5 . 6 2

8 . 0 7

7 . 2

2 . 3

2 . 1 5

6 . 5 4

0 . 9 4

8 . 1 1

5 . 1 1

7 . 7 2

0 . 5 2

7 . 2 1

9 . 8 2

(6)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

7 0

0 0 4 M R >

h tl a e h o t d e t a l e r n o it a p u c c O

e r a c

s e Y

o N

n o it a p u c c o s r e b m e m y li m a F

e r a c h tl a e h o t d e t a l e r

s e Y

o N

g n i k o m S

s e Y

o N

l o h o c l A g n i k n ir D

s e Y

o N

n o it i d n o C l a c i d e M c i n o r h C

s e Y

o N

ti s i V y c a m r a h P / c i n il C f o r e b m u N

e n o N

1-4 itmes 5-10 itmes

s e m it 0 1 >

3 3

4 7

4 3 3

7 8

1 2 3

8 5

0 5 3

8 2

0 8 3

1 0 2

7 0 2

5 4

7 2 2

4 9

2 4

1 . 8

1 . 8 1

9 . 1 8

3 . 1 2

7 . 8 7

2 . 4 1

8 . 5 8

9 . 6

1 . 3 9

3 . 9 4

7 . 0 5

0 . 1 1

6 . 5 5

0 . 3 2

3 . 0 1

s a w e r e h t , s u t a t s t n e m y o l p m e e h t r o f s A

r o f d e y o l p m e e r e w m e h t f o f l a h t s o m l a

y b d

e w o ll o f ,

) % 9 4 ( s

e g a w

s t n e d u t s g n i d u l c n i d e y o l p m e n u / d e ri t e r

n o it u b ir t si d l a u q e n a s a w e r e h T . ) % 7 . 7 2 (

e h T . e fi w e s u o h d n a d e y o l p m e f l e s n e e w t e b

m d a h s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o y ti r o j a

m onthly

0 0 0 1 M R m o r f d e g n a r e m o c n

i -2000( 28.9%) ,

y l n O . ) % 1 . 8 ( 0 0 0 4 M R > p u o r g t s a e l e h t h ti w

y li m a f d n a ’ s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o y ti r o n i m a

o t d e t a l e r e r e w n o it a p u c c o ’ s r e b m e m

% 3 . 1 2 d n a % 1 . 8 1 h ti w e r a c h tl a e h

n o n e r e w m e h t f o t s o M . y l e v it c e p s e r

n d n a ) % 8 . 5 8 ( r e k o m

s onalcohoilc( 93.1%) . e

g a s U c it o i b it n

A amongRespondent s e h t f o ) 8 1 1 = n ( % 9 . 8 2 s a w e r e h T

g n is u f o e c n e ir e p x e e h t d a h s t n e d n o p s e r

e h t e r o f e b h t n o m e n o n i h ti w c it o i b it n a

y ll a c it si t a t S . d e t c u d n o c s a w y e v r u s

(7)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

8 u

o r g e g

a p (p=0.027) ,race (p=0.014) , and e h t n i y c a m r a h p / c i n il c o t t is i v f o y c n e u q e r f

e h t o t e s n o p s e r n i ) 1 0 0 . 0 < p ( s h t n o m 2 1 t s a l

o t h t n o m e n o r o ir p n i h ti w c it o i b it n a f o e s u

c it o i b it n a k o o t o h w e s o h T . y e v r u s e h t

t s e h g i h e h t h ti w p u o r g e g a g n o m a d e ir a v

h t g n o m a e s

u eyounge rgeneraitono f31- 40 8

1 d n a ) % 3 . 6 3 ( d l o s r a e

y -30 year s old

. ) % 3 . 2 3 (

t s a e l e h t s a w ) d l o s r a e y 0 6 > ( y lr e d l e e h T

y lt n e c e r c it o i b it n a e h t d e s u o h w p u o r g

n i s e c a r t n e r e ff i d e h t g n o m A . ) % 4 . 0 1 (

t s e h g i h e h t r o f d e t u ti t s n o c n a i d n I , a is y a l a M

f o e g a s

u an itbio itc (39.1% ) followed by . ) % 9 . 1 2 ( e s e n i h C d n a ) % 9 . 1 3 ( y a l a M

t n e u q e r f t s o m e h t d a h o h w s t n e d n o p s e R

e h t r e v o y c a m r a h p / c i n il c o t ) s e m it 0 1 > ( ti si v

e h t r o f d e t n u o c c a s h t n o m 2 1 s u o i v e r p

e li h w , ) % 5 . 0 4 ( c it o i b it n a f o e g a s u t s e h g i h

5 d e ti si v e s o h

t -10 itme sand1-4 itme swere e r e w e r e h T . y l e v it c e p s e r % 2 . 8 2 d n a % 4 . 9 3

e s u c it o i b it n a n i s e c n e r e ff i d t n a c if i n g is o n

m

a ongothe rdemographicva irables )

2 e l b a T

( .

. 2 e l b a

T Associa itono fDemographicCharacte irs itcwtihRecen tUseo fAn itbio itc.

s c it si r e t c a r a h C

) h t n o m e n o r o ir P ( c it o i b it n A f o e s U t n e c e

R Pvalue

χ

( 2test /Fsihe r ) t s e t t c a x E s

e

Y N o

e g A

8 1 - 03

1 3 - 04

1 4 - 05

1 5 - 06

0 6 >

) % 3 . 2 3 ( 0 3

) % 3 . 6 3 ( 3 3

) % 0 . 8 2 ( 6 2

) % 9 . 8 2 ( 4 2

) % 4 . 0 1 ( 5

) % 7 . 7 6 ( 3 6

) % 7 . 3 6 ( 8 5

) % 0 . 2 7 ( 7 6

) % 1 . 1 7 ( 9 5

) % 6 . 9 8 ( 3 4

7 2 0 . 0

e c a R

y a l a M

e s e n i h C

n a i d n I

s r e h t O

) % 9 . 1 3 ( 1 6

) % 9 . 1 2 ( 2 3

) % 1 . 9 3 ( 5 2

) % 0 . 0 ( 0

) % 1 . 8 6 ( 0 3 1

) % 1 . 8 7 ( 4 1 1

) % 9 . 0 6 ( 9 3

) % 0 . 0 0 1 ( 7

* 4 1 0 . 0

ti s i V y c a m r a h P / c i n il C

e n o N

1-4 itmes 5-10 itmes

s e m it 0 1 >

) % 0 . 0 ( 0

) % 2 . 8 2 ( 4 6

) % 4 . 9 3 ( 7 3

) % 5 . 0 4 ( 7 1

) % 0 . 0 0 1 ( 5 4

) % 8 . 1 7 ( 3 6 1

) % 6 . 0 6 ( 7 5

) % 5 . 9 5 ( 5 2

1 0 0 . 0 <

. t s e t t c a x e r e h si F m o r f s e u l a v P *

% 7 . 0 4 , d e n i a t b o s e s n o p s e r e h t m o r F

r o f s c it o i b it n a g n i k a t e r e w y e h t d e t r o p e r

y r o t a ri p s e r h ti w d e w o ll o f s a w s i h T . r e v e f

n o it a m m a lf n i d n a n i a p , ) % 9 . 2 2 ( s s e n ll i

y r a n ir u h t o b r o f % 9 . 1 1 l a u q e n a d n a ) % 3 . 5 1 (

(8)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

9 e

r e w e g a s u c it o i b it n a f o s n o s a e r d e t r o p e r

, m e l b o r p l a n it s e t n i o r t s a g e l p m a x e r o f

n o it c e f n i r a e d n a n i a p t n i o j , e h c a h t o o

t .

n K f o l e v e

L owledge

e h t f o f l a h n a h t e r o m s a w e r e h T

e v a h o t n w o h s ) 3 2 2 = n , % 7 . 4 5 ( s t n e d n o p s e r

n a i d e m h ti w e g d e l w o n k f o l e v e l e t a r e d o m

. 6 e g d e l w o n k f o e r o c s l a t o

t 28.9% (n=118 )

r o o p g n i v a h f o y r o g e t a c r e d n u l l a f m e h t f o

) 7 6 = n ( % 4 . 6 1 y l n o d n a e g d e l w o n k f o l e v e l

s n o c e r e

w idereda shavinggoodknowledge . f o e c n e r e ff i d t n a c if i n g is y ll a c it si t a t s A

e g a n e e w t e b d e t o n e r e w l e v e l e g d e l w o n k

f o s l e v e l ,) 1 0 0 . 0 < p ( s e c a r , ) 3 0 0 . 0 < p ( s p u o r g

e m o c n i y l h t n o m d n a ) 1 0 0 . 0 < p ( n o it a c u d e

s a w e g d e l w o n k f o l e v e l r o o P . ) 1 0 0 . 0 < p (

e g n u o y e h t n i d n u o

f r genera iton age

8 1 n e e w t e

b -30 year sold (39.8% v sother s g n o m a e c n a r e d n o p e r p r e h g i h , ) % 2 3 <

r o y r a m ir p , ) % 4 3 < s r e h t o s v % 1 . 6 3 ( s y a l a M

s r e h t o s v % 8 . 3 5 ( l e v e l l a n o it a c u d e r e w o l

p u o r g e m o c n i d n a ) % 6 3

< RM<1000 (51.9% )

% 1 3 < s r e h t o s

v (Table3).

A f o e c r u o S . 1 e r u g i

F n itbio itc.

4 . 2 9

5 .

2 5.1

0 0 1

0 2

0 3

0 4

0 5

0 6

0 7

0 8

0 9

0 0 1

d e b ir c s e r

P Cilnicwtihou t n o it p ir c s e r

p Retai lpharmacy

)

%(

eg

at

ne

cr

eP

(9)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

0 1

D f o n o it a i c o s s A . 3 e l b a

T emographicCharacte irs itc swtihKnowledgeStatements.

. o

N Statement AConsrrweecr t InAcnosrwreecrt Unsure

( e u l a v

P χ2test /Fsihe rExactt est) e

g

A Gender Race Educa. Employ. Income Occu. Famliy . u c c

O ICllhnreoss. PChilanricm / ti si V

g n i k o m S

c it o i b it n A f o e l o R

1 Anitbioitc saremedicine s . a ir e t c a b l li k n a c t a h

t (763 1.73%) (6.2 67%) (166 .78%) 0.785 0.916 0.813* 0.057* 0.131 0.001 0.133 0.978 0.176 0.570 0.424

2 Anitbioitc scanbeusedt o . s n o it c e f n i l a ri v t a e r

t (135 .55%) (672 .724%) (197 .49%) 0.704 0.912 0.372* 0.682* 0.078 0.593 <0.001 0.025 0.821 0.555 0.933

3 Anitbioitc scancureal l .

s n o it c e f n

i (441 8.62%) (251 .054%) (21 9.292%) 0.740 0.730 <0.001* 0.003* 0.176 0.001 0.140 0.443 0.647 0.235 0.100

4 Anitbioitc sarei ndicated /

n i a p f e il e r o t

. n o it a m m a lf n i

6 2 1

) % 9 . 0 3

( (52 1.008%) (187 .14%) 0.517 0.043 0.022* 0.560* 0.286 0.566 0.173 0.664 0.191 0.439 0.333

5 Anitbioitc sareused to .r

e v e f p o t

s (381 5.05%) (461 .960%) (156 .43%) 0.063 0.423 < 00.0 1 * 0.358* 0.968 0.028 0.047 0.113 0.155 0.069 0.449

c it o i b it n A f o n o it a c if it n e d n I

6 Penicliilni sananitbioitc. 1 84 ) % 1 . 5 4

( (135 .55%) (411 .649%) 0.009 0.078 <0.001* <0.001* 0.109 0.032 0.229 0.088 0.009 0.629 0.065

7 Aspi irni sanew

. c it o i b it n a f o n o it a r e n e

(10)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

1 1 .

t s e t t c a x e r e h si F m o r f s e u l a v P *

8 Paracetamoli s n a s a d e r e d is n o c

. c it o i b it n a

2 3 2

) % 9 . 6 5

( (135 .76%) (291 .240%) 0.002 0.545 0.046* <0.001* 0.013 0.017 0.867 0.088 0.031 <0.001 0.001

9 Diphenhydraminei sno t .

c it o i b it n a n

a (104 .53%) (114 .88%) (73 7.177%) 0.001 0.253 0.810* 0.398* 0.256 0.122 0.005 0.525 0.091 0.360* 0.716

s r e g n a

D o fAn itbio itc 0

1 Overuseo fanitbioitccan c

it o i b it n a e s u a c

. e c n a t si s e r

1 4 2

) % 1 . 9 5

( (52 .11%) (351 .486%) < 00.0 1 * 0.424 0.005* 0.191* 0.129 0.277 0.020 0.133 <0.001 0.447* 0.046

1

1 Anitbioitc smaycause . n o it c a e r c i g r e ll

a (532 2.90%) (156 .43%) (301 .265%) 0.165 0.610 0.036* 0.103* 0.864 0.015 0.572 0.502 0.156 0.297 0.308

2

1 Al lanitbioitc sdono t . s t c e ff e e d is e s u a

c (451 8.66%) (239 .04%) (31 1.248%) 0.797 0.440 <0.001* 0.001* 0.937 0.223 0.431 0.515 0.094 0.308 0.244

e s r u o C t n e m t a e r T f o n o it e l p m o C 3

1 Youcans topt akingaf ul l f i c it o i b it n a f o e s r u o c

e r a s m o t p m y s r u o y

. g n i v o r p m i

0 9 2

) % 1 . 1 7

( (229 .31%) (62 .67%) 0.009 0.724 0.333* 0.004* 0.156 0.427 0.532 0.407 0.381 0.356 0.213

4

1 Theeffec itvenes sof a f i d e c u d e r si t n e m t a e r t

s i c it o i b it n a f o e s r u o c l l u f

. d e t e l p m o c t o n

3 5 2

) % 0 . 2 6

(11)

is a W i n a ll i

G fSe .ta,lJ PRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

2 1 c

it o i b it n A s d r a w o t s e d u ti t t

A Usage

s e d u ti t t a g n i d r a g e r s e s n o p s e r e h t m o r F

e g a s u c it o i b it n a s d r a w o

t (Table 4) ,38%

a g n i v a h n e h w c it o i b it n a g n i k a t d e v e il e b

e r o m r e t t e b t e g m e h t p l e h d l u o c d l o c

o t c it o i b it n a d e t c e p x e % 3 . 7 4 e li h w y l k c i u q

g n ir e ff u s e r e w y e h t n e h w d e b ir c s e r p e b

n o m m o c m o r

f cold symptom swhich wa s n i e s n o p s e r e v it a g e n f o e t a r t s e h g i h e h t

t a h t d e e r g a % 7 3 s a w e r e h T . n o it c e s s i h t

n e h w c it o i b it n a g n i k a t p o t s d l u o w y e h t

r e w o l y l b a r e d is n o C . r e t t e b g n il e e f d e t r a t s

d e e r g a s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o n o it r o p o r p

r i e h t h ti w s c it o i b it n a g n ir a h s e r e w y e h t

c it o i b it n a g n i p e e k , ) % 1 . 9 ( s r e b m e m y li m a f

) % 5 1 ( e s u y c n e g r e m e r o f e m o h t a k c o t s

r o f c it o i b it n a r e v o t f e l g n is u d n a

e h t f o % 0 9 r e v O . ) % 2 . 3 ( s s e n ll i y r o t a ri p s e r

d e m i a l c s t n e d n o p s e

r they would follow f o e t o n e k a t d n a l e b a l e h t n o n o it c u r t s n i

. c it o i b it n a g n i k a t e li h w e t a d y ri p x e e h t

s t n e d n o p s e r f o % 1 1 n a h t s s e l e r e w e r e h T

r o f ’ e r u s n u ‘ d e t r o p e

r allt hestatementsi n .

n o it c e s s e d u ti t t a

2 e r u g i

F .Response so fPubilcRegardingAtttiudeStatements. 4

. 4

4 . 4

2 . 3

5 1 1 . 9

7 3

3 . 7 4 8 3

4 . 3

5 . 2

3 . 8

9 . 4 7 . 2

2 . 3

5 . 0 1 8 . 8

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

f o e t a d y ri p x e e h t t a k o o l ll i w y ll a m r o n I ) 8

ti g n i k a t e r o f e b c it o i b it n a

e h t o t g n i d r o c c a c it o i b it n a e k a t ll i w I ) 7

l e b a l e h t n o n o it c u r t s n i

y r o t a ri p s e r a r o f c it o i b it n a r e v o t f e l e s u l li w I ) 6

s s e n ll i

n i e m o h t a k c o t s c it o i b it n a p e e k y ll a m r o n I ) 5

y c n e g r e m e f o e s a c

e v i g l li w y ll a u s u I , k c is s i r e b m e m y li m a f y m f I ) 4

m e h t o t c it o i b it n a y m

t r a t s I n e h w c it o i b it n a g n i k a t p o t s y ll a m r o n I ) 3

r e t t e b g n il e e f

y m y b d e b ir c s e r p e b o t c it o i b it n a t c e p x e I ) 2

s m o t p m y s d l o c n o m m o c m o r f r e ff u s I fi r o t c o d

p l e h o t c it o i b it n a e k a t ll i w I , d l o c a t e g I n e h W ) 1

y l k c i u q e r o m r e t t e b t e g e m

) % ( e g a t n e c r e P e

s n o p s e r e v it a g e N

(12)

i n a ll i

G Wa is fSe .ta,lJPRCP2011 ;1(1 :)2- 71

3 1 4

e l b a

T . Associa itono fDemographicCharacte irs itc swtihAtttiudeStatements.

s e s n o p s e r e v it is o P .t s e t t c a x e r e h si F m o r f s e u l a v P

* – ‘dsiagree’f ors tatemen t1-6,‘ agree’f ors tatemen t7&8. .

o

N Statement Agree Dsiagree Unsure Pvalue( χ2test /Fsihe rExactt est)

e g

A Gender Race Educa iton Employ. Income Occu. Chronic s s e n ll

I Smoking 1 When Ige tacold , Iwli l

e m p l e h o t c it o i b it n a e k a t

. y l k c i u q e r o m r e t t e b t e g

5 5 1

) % 0 . 8 3

( (52 31.27%) (83 .86%) 0.086 0.782 <0.001* 0.003* 0.110 0.315 0.525 0.788 0.498

2 Iexpec tanitbioitct obe r o t c o d y m y b d e b ir c s e r p

n o m m o c m o r f r e ff u s I fi

. s m o t p m y s d l o c

3 9 1

) % 3 . 7 4

( (41 27.22%) (104 .53%) 0.057 0.237 0.014* 0.010* 0.408 0.200 0.637 0.132 0.148

3 Inormallys topt aking t r a t s I n e h w c it o i b it n a

.r e t t e b g n il e e f

1 5 1

) % 0 . 7 3

( (52 94.84%) (3.1 23%) <0.001* 0.881 0.004* 0.006* 0.001* 0.061* 0.627 0.021 0.039

4 I fmyf amliymemberi s y m e v i g l li w y ll a u s u I , k c is

. m e h t o t c it o i b it n a

7 3

) % 1 . 9

( (83 86.20%) (21 .71%) 0.512* 0.303 0.028* <0.001* 0.374* 0.097* 0.040 0.099 0.060

5 Inormallykeepanitbioitc f o e s a c n i e m o h t a k c o t s

. y c n e g r e m e

1 6

) % 0 . 5 1

( (83 02.17%) (4.2 90%) 0.005* 0.438 0.205* 0.092* 0.735 0.007 0.542 0.074 0.453

6 Iwli lusel etfove r a r o f c it o i b it n a

. s s e n ll i y r o t a ri p s e r

3 1

) % 2 . 3

( (83 86.51%) (83 .34%) 0.038* 0.516 0.779* 0.265* 0.643* 0.387* 0.608 0.040 0.723*

7 Iwillt akeanitbioitc e h t o t g n i d r o c c a

.l e b a l e h t n o n o it c u r t s n i

0 8 3

) % 1 . 3 9

( (41 .48%) (2.1 50%) 0.395* 0.197 0.445* 0.507* 0.023* 0.296* 0.229* 0.154 0.813*

8 Inormallywilll ooka tthe c it o i b it n a f o e t a d y ri p x e

.t i g n i k a t e r o f e b

6 7 3

) % 2 . 2 9

(13)

i n a ll i

G Wa is fSe .ta,lJPRCP2011 ;1(1:)2- 71

4 1 N O I S S U C S I D , s e l b a ir a v c i h p a r g o m e d s u o ir a v g n o m A o t n w o h s s a w e g d e l w o n k f o y c a u q e d a n i , e g a h ti w y lt n e u q e r f t s o m d e t a l e r e b . l e v e l e m o c n i d n a n o it a c u d e , e c a r n w o h s s e l b a ir a v c i h p a r g o m e d , y lr a li m i S e r e w l e v e l n o it a c u d e d n a e c a r , e g a y b s e l b a ir a v t n e u q e r f t s o m e h t g n o m a e h t h ti w d e t a i c o s s a y lt n a c if i n g is s i h T . e g a s u c it o i b it n a s d r a w o t s e d u ti t t a 8 1 ( e g a r e g n u o y y b d e t a c i d n i s a

w - 30

r e w o l r o y r a m ir p , y a l a M , ) d l o s r a e y l e v e l e m o c n i d n a l e v e l n o it a c u d e . p u o r g e l b a r e n l u v t s o m e h t s a 0 0 0 1 < M R r a li m is d e t r o p e r o sl a s y e v r u s r e h t O

ifndingst ha tyounge rgroup[8 ,9],l owe r n o it a c if il a u q l a n o it a c u d

e [8 ,9 ,10] and

p u o r g e m o c n i r e w o

l [8 ,10] were les s

. s c it o i b it n a t u o b a e l b a e g d e l w o n k r e h g i h h ti w s t n e d n o p s e r e r o m , r e v e w o H e v a h o t d e t o n e r e w ) 0 0 0 4 M R ( e m o c n i e h t o t g n i n i a t r e p e g d e l w o n k e t a u q e d a n i o i b it n a f o e l o

r itc fo rbacte iral i nfec iton h c i h w s t n e m e t a t s r e h t o o t d e s o p p o s a r e w o l h ti w e s o h t n i y c a u q e d a n i d e w o h s n w o h s n o it a l u p o p y a l a M e d is e B . e m o c n i e r e h t , p u o r g e l b a r e n l u v t s o m e h t e b o t d n u o f n a i d n I h ti w s n o it p e c x e e m o s e r e w e g d e l w o n k e t a u q e d a n i e v a h o t i n i a t r e

p ng to the mi isden itifcaiton o f d n a c it o i b it n a s a l o m a t e c a r a p n o it a t c e p x e h ti w s e d u ti t t a e t a ir p o r p p a n i r e h t O . s d l o c n o m m o c r o f c it o i b it n a f o s s e n ll i c i n o r h c g n i v a h s a h c u s e l b a ir a v e g d e l w o n k r e t t e b h ti w d e t a i c o s s a s a w t a d t n e t si s n o c n i s a e r e h w , s e d u ti t t a d n a a c i h p a r g o m e d r o f d e n i a t b o s a w n o it a p u c c o o t n o it a l e r n i s c it si r e t c a r a h c e l a M . s u t a t s t n e m y o l p m e d n a o sl a e r e w r e k o m s n o n d n a s t n e d n o p s e r e r e h T . e g d e l w o n k r e t t e b e v a h o t n w o h s d e v r e s b o e c n e r e ff i d e c n a c if i n g is o n s a w h c i h w s e l b a ir a v c i h p a r g o m e d r e h t o r o f

wereno tmenitonedabove .Educa itona l d e t e g r a t e b d l u o h s y g e t a r t s d n a t r o ff e e v o r p m i o t p u o r g s u c o f e h t t a y li r a m ir p n i s e d u ti t t a f o s e g n a h c d n a e g d e l w o n k . e g a s u c it o i b it n a t u o h ti w c it o i b it n A f o y ti li b a li a v A l a g e ll I n o it p ir c s e r P t f o l o r t n o c t n e i c if f u s n

I he avaliablitiy o f

o t d e t u b ir t n o c y lt r a p e b d l u o c c it o i b it n a e h t n i e s u c it o i b it n a r e p o r p m i e h t r e h t o n i d e t r o p e r s a w t I . y ti n u m m o c o t y ti li b is s o p s a w e r e h t t a h t s e ir t n u o c l a c i d e m a t u o h ti w s c it o i b it n a t e g s i e c it c a r p s i h t h g u o h t n e v e n o it p ir c s e r p l a g e ll

i [7 ,11] .In T irnidad and Tobago , n i a t b o s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o e v if n i e n

o ed

r e t n u o c e h t r e v o s a s c it o i b it n a r i e h t s e i c a m r a h p e t a v ir p t a s n o it a c i d e m , n o it p ir c s e r p s ’r o t c o d t u o h ti

w [11]

g n o K g n o H n i y e v r u s r e h t o n a s a e r e h w s c it o i b it n a g n i n i a t b o % 9 d e t a r t s n o m e d n o it p ir c s e r p t u o h ti

w [10] . Ou r study

l a g e ll i f o ) % 6 . 7 ( e g a t n e c r e p r e w o l h ti w e b d l u o c c it o i b it n a f o e c r u o s s a w y e v r u s s i h t s a d e t a m it s e r e d n u l a ti p s o h t n e m n r e v o g a n i d e t c u d n o c d e d e e n s a w n o it p ir c s e r p l a m r o f h c i h w d l u o w e W . s n o it a c i d e m g n it t e g r o f it r o p o r p r e h g i h a e t a m it s

e on among

c it o i b it n a d e n i a t b o e v a h d l u o c c il b u p d n a w e i v e r r o t c o d r e p o r p t u o h ti w f o y ti s s e c e n e h t f o n o it a tl u s n o c s e v r e s e d a e r a y a r g s i h T . c it o i b it n a e h t w o n k o t n o it a g it s e v n i r e h t r u f r e t n u o c e h t r e v o f o e c n a t r o p m i e v it a l e r p e r d a h y e v r u s n a e p o r u E A . s e l a

s orted

s a c it o i b it n a f o g n is n e p si d e h t s a w s e n i c i d e m y l n o n o it p ir c s e r p f o e t a r r e w o l e h t o t d e t a l e r w o h e m o s e s u si m y lt n e u q e s b u s d n a d e r o t s e m o h c it o i b it n a f

(14)

i n a ll i

G Wa is fSe .ta,lJPRCP2011 ;1(1:)2- 71

5 1 n e e b d a h s n g i a p m a c c it o i b it n a l a r e v e S ir t n u o c r e h t o n i n e k a t r e d n

u e ssuch a s

t e G ‘ , n i a ti r B n i n g i a p m a C ’ c it o i b y d n A ‘ s g u B o D ‘ d n a S U n i n g i a p m a C ’ t r a m S ’ t r a m S t e G ‘ e h T . a d a n a C n i ’ ? s g u r D d e e N C D C y b d e t a it i n i n g i a p m a c l a n o it a n d n a l o r t n o C e s a e si D r o f s r e t n e C ( e h t o t d e t h g il h g i h d a h ) n o it n e v e r P h t ) 1 : s g n i w o ll o f e h t c il b u

p e difference s

, s n o it c e f n i l a ir e t c a b d n a l a ri v n e e w t e b l a ri v r o f k r o w t o n o d s c it o i b it n a ) 2 t s o m , s d l o c n o m m o c s a h c u s s n o it c e f n i d n a m e d t o n o d ) 3 , u lf d n a s h g u o c o t e c n a il p m o c ) 4 , r o t c o d m o r f c it o i b it n a e k a t t o n o d ) 5 d n a , c it o i b it n a d e b ir c s e r p s c it o i b it n

a presc irbed fo r anothe r e s u e r u t u f r o f s c it o i b it n a e v a s r o n o s r e p ] 5 2

[ . These key element s could be r u o n i m a r g o r p n o it a c u d e o t n i d e t p o d a r u o y w o n k ‘ , a is y a l a M n I . g n it t e s e c n is d e t a it i n i s a w n g i a p m a c ’ e n i c i d e m h c i h w 6 0 0 2 r a e

y aimed to educate and d n a w o n k o t s ll i k s h ti w c il b u p p i u q e e s u o t , s e n i c i d e m r i e h t d n a t s r e d n u o t t h g ir r i e h t d n a y ll a n o it a r s e n i c i d e m s e n i c i d e m n o n o it a m r o f n i t e

g [9] .Thi s

t a y li r a m ir p d e t e g r a t t o n s a w n g i a p m a c e m o s , y lt n e c e r t u b , e s r e p s c it o i b it n a n e e b d a h s u c o

f given to anitbioitc a s e d a m s a w c it o i b it n a g n i d r a g e r t e l h p m a p y d u t s s i h t f o d n e r a e n e h t t a e l b a li a v a c il b u p e h t o t n o it i d d a n I .) 9 0 0 2 c a M 6 1 ( c i n il c , s e g a s s e m e l p m is h ti w n g i a p m a c y ti n u m m o c d n a n o it a c u d e t n e it a p d e s a b t s e g g u s r e h t o e r a s e it i v it c a h c a e r t u

o ed

c il b u p e h t r o f s n o it n e v r e t n i l a n o it a c u d e ] 2 2

[ .The educa itona lactivi ite sshould c il b u p e s a e r c n i o t t r o ff e d e n i a t s u s a e b d l u o h s t a h t e s u c it o i b it n a f o s s e n e r a w a l a r u tl u c , g n it e k r a m l a i c o s y o l p m e d n a g n it e g r a t n o it a l u p o p , n o it a t p a d a s e r u s a e m e m o c t u o e t a ir p o r p p

a [ . 2]

m a r g o r p n o it a c u d e e h t n a h t r e h t O s u o u n it n o c , c il b u p e h t t a d e t e g r a t e h t o t d e d i v o r p e b d l u o h s n o it a c u d e g n it h g il h g i h y b s r o t c o d d n a s t si c a m r a h p d n a e c n a t si s e r c it o i b it n a f o e u s si e h t n i c it o i b it n a f o e s u si m f o s e c n e u q e s n o c a ir p o r p p a n i e h T . y ti n u m m o c e h

t te

e h t n i s c it o i b it n a f o g n il l e s / g n i b ir c s e r p e h t y b n e v ir d e b d l u o c y ti n u m m o c t s e r e t n i t if o r p d n a d n a m e d ’ s t n e it a p e h t e zi d r a p o e j y a m h c i h w d e v r e s e d e r a c l a c i d e m / l a c it u e c a m r a h p x e l p m o c a s i s i h T . t n e it a p e h t y b e b o t s d e e n e c n a l a b a h c i h w n i n o it a u ti s c

a hieved between profes isonalsim and . l a o g s s e n is u b e l b a ti f o r p e h t n i c it o i b it n a f o y ti li b a li a v a y s a e e h T l a c i d e m t u o h ti w y ti n u m m o c t c ir t s d e t p m o r p d l u o h s n o it p ir c s e r p e r o M . s n o it a l u g e r e h t f o t n e m e c r o f n e t u o d e ir r a c e b d l u o c e c n a ll i e v r u s e v it c a r o ti n o m o

t the adherence to the e r e w s c it o i b it n a e r u s n e d n a s n o it a l u g e r . s n o it a c i d e m y l n o n o it p ir c s e r p s a n e v i g h tl a e H l a n o it a N f o n o it a t n e m e l p m i e h T e c u d e r o t n w o h s d a h m a r g o r p e c n a r u s n I f o n o it p ir c s e r p y r a s s e c e n n u e h t e b d l u o c h c i h w n a w i a T n i c it o i b it n a tl a r e h t o n

a erna itve to be adopted by s e it ir o h t u a h tl a e h r u

o [17].

N O I S U L C N O C f o a e r a e h t g n it c e lf e r a t a d e h T e h t n i t n e m e v l o v n i c il b u p f o y c a u q e d a n i y g e t a r t s d n u o s a , c it o i b it n a f o e s u si m h t e t a c u d e o t d e n n a l p e b d l u o

c e pubilc .

c i h p a r g o m e d t n e u q e r f t s o m e h T d e t a i c o s s a y lt n a c if i n g is s c it si r e t c a r a h c e r e w s e d u ti t t a d n a e g d e l w o n k h t o b h ti w h ti w l e v e l l a n o it a c u d e d n a e c a r , e g a r e w o l d n a y a l a M , n o it a r e n e g r e g n u o y t s o m e h t s a d e if it n e d i l e v e l n o it a c u d e r e w o L . p u o r g e l b a r e n l u

v income wa s

h ti w d e t a i c o s s a d n u o f y lt s o m e h t t o n t u b e g d e l w o n k f o y c a u q e d a n i s i t I . e s u c it o i b it n a s d r a w o t s e d u ti t t a , d e n n a l p l l e w a d e t s e g g u s e r o f e r e h t l a n o it a c u d e d e r u t c u r t s d n a d e zi n a g r o e l b a r e n l u v t s o m e h t t a g n i m i a m a r g o r p p m i o t n e k a t r e d n u e b o t p u o r

g rove

(15)

i n a ll i

G Wa is fSe .ta,lJPRCP2011 ;1(1:)2- 71

6 1 S E C N E R E F E R .

1 Thewolrdheatlhr epor t2007:asafe rfuture: t s 1 2 e h t n i y ti r u c e s h tl a e h c il b u p l a b o l g n a g r O h tl a e H d lr o W . y r u t n e

c ziaiton 2007 .

e l b a li a v A ; d e ti c

[ from :

. 7 0 0 2 / r h w / t n i. o h w . w w w / / : p t t h .

2 Goossens ,H. ,e ta.l ,Na itona lcampaign sto , l o c a m r a h P n il C J r u E . e s u c it o i b it n a e v o r p m i 3 7 3 . p : 2 6 . 6 0 0

2 -379.

.

3 Malayisan statsiitc s on medicine 2005 . e h t d n a n o is i v i D s e c i v r e S l a c it u e c a m r a h P n i M . e r t n e C h c r a e s e R l a c i n il

C sitry o fHeatlh

: m o r f e l b a li a v A ; d e ti c [ . a is y a l a M . s u m n / y m . v o g . c r c . w w w / / : p t t h .

4 Okeke , .IN. ,A .Lamikanra ,and R .Edelman , s r o t c a f l a r o i v a h e b d n a c i m o n o c e o i c o S o t e c n a t si s e r l a ir e t c a b d e ri u q c a o t g n i d a e l g n i g r e m E . s e ir t n u o c g n i p o l e v e d n i s c it o i b it n a c e f n

I itou sDsieases ,1999 .5(1) :p .18- .2 7 .

5 Avorn , J .and D.H . Solomon ,Cutlura land c it o i b it n a e p a h s ) si m ( t a h t s r o t c a f c i m o n o c e f o s is a b c i g o l o c a m r a h p n o n e h T : e s u . p : 3 3 1 . 0 0 0 2 , d e M n r e t n I n n A . s c it u e p a r e h t 8 2 1 -135. .

6 Wolrd Heatlh Organzia iton Repor t on f

n

I ec itou s Dsieases . Overcoming h tl a e H d lr o W . e c n a t si s e r l a i b o r c i m it n a n a g r

O ziaiton2000.[ ctied ;Avaliablefrom: s u o it c e f n i/ t n i. o h w . w w w / / : p t t

h -dsiease

-. 0 0 0 2 / t r o p e r .

7 Pechere ,.JC. ,Paitents'i nterview sandmsiuse s e s a e si D s u o it c e f n I l a c i n il C . s c it o i b it n a f

o ,

0 7 1 S . p : ) 3 l p p u S ( 3 3 . 1 0 0

2 -173.

.

8 VandenEng .J ,e ta.l ,Consume ratttiude sand s u o it c e f n I g n i g r e m E . s c it o i b it n a f o e s u 8 2 1 1 . p : ) 9 ( 9 . 3 0 0 2 s e s a e si

D -1135.

.

9 McNutly ,C.A.M. ,e ta.l ,Don' twea rmeou t- o t s e d u ti t t a d n a f o e g d e l w o n k s ' c il b u p e h t i b it n

a oitc use . Journa l o f Anitmicrobia l 7 2 7 . p : 9 5 . 7 0 0 2 , y p a r e h t o m e h

C -738.

. 0

1 You ,.JH.S. ,e ta.l ,Pubilcknowledge ,atttiude s e n o h p e l e t A : e s u c it o i b it n a n o r o i v a h e b d n a . p : 6 3 . 8 0 0 2 , n o it c e f n I . g n o K g n o H n i y e v r u s 3 5 1 -157. .

1

1 Pairmi ,N. ,L.M.P .Pereria ,andP .Prabhakar , f o e s u d n a s n o it p e c r e p s ’ c il b u p l a r e n e g e h T n a P . o g a b o T d n a d a d i n ir T n i s l a i b o r c i m it n a 1 1 . p : ) 1 ( 2 1 . 2 0 0 2 , h tl a e H c il b u P J m

A - .1 7

. 2

1 Belongia , E.A. , e t a.l , Anitbioitc use and f o y e v r u s a : s n o it c e f n i y r o t a ri p s e r r e p p u , s e d u ti t t a , e g d e l w o n

k and expeirence in

e v it n e v e r P . a t o s e n n i M d n a n is n o c si W 6 4 3 . p : 4 3 . 2 0 0 2 , e n i c i d e

M -352.

. 3

1 Woodhead , M . and R . Finch , Pubilc n o it a c u d

e —a progres s report . Journa l o f . l p p u S ( 0 6 . 7 0 0 2 , y p a r e h t o m e h C l a i b o r c i m it n A 3 5 i . p : )

1 - .i55 .

4

1 Finch ,R.G. ,e ta.l ,Educational i nterveniton s : y ti n u m m o c e h t n i e s u c it o i b it n a e v o r p m i o t n o m u r o F l a n o it a n r e t n I e h t m o r f t r o p e r . 2 0 0 2 , m u i u q o ll o c ) R A F I( e c n a t si s e R c it o i b it n A 4 4 . p : 4 . 4 0 0 2 s i D t c e f n I t e c n a

L - .5 3

. 5

1 ChanG.C .andS.F .Tang ,Parenta lknowledge , it o i b it n a d n a s e d u ti t t

a c use fo racute uppe r n e r d li h c n i n o it c e f n i t c a r t y r o t a ri p s e r n i c i n il c e r a c h tl a e h y r a m ir p a g n i d n e t t a . p : ) 4 ( 7 4 . 6 0 0 2 , J d e M e r o p a g n i S . a is y a l a M 6 6 2 -270. .

6

1 Naina , B . and M.B . Bahair , Parenta l t c a r t y r o t a ri p s e r r e p p u n o e g d e l w o n k m t a e r t s ti d n a n o it c e f n

i ent . Malay isan

f o l a n r u o J 1 . p : ) 1 ( 2 . 4 0 0 2 , s e c n e i c S l a c it u e c a m r a h

P - .7

. 7

1 Chen , C. , e t a.l , Behavior , atttiude s and g n o m a e g a s u c it o i b it n a t u o b a e g d e l w o n k l o i b o r c i M J . n a w i a T , a u h g n a h C f o s t n e d is e r 3 5 . p : 8 3 . 5 0 0 2 , t c e f n I l o n u m m

I - .5 9

. 8

1 Fiilpetto ,F.A,.e ta.l ,Paiten tknowledgeand r e p p u f o n o it p e c r e

p respriatory infec itons , c it o i b it n

a indica iton sandressitance .Pa iten t 5 3 . p : 2 . 8 0 0 2 e c n e r e h d A d n a s e c n e r e f e r

P - .3 9

. 9

1 Samples ziecalculator .[ctied ;Avaliablefrom : e zi s e l p m a s / m o c .t f o s o a r. w w w / / : p t t

h .htm.l

. 0

2 Agresit ,A. ,A survey o fexac tinference fo r . 2 9 9 1 , e c n e i c S l a c it si t a t S . s e l b a t y c n e g it n o c 1 3 1 . p : ) 1 (

7 -153. .

1

2 Mehta ,C.R .and N.R .Patel ,Exac ttest ,in , 6 9 9 1 . s w o d n i w r o f 0 . 7 t s e t t c a x e S S P S 1 1 . p . c n I S S P S : L I , o g a c i h

C - .3 7

. 2

2 Belongia ,E.A .andB .Schwartz ,Strategiesf o r y b s c it o i b it n a f o e s u s u o i c i d u j g n it o m o r p 8 6 6 . p : 7 1 3 . 8 9 9 1 , J M B . s t n e it a p d n a s r o t c o d -. 1 7 . 3

2 Radosˇevic´ , N. , e t a.l , Atttiude s toward s l a i b o r c i m it n

a drug s among genera l n o it a l u p o

p in Croa ita, Fyrom , Greece , y r a g n u

H ,SerbiaandSlovenia . g u r D d n a y g o l o i m e d i p e o c a m r a h

P Safety ,

. 9 0 0 2 . 4

(16)

i n a ll i

G Wa is fSe .ta,lJPRCP2011 ;1(1:)2- 71

7 1 anitbioitc s works . 2008 [ctied ; Avaliable

: m o r

f http://www.cdc.gov/drugressitance/co .

/ y ti n u m m

. 5

2 PharmaceuitcalService sDivi ison( Minsitryo f o

y w o n K . ) a is y a l a M h tl a e

H u r medicine

; d e ti c [ . n g i a p m a

References

Related documents

Impressions of users regarding a book are extracted as “concepts” using tag data attached to books in the folksonomy style. In the pro- posed method, these concepts are used for

This paper verifies the finding of Gokcekus &amp; Suzuki (2011), and that of the majority of empirical research on the issue, that the increase of permanent income tends to

JUPITER Jupiter although in sixth house being the lord of Darapada and aspecting Shani the seventh lord is qualified to give serious relationship.. We should not neglect the sixth

In this study we focused on government interventions in cereal markets in four East African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) in the context of high international

Using data from the European Social Survey this paper aims to show the public attitudes to climate change in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland from several

Institutional diversity and autonomy reflected in audit reports and outcomes. Publication of audit results differ

Empirically, past studies have shown that the decision to pursue further studies or work among students can be affected by seven factors such as parent’s educational level,

To evaluate the financial and economic health gauge of European Union Member States, we propose to verify if some of the most acknowledged managerial tools of financial