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Chapter 30 Mammals

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Hair and Mammary Glands

Two characteristics that distinguish members

of class Mammalia from other vertebrate animals are hair and mammary glands.

30.1 Mammalian Characteristics

Mammals

Chapter 30

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Functions of Hair

1. Insulation

Mammals

2. Camouflage

3. Sensory devices

4. Waterproofing

5. Signaling

6. Defense

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Other Characteristics

Endothermy

Mammals

Source of body heat is internal.

Heat is produced by a high metabolic rate.Body temperature is regulated by internal

feedback mechanisms.

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Feeding and Digestion

Daily intake of

food is used to generate heat to maintain a

constant body temperature.

Mammals

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Mammals

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Trophic Categories

1. Insectivores

Mammals

2. Herbivores

3. Carnivores

4. Omnivores

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Teeth

Reveal the life habits of a mammal

Mammals

Carnivores use canines to stab and

premolars to slice and shear meat.

Incisors of insectivores are long and

curved, functioning as pincers in seizing insect prey.

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Excretion

Kidneys excrete or retain the proper

amount of water in body fluids.

Mammals

Enables mammals to live in extreme

environments

30.1 Mammalian Characteristics Chapter 30

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Respiration

 High levels of

oxygen are required to maintain a high level of metabolism.

Mammals

 Mammals are the only animals that have a diaphragm.

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Circulation

 Mammals require a consistent supply of nutrients and oxygen to maintain homeostasis.

Mammals

 Keeping oxygenated and

deoxygenated blood separate makes the delivery of nutrients and oxygen more efficient.

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The Brain and Senses

 Mammals have highly developed brains.

Mammals

 Cerebral cortex is responsible for coordinating conscious activities, memory, and the ability to learn.

 Cerebellum is responsible for balance and coordinating movement.

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Homework & Classwork

Classwork

Section Review 1 - 5

Homework

Read 34.1 & 34.2

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Section 1: Circulatory System Section 2: Respiratory System

Section 3: Excretory System

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34.1 Circulatory System

Functions of the Circulatory System

Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

1. Transports oxygen and nutrients

2. Carries disease-fighting materials produced

by the immune system

3. Contains cell fragments and proteins for

blood clotting

4. Distributes heat throughout the body to help

regulate body temperature

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Blood Vessels

Arteries

CapillariesVeins

Chapter 34

34.1 Circulatory System

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Arteries

Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Oxygen-rich blood is carried away from

the heart.

One exception!

Arteries are composed of three layers: Outer layer of connective tissue

Middle layer of smooth muscleInner layer of endothelial tissue Chapter 34

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Capillaries

Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Microscopic blood vessels where the

exchange of important substances and wastes occur

The walls are only one cell thick. Chapter 34

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Veins

Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Carry oxygen-poor blood back to the heartOne exception!

Contraction of skeletal muscles helps keep

the blood moving.

Chapter 34

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The Heart

Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood

throughout the body

Pumps oxygenated blood to the body

Pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs Chapter 34

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Structure of the Heart

Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Divided into four compartments called

chambers

The right atrium and the left atrium receive

blood returning to the heart.

The right and left ventricles pump blood away

from the heart.

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Valves separate the atria from the ventricles

and keep blood flowing in one direction.

Chapter 34

34.1 Circulatory System

A strong muscular wall separates the left side

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

How the Heart Beats

The atria fill with blood.

The atria contract, filling the ventricles

with blood.

The sinoatrial (SA) node sends out signals

that cause both atria to contract.

The signal travels to another area in the

heart called the atrioventricular node, causing both ventricles to contract.

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Pulse

The alternating expansion and relaxation of

the artery wall caused by contraction of the left ventricle

Blood Pressure

 A measure of how much pressure is exerted against the vessel walls by the blood

Chapter 34

34.1 Circulatory System

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Deoxygenated blood flows

from the right atrium into the right ventricle and is pumped into the pulmonary arteries that lead to the lungs.

 Oxygenated blood flows from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.

Chapter 34

34.1 Circulatory System

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Oxygen is released from the blood into the

body cells by diffusion, and carbon dioxide

moves from the cells to the blood by diffusion.

Chapter 34

34.1 Circulatory System

The blood moves from the left atrium into the

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Plasma

Carries glucose, fats, vitamins, minerals,

hormones, and waste products from the cells

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Red Blood Cells

Carry oxygen to all of the body’s cells Consist of an iron-containing protein

called hemoglobin

Hemoglobin chemically binds with

oxygen molecules and carries oxygen to the body’s cells.

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Platelets

Collect and stick to the vessel at the site

of the wound

Release chemicals that produce a protein

called fibrin

Fibrin is a protein that weaves a network

of fibers across the cut that traps blood platelets and red blood cells.

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

White Blood Cells

1. Recognize disease-causing organisms

2. Produce chemicals to fight the invaders

3. Surround and kill the invaders Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Blood Types

 There are four types of blood—A, B, AB, and O.

Rh Factor

 Another marker found on the surface of red blood cells

Chapter 34

34.1 Circulatory System

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

34.2 Respiratory System

Breathing and Respiration

 The respiratory system sustains cellular

respiration by supplying oxygen to body cells and removing carbon dioxide waste from cells.

 Breathing is the mechanical movement of air into and out of your lungs.

External respiration is the exchange of gases

between the atmosphere and the blood.

 Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and the body’s cells.

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

The Path of Air

 The respiratory system is made up of the nasal passages, pharynx,

larynx, epiglottis,

trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli (al VEE uh li), and the diaphragm.

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Hairlike structures called cilia trap foreign

particles from the air and sweep them toward the throat.

Filtered air then passes through the upper

throat called the pharynx.

Chapter 34

34.2 Respiratory System

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

The trachea branches into two large tubes,

called bronchi, which lead to the lungs.

Chapter 34

34.2 Respiratory System

The epiglottis allows air to pass from the

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Each bronchus branches into smaller tubes

called bronchioles.

Each of these small

tubes continues to branch into even

smaller passageways, which end in

individual air sacs called alveoli.

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Breathing

 Inhalation is the act of taking air into the lungs.

 The diaphragm contracts, causing the chest cavity to expand as the diaphragm moves down.

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

 This reduces the size of the chest cavity as the diaphragm moves up.

Chapter 34

34.2 Respiratory System

Visualizing Gas Exchange

 During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and returns to its normal resting

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Classwork & Homework

Classwork

34.1 Section Review #1-534.2 Section Review #1-4

Homework

Read 34.3

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

34.3 Excretory System

Functions of the Excretory System

1. The excretory system removes toxins and

wastes from the body.

2. Regulates the amount of fluid and salts

in the body

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

The components

that make up the excretory system include the lungs, skin, and kidneys.

Parts of the Excretory System

Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

The Kidneys

Bean shaped organs

that filter out wastes, water, and salts from the blood

Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal pelvis Chapter 34

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Nephron Filtration

Each kidney contains

approximately one million filtering units called nephrons.

 The renal artery

transports nutrients and wastes to the kidney.

Chapter 34

34.3 Excretory System

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Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Reabsorption and the Formation of Urine

 The filtrate flows through the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.

 Glucose and minerals are reabsorbed back into the capillaries surrounding the renal tubule.

 Urine, which is excess fluids and wastes, leaves the kidneys through ducts called the ureters.

 Urine is stored in the urinary bladder and exits the body through the urethra.

Chapter 34

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Classwork & Homework

Classwork

34.3 Section Review #1-5

Homework

Read 35.1

Finish Chapter 34 Study Guide

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Section 1: The Digestive System

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35.1 The Digestive System

Functions of the Digestive System

Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Chapter 35

Ingests food

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Ingestion

Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Mechanical digestion

Chemical digestionInvolves chewing

food to break it down into smaller pieces

The action of enzymes in breaking down

large molecules into smaller molecules

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Digestive and Endocrine Systems

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Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Muscular tube that

connects the pharynx, or throat, to the stomach

Esophagus

Peristalsis

 Smooth muscles contract rhythmically to move food through the digestive

system.

35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

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Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Stomach

Walls of the stomach are composed of three

overlapping layers of smooth muscle that are involved with mechanical digestion.

Environment inside the stomach is very acidic.Pepsin is an enzyme involved in the process

of the chemical digestion of proteins.

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Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Small Intestine

Smooth muscles in the wall of the small

intestine continue the process of mechanical digestion and push the food farther through the digestive tract by peristalsis.

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Pancreas

Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Liver

Gallbladder

The completion of chemical digestion in the

small intestine depends on

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Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Pancreas

Produces enzymes

that digest

carbohydrates,

proteins, and fats

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Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Liver

Produces bile, which

helps to break down fats

Gallbladder

Stores excess bile

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Digestive and Endocrine Systems

 Food nutrients are absorbed from the small intestine into the bloodstream through fingerlike structures

called villi.

Villi increase the surface area of the small intestine.

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Digestive and Endocrine Systems

Large Intestine

A primary function of the colon is to absorb

water from the chyme.

Peristalsis moves feces toward the rectum. 35.1 The Digestive System

Chapter 35

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Classwork & Homework

Classwork

Section Review 35.1 # 1 - 4

Homework

Finish Study Guide Packet

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Final Chapter Assessment!

30.1

Page 901 #1-9

34.1, 34.2 & 34.3

Pages 1013 – 1015

# 1-10, 14-22, 26-33, 35

35.1

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