234836576 Introduction to PAUT

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What is Phased Array

Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection is the computer controlled triggering of individual element in a multi element probe. The PA probe consists of many small ultrasonic elements, each of which can be pulsed independently.

In conventional UT, a single piezoelectric element converts an electrical signal into a mechanical vibration.

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What is Phased Array

A Phased Array probe is a long conventional probe cut into

many small elements, which are individually excited.

All elements can be triggered individualy

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What is Phased Array

It is like having many small conventional UT

probes integrated inside a single probe.

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How Does Phased Array Work?

Ultrasonic phased arrays

consist of a series of individual elements, each with its own connector, time delay circuit.

Elements are acoustically

insulated from each other.

Elements are pulsed in

groups with precalculated time delays for each element (i.e., “phasing”).

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How Does Phased Array Work?

By Applying Delay we can achieve

Beam Steering Beam Focusing

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How Does Phased Array Work?

Beam Steering

Provides the capability to modify the refracted angle

of the beam generated by the array probe.

Allows for multiple angle inspections, using a single

probe. Conventional UT

(angle beam probe)

Phased Array

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How Does Phased Array Work?

Beam Focusing

Provides the capability to converge the acoustic

energy onto a small focal spot.

Allows for focusing at several depths, using a single

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How Does Phased Array Work?

Beam Steering + Focusing

By combining both steering and focusing focal laws

(delay applied to each element is in green), the focal point can be angled.

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How Does Phased Array Work?

Using a single group of elements, on the same probe,

different beam configurations can be performed:

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Phased Array Scanning Type

The movement of the

acoustic beam is along the axis of the array, without any mechanical movement.

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Phased Array Scanning Type

The ability to scan a

complete sector of volume

without any probe

movement.

Useful for inspection of

complex geometries, or geometries with space restrictions.

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Advantages of Phased Array

Faster Inspection. Reliable.

Improved inspection capabilities through software control

of beam characteristics

 Technique sheet development based on job configuration.  Inspection with multiple angles with single, electronically

controlled probe

 No Radiation Hazard.

Permanent record of scanning data.

 Software generated report with indication details.

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Phased Array Data Views

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A Scan

B Scan

C Scan

S Scan

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Phased Array Data Views

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A display in which the

received pulse amplitude

is represented as a

displacement along one axis (usually the y-axis) and the travel time of the

ultrasonic pulse is

represented as a

displacement along the other axis (usually the x-axis)

Sound Travel Time Axis

A mplit ud e A xi s

A Scan

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Phased Array Data Views

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The B-scan presentations is a profile (cross-sectional)

view of the test specimen

` Scan Axis Depth A x is Scan Axis Depth A x is

B Scan

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Phased Array Data Views

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A two dimensional presentation of data displayed as

a top or planar view of a test piece.

S c a n A x is

C Scan

Ultrasound Axis PA Probe

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Phased Array Data Views

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Sectorial scan view is

unique to phased array equipment. In a linear scan, all focal laws employed a fixed angle

with sequencing

apertures. Sectorial

scans, on the other

hand, use fixed

apertures and steer

through a sequence of angles.

S Scan

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Phased Array Probes

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Element arrangement of Phased Array probes

1D Linear- This is the most commonly used array

plan in both straight beam and angle beam inspections. Easily manufactured and mounted on wedges, focuses in one axis at different depths and angles.

2D Square- Steering capability in three dimensions, spherical or single-axis focus.

1.5D Square- Excellent steering capability, focuses

in one axis at different depths and angles

1D Annular- Spherical focusing at different depths

2D Annular- Elliptical or spherical beam with steering capability at different depths and angles.  1D Circular- Elliptical or spherical beam with

steering capability at different depths, typically used for curved targets

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Scanning

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Scanning will be carried out with the help of suitable

Probes, Scanner & Inspection unit.

Weld Inspection by using Omniscan MX2 & HSMT Compact Scanner

Corrosion mapping using Omniscan MX2 & Glider Scanner

Thin wall tube inspection by using Omniscan MX & Cobra Scanner

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Analysis

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Scanned data will be analyzed by PC based software

The images mentioned above are captured from Tomoview software.

TomoView is a PC-based software developed by Olympus used for design, data acquisition, and analysis of ultrasonic signals.

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Reporting

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Phased Array Equipment

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Omniscan MX2

Manufacturer- Olympus, Canada

Phasor XS

Manufacturer- GE, USA

Isonic

Manufacturer- Sonotron NDT, Israel

SUPOR

Manufacturer- SIUI, China

TOPAZ

Manufacturer- ZETEC, China

TD FOCUS SCAN

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WeldRover

Manufacturer- Olympus, Canada

Scanners  Can be operated from 6” OD to flat surface.

 Automatic movement.

 Laser guide to maintain proper index.  Can hold maximum 6 probes at a time.  Strong Magnetic wheels.

HSMT

Manufacturer- Olympus, Canada

 Can be operated from 4.5” OD to flat surface.  Manual movement.

 Can hold maximum 8 probes at a time.  Magnetic wheels.

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Cobra Scanner

Manufacturer- Olympus, Canada

Scanners  Can be operated from 0.84” OD to 4.5” OD

 Manual movement.

 Can hold maximum 2 probes at a time.  Spring loaded design to hold onto carbon

steel and stainless steel pipes

 Can be configured to make one-sided

inspections with only one probe.

 Clearance -12mm

Magman

Manufacturer- Phoenix, UK

 Can be operated from 1.5” OD to flat surface.  Manual movement.

 Can hold maximum 12 probes at a time.  Magnetic wheels.

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Scanners  Can be operated from 0.5” OD to 4” OD  Manual movement.

 Can hold maximum 2 probes at a time.  Designed to hold onto carbon steel and

stainless steel pipes

 Can be configured to make one-sided

inspections with only one probe.

 Clearance -13mm

Bracelet

Figure

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References

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