Subject: Technical English -I Module 1:Grammar Parts of Speech

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Subject: Technical English -I

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TECHNICAL ENGLISH

-

I

Topics to be covered in Topic 3

Grammar: Basic English Grammar and

Parts of speech

Nouns,

Pronouns,

Adjectives

Verbs

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There are mainly eight parts of speech, which are

listed below

:

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 NOUN

• A noun is a naming word. A noun is the name of a

person

,

place

, thing

or

idea

.

Examples of nouns: Daniel, London, table, dog,

teacher, pen, city, happiness, hope.

Mary

uses

pen

and

paper

to write

letters

.

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PROPER NOUN

:

The noun which is used to name a specific

person,

place or

thing

.

Proper noun begins with a capital letter.

• Examples of pronoun:

They like Anthony.

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Common Noun:

Common nouns are used to name a

• general type of person

,

place

or

thing.

• Examples of common nouns: girl, city,

animal, friend, house, food.

His friend accompanies him.

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Material Noun:

It is the name of

substances

or

materials.

Example of material noun: water, iron, steel, sugar, wood.

Protein is critical for energy.

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Collective Noun

:

It is the name given to a

group

or

a class

.

Examples of collective noun: mob, nation, people

.

Everyone in the audience applauded loudly

when Elvis appeared on stage.

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Concrete Noun

:

It is the name of things that could be experienced through the

five senses, such as sight,

smell, hearing, taste, and touch, that

we have.

Example of concrete nouns: sunrise, fragrance, sweet, rain.

Would someone please answer the phone?

In the sentence above, the noun phone is a concrete noun:

you can touch it, see it, hear it, and maybe even smell it or

taste it.

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Abstract Noun:

• It is usually the name of a

quality

,

action

, or

state

considered apart from the object .

EXAMPLES OF ABSTRACT NOUNS

Honesty is a best policy.

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PRONOUN

A pronoun is a word that

replaces a noun

in a

sentence.

Example of pronoun:

-Rohan is my friend. Rohan is very intelligent.

Rohan is my friend. He is very intelligent.

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Personal pronoun

Personal pronouns are used in place of the

subject

or

object

of the sentence. Personal pronoun describes the

-

The first person (I, me , we, us).

- The Second person (

you

).

- The third person or thing spoken about (he, she,

it, they, hi, her, them).

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Possessive Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns are those pronouns that indicate

Possession

or

Relationship

.

• Example of possessive pronoun:

The house is theirs and its paint is flaking.

Here, the possessive pronoun is theirs.

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Demonstrative Pronoun

• Pronouns that point to specific things:

this,

that,

these

, and

those

.

Examples of demonstrative pronoun:

This is an apple.

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Relative Pronoun

• Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses. The

most common relative pronouns are

who,

whom

,

whose,

which

.

• Example of relative pronoun:

The cyclist who won the race trained hard.

Here, the relative pronoun is who.

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Interrogative Pronoun

• We use interrogative pronouns to ask questions.

They are:

who, which,

whom

, what

and

whose

.

These are also known as wh-words.

• Examples of interrogative pronoun:

Who called last night?

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Reflexive Pronoun

.

• Reflexive pronouns end in

-self

or

-selves

. They

refer back to the subject forms of personal

pronouns.

• Example of reflexive pronoun:

We didn’t decorate it ourselves. Someone else

did it for us.

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Adjective

• Words that

describe a noun

are called adjectives.

Examples of adjectives:

-Since it’s a hot day, Lisa is wearing a sleeveless.

-They live in a big, beautiful house.

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Types of adjectives

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Adjective of Quality

• Words such as

majestic,

amazing

,

splendid

,

magnificent

,

marvellous,

enormous

, and

impressive

give us information about the quality of the noun.

They are called adjectives of quality.

• Examples:

I took some notebooks. (here some represents the

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Demonstrative adjective

• A demonstrative adjective directly refers to

something

or

someone

. Demonstrative adjectives include the words: this,

that, these, those.

• Example of demonstrative adjective:

That building is so gorgeously decorated.

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Interrogative adjectives

• An interrogative adjective

asks a question

. An

interrogative adjective must be followed by a

noun or a pronoun. The interrogative adjectives

are: which, what, whose.

• Example:

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Possessive Adjective

• A possessive adjective indicates possession or

ownership. It suggests the belongingness of

something to someone/something.

• Examples of Possessive adjective:

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VERBS

• A verb is a

word

or a combination of words that

indicates

action

or

a state of being

or

condition

. A

verb is the part of a

sentence

that tells us what the

subject performs.

• Examples:

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Transitive verb

• A transitive verb has two characteristics.

-First, It is an action verb, expressing activity like

kick

,

want

,

paint

, etc. Second, It must have a direct object ,something or

someone who receives the action of the verb.

• Example:

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Intransitive verb

An intransitive verb has two characteristics.

- First, it is an action verb, expressing a doable activity like

arrive

, go,

lie

,

sneeze

,

sit

,

die

, etc.

-Second, unlike a transitive verb, it will not have a direct object receiving

the action.

• Example:

The crowd demonstrated outside the theatre.

(In this example, demonstrated is an intransitive verb. However, to

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