Classical Music in Film

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Classical Music

in Film

A critical study to the extent classical music

influences the scores in cinema

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Music and drama have shared a close relationship ever since the days of the Greeks, so it seemed absolutely fitting that throughout history as silent film was developed, music would be used as an accompaniment to the action on screen.1 A live orchestra or pianist, who would play along with the films, typically accompanied silent films. They were considered absolutely essential to creating the atmosphere and giving the audience vital emotional cues, as they had nothing to go off other than the visuals, which wasn‟t able to appeal to all the senses. Eisler assumes that films would have a “ghostly effect” on it‟s viewers, suggesting that until music is introduced, characters are simply ghosts with an empty and boring story line. 2

Initially, early cinema was accompanied by Western classical music 3. Due to it‟s intricate writing, classical music was able to express a variety of emotions. Eventually, famous pieces were dismembered and so over-used, they weren‟t taken seriously as part of the classical music culture. Mendelssohn and Wagner‟s Wedding marches were used for marriages, fights between partners and separations, played in a different key to change their moods. Chorales of Bach became an adagio lamenteso for sad scenes. Pieces from Tchaikovsky‟s Nutcracker was associated with Christmas. Beethoven‟s 5th Symphony, Tchaikovsky‟s 1812 Overture, Wagner‟s Ride of the Valkyries, Carmina Burana by Orff and Strauss‟s Also Sprach Zarathustra became powerful, scary, rousing and climatic pieces.4 To this day, we still associate certain famous pieces with emotions, for example, when you hear William Tell, one would instantly think of galloping horses, and vice-versa. (Track 1) As movies became more and more popular, the attraction to such famous pieces grew. As these huge pieces became famous, they became „light classical‟ 5

as even those with no classical music training would enjoy such music, despite preferring the likes of popular music consisting of a band with singers.

1

Predergast, Roy M (1995). Film Music - A Neglected Art. 1st ed. : Norton and Company

2Adorno, Theodor W & Eisler, Hanns (1947). Composing for the Films. 1st ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

3For a musicologist, the word Classical is defined more narrowly, referring to the period music between the Baroque Period and the

Romantic period during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries by composers such as Beethoven, Haydn and Mozart. However, for the purpose of this discussion, I will be using the term classical music to refer to „serious‟ or „highbrow‟ music. This is also discussed further in the Critical study Over tones and Undertones Royal S. Brown, (1994). 'Actions/Interactions: "Classical" Music'. In: Bernard Herrmann, Miklós Rósza, Henry Mancini, Rick Altman (ed), Overtones and Undertones: Reading Film Music. 1st ed. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp.38-48.

4Kickass Classical (2012). Top Classical Music. [ONLINE] Available at:

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Eventually, directors began to employ composers to begin creating music specific to the film. Composers, to this day still draw on ideas and concepts from existing composers and on occasions, take pieces of existing famous pieces and appropriate them to their own score. A famous example is John Williams‟ Imperial March from Star Wars, (track 2) which took phrases and ideas from Chopin‟s “Marche Funérbre” (track 3) and “Mars, the Bringer of War” (track 4) part of Holst‟s Planets Symphony. The texture‟s, tone colours and style being identical between Holst‟s piece and Williams‟ (Figure 1), while he also uses similar rhythm and motions to Chopin‟s March (Figure 2). 5 6

Eventually, directors would seek specifically developed scores, which would have an effective impact on their audience. They were then able to define and set specific scenes, set characters and describe the actions with use of classical music techniques. However, there is an extremely fine line between what we would consider classical music and popular culture music. The difference can be simply seen in the complexities of the music through its intricate structure through notes, instruments and ideas seen in classical pieces, which are then also reflected within the complex film score structures. 7 8

Figure 1

Figure 2

5Paulis, Irena, (2000). Williams verses Wagner or an attempt at linking musical epics. International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music. 1 (2), pp.31

6Lincoln, Danae. A, (2011). The art and Craft of John Williams. An Abstract Thesis Of. 1 (1), pp.51 7

Aucouturier, Jean-Julien & Pachet, François , (2003). Representing Musical Genre: A State of the Art. Journal of Music Research. 32 (1), pp.10

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Due to the popularity of using classical music in films and the extraordinary effect it was able to have on the viewers, composers need to mimic the classical techniques of the famous composers to suit the film, to set the scene and create the subliminal emotional impact on the audience.9 Classical music can therefore be used to underline or create psychological refinements in film composition. Each movie consists of very particular characteristic, including personalities, moods, genre and time period and needed music to suit. As it has been for hundreds of years, classical music has effectively provoked and described emotions, and has therefore, been utilized to inspire many film scores.

Anna Karenina 1997 – Using classical music

The 1997 Anna Karenina film uses suitable Russian pieces9 as the films soundtrack. The director Bernard Rose liaised with famous conductor Sir George Solti10 to decide on using famous classical pieces from Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev and most importantly, the works of Tchaikovsky.11

Through the film, exact extracts are taken from Tchaikovsky‟s 6th

Symphony, "Pathétique" and scattered through various scenes. This Symphony was premiered a mere nine days before the death of the composer, a reference which will foreshadow the downfall and death of Anna Karenina herself. The Symphony goes through a series of different moods, showcased in four movements, which was suggested as an autobiographical program.12 The title was suggested by his brother as it suggested “impassioned suffering”13 written in a narrative of Tchaikovsky‟s life expressing different moods. This is a close parallel to the story of Anna Karenina, who will too experience this suffering.

9Dorricott, Ian & Allan, Bernice, (1998). Exploring Film Music. 1st ed. Austraia: McGraw-Hill Book company Australia . 10 Original Soundtrack Leo Tolstoys Anna Karenina [CD] (1997) Featuring Sir George Solti. 27, 1996 - May 2, 1996. St Petersburg

Philharmonic Orchestra + St Petersburg Chamber Orchestra

11 The Composers Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev and Tchaikovsky are three famous Russian composers showcasing a very particular style. It is

important to note this, as Russian Leo Tolstoy‟s original novel is set in Russia. In portraying the novel in film, its important that the Russian characteristics are kept.

12 Jackson, Timothy L. (1999). Tchaikovsky: Symphony No. 6 (Pathétique). 1st ed. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. 13

May, Thomas. Symphony No. 6, "Pathétique". [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.laphil.com/philpedia/music/symphony-no-6-pathetique-peter-ilyich-tchaikovsky. [Last Accessed 29th May 2013]

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Track number three of the soundtrack “Vronsky Follows Anna to St. Petersburg” uses a theme from the 1st movement, showcasing extreme Romanticism. Tchaikovsky would have written this movement in extreme passion and devotion, a happier beginning. This scene is an important beginning to the relationship. Vronsky has followed Anna, although it is forbidden for him to do so. A passage of extreme emotion must be used to describe this. (Figure 3, approx. 4:30 in track 5)

The phrase taken (Figure 3) is tremendously transcending and gives an infinite feeling. The passage of the violins holding the melody is extremely rich and full. This is primary due to the perfect use tone colour, where the violins play an expressive melody with the cellos plays the melody in a lower octave, creating space which the viola‟s fill by playing a counter melody.

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It‟s important to note the style in which Tchaikovsky instructs to play the phrase with intensity and passion, instructing to play tenderly (teneramente), with emphasising a singing style (molto

cantabile) and expanding (con espansione) the phrases. All the strings are muted (con sordini)

so the sound appears to grow out of the initial discord, as if appearing from nothing.14 The sound is softer and more lyrical and flowing. (Figure 4 – Continued from Approx. 4:45 – 6:30)

The horns are extremely important, as they establish a major tonality, making the passage sound positive and enlightening. They play accompanying chords put most of the passages into relative key D major instead of its usual relative B minor allowing a brilliant sound for the violins which begin to start sounding triumphant instead of upsetting.

The phrases played by the strings are very legato, which also aids in keeping the smoothness of the contours each phrase is consisted of, which steps consist of mainly a tone or small

Figure 4

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arpeggios. Note that the phrases are important as they swell in crescendo to a full sound in forte leading towards the top note and decrescendo out of the phrase as the melody moves down.

This section (figure 5) is continuously used through the film in such romantic moments. It describes both Anna and Vronsky as both a couple and as individuals, portraying them both as Romantics and explains their thirst for passion and emotion. The climaxing melody then leads into a new section.

The section picks up in tempo, and becomes more playful, where the previous melody mas very intense. The flute taking the melody introduces a new and exciting tone colour. (Approx. 6:30 Track 5) Anna has met Keranin at the station, along with her lover, which is slightly nervous but cheeky. Now the key has been moved completely into D major.

To achieve the cheekiness, this phrase is used because the flutes run up the scale in triplets, and then fall down, in long notes played in tenuto. The flute 1 part and flute 2 part begin to dove tail each other as both run up and crescendo and fall down and decrescendo simultaneously. (Figure 5) Like the previous section, phrases grow with excitement as they climax and is finished by a huge jump of intervals from c to high f which slowly dies down as notes descend. To describe the intense relationship between Anna and Vronsky, a strong and penetrating section of music was needed to portray the intense love affair. Due to the narrative

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characteristics of the 6th Symphony, a section in the first movement could be used due to its full and daunting sound. (Figure 6, Track 6)

The relationship is very risky and towards the end of the film, grows tension. The matching pieces of music is conveniently very dramatic. The whole orchestra is employed to become part of the section, making it sound quite chaotic. The section fast, in allegro and starts off big playing is subito forte as an addition to the syncopated and accented rhythm, shown above in the violin part (however appears in all parts) are exciting, but terrifying at the same time.

The rapidly ascending notes as demonstrated (figure 7 Track 6) played by violins and violas over the tremolo of the cello and double bass add to tension and give a foreboding sense, which is important due to the films story line which ends in tragedy, like the extreme climax of the section. Chromaticism climbing up the scales begins to sound almost terrifying, and when it‟s added to a thicker texture with instruments in all registers, the music becomes dissonant and not an easy listen. The flutes playing the flourishes (Figure 8) over the melody have a strong minor grounding which too, occasionally become dissonant. The climbing notes lead up to quick semi

Figure 6

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quavers played in extremely high octaves, with the horns playing a chordal melody, adding to even more dissonance. However, the haunting and anxious section is extremely enjoyable to listen to, due to its adrenaline, parallel to the enjoyment of the forbidden relationship.

Arnold Shoenbern suggests that Tchaikovsky‟s symphony “starts with a cry and ends with a moan” 8

The last movement is an extremely sad movement, showcasing emotive and very depressing music. “Anna‟s Tragic End” comes from the final movement, as appropriately, her sadness is too much and takes her own life, after desperately crying for help. (Figure 9 + Figure 10 Approx. 3:20 Track 7)

The section is written for the Clarinets to play with expression (con espressione) and violins to play with gentleness and devotion (con lenezza e devozione). There is no vibrance, and tones become very mellow and the long crotchet notes as shown below (Figure 11) have the ability to echo due to the slow characteristic of the section. It‟s both easy and difficult to listen to, easy

Figure 8

Figure 9

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because the notes are smooth and long, but difficult, because the minor key contributes to it sounding like a painful cry.

The dance scene is an extremely important part of the film, where the vibrancy of the score initiates a passionate waltz and describes the events of Anna initially rejecting Vronsky, Kitty‟s jealousy of Anna and a turbulent dance between Anna and Vronsky. Tchaikovsky‟s Ballet “Swan Lake” ends in tragedy just as the novel does, but begins passionately and joyfully. The famous Waltz from Swan Lake is written in typical Waltz style, and initiates a fervent encounter between Vronsky and Anna. The time signature ¾ is an instant, and discrete alert to the audience that this is a waltz scene. The Horns and Bass strings keep the “oom pah – pah” Dance feeling. (Figure 12 – Track 8)15

Figure 11

Figure 12

15 Te, Adoramus, et al. "Index of Choruses Suggested." What We Hear in Music: A Laboratory Course of Study in Music History and

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On the music, the cello and bass (bottom two staves) play the “oom” while horns at the top stave play the “pah – pah” They allow the violins to play a rich melody over the instruments keeping the dance pulse.

The Waltz begins with a light, and feminine texture, with the violin playing a melody which is consists of smooth contoured phrases. The rhythm is kept constant, the dotted crotchet leading onto a semi quaver leads beautifully onto the minim and crotchet on the violins first played on the d string, then on the a string moving the piece in an upwards motion. It swirls around as the dancers swirl around. Over the top, the flutes and clarinets add pretty embellishments to the melody in a higher range. Below demonstrates how the Flutes play three notes and are completed by the clarinets over the melody played by violin and doubled by the bass. (Figure 13)

The waltz then moves into a thrilling climax (Figure 14) and gets enormously exciting with a change to the melody moving to the higher register on the violin, which continues to play the melody due to its vibrant sound and perfectly matches the pivotal scene. The accented dotted crotchets and quavers are played in quick succession becoming lively and bouncy which

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accompany the dancers moving around. The passage is repeated twice, the second time being even more exciting with greater dynamic changes. The Melody moves upwards to climax the section. (Figure 15 – Approx. 0:45)

This excerpt is the perfect accompaniment to Anna and Vronsky‟s passionate encounter. The slower moving sections, we watch Kitty ducking through the crowds, in jealousy of Anna and Vronsky‟s passionate dance whom at this point, are beginning to connect on another level.

Anna Karenina 2012 – Adapting existing classical music

The Anna Karenina 2012 Film brings music from Dario Marianelli, by now an expert in writing music for period films. Instead of the 1997 Film version, Marianelli composes an original score for the film, taking ideas and concepts from Tchaikovsky‟s music to create authentic music to set the scene and describe the mood. In doing so, he writes in a classical Figure 14

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style, drawing on classical elements of music. Director Joe Write decided to set the film in a theatrical settinggiving it a ballet type vibe Due to the nature of the film, Marianelli needed to compose many of the pieces prior to filming, as it was such a core part of the choreography and screenplay. 16

“Kitty‟s Debut” and “Dance with me” are used in the Ballroom scene, where in the 1997 film, Tchaikovsky‟s waltz from Swan Lake is used. Both show a resemblance to Tchaikovsky‟s piece and sound very similar, why? Notice in the excerpts bellow (Figure 16 Track 9) the patterns of the notes both rhythmically and note wise in “Kitty‟s Debut”

The use of a dotted crotchet leads and falls onto the semiquaver. Each „phrase‟ is grouped in a slur and follows a smooth, contour which is extremely legato. The melody is played by the violins, the wood wind players and bass strings keep the waltz pulse in the same way the Waltz from Swan Lake does by alternating the “oom- pah –pah” crotchets. (Figure 16) Also look at the melody from Tchaikovsky‟s waltz. (Figure 17 Track 8)

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Marianelli in his interviews speaks about how important his score was in setting up much of the film. He needed to work closely with the choreographer and with the director to produce the score before filming and continued to change it during the filming process. His score therefore became extremely important in setting up most of the action and in many cases, contributed to the emotional setting of the film. See further in his two interviews on the score. Scritto da Maurizio Caschetto (13th March 2012). Explorer of notes: Dario Marianelli and "Anna Karenina". [ONLINE] Available at:

http://www.colonnesonore.net/contenuti-speciali/interviste/2554-explorer-of-notes-dario-marianelli-and-qanna-kareninaq.html. [Last Accessed 8 June 2013].

Figure 16

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When Anna accepts Vronsky‟s invitation to dance, the melody makes a striking return, now clarifying the association between the music and Anna‟s love. In a true Tchaikovsky fashion, the instrument holding the melody is swapped around. To begin, the clarinet opens the waltz starting on B flat (Figure 18 Track 10) until the flutes join in playing a high harmony starting on G, (Figure 19) this is reflective of Tchaikovsky‟s beginning theme which the violins move up an octave (Figure 20). Then the background lighting darkens and a spotlight shines on Anna and Vronsky to emphasize their new-found love, the scoring of the theme thins out (Approx. 1:10 Track 10) and we hear a solo violin play the melody (Aprox 2:00 Track 10) a traditional symbol of romantic yearning in film scores.18 Because of the pivotal role this dance plays in Anna‟s Wife, her love theme generally retains its waltz-like three-beat measures throughout the film. It is also always heard in a minor key to denote the tragic part Anna‟s love plays in her life. These are important as in both circumstances, it keeps the piece moving upwards and towards a climax in the dance.

Figure 18

Figure 19

Figure 20

18Richards, Mark (2013). Oscar Nominees 2013: Dario Marianelli’s Score for Anna Karenina. [ONLINE] Available at:

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The below excerpt show a rich and full textured melody where the violins play in sul g with flutes playing light flourishes over the top. (Figure 21 Approx. 0:30 Track 10) The excerpt following that shows Tchaikovsky‟s melody which is used towards the end, too played by violins on sul g, a classical technique requiring violins to play all the following notes on the G-string. (Figure 22 Approx 5:00 Track 8). It‟s very powerful, filling and extremely resonant.

Both composers continue to rely on the leaning notes which as previously used, uses the syncopation method of dotted crotchets, quavers and this time dotted minims, which lengthen phrases even more. (Figure 21 + Figure 22)

The last part of Marianelli‟s piece is extremely climatic and chaotic, could this be a reflection of the classical piece “Anna and Vronsky” in the 1997 film? This extract is extremely dissonant

Figure 21

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and as already mentioned, it is terrifying yet exciting. Like the part from the 6th Symphony‟s 1st Movement, (Figure 6 + Figure 7 + Figure 8 -Track 6) and from Tchaikovsky‟s Waltz (Approx 2:15 Track 8)19 this section is extremely polyphonic and contrapuntal, moving in a contrary motion with the normal flowing melodic motif played on the smooth woodwind players, now being surrounded by dissonant chords played in higher octaves by violins. (Figure 23 – Approx 2:45 Track 10) They too, grow in a chromatic scale in forte and constantly crescendoing, according to Deryk Cooke20 creates extreme tension, which describes the intense relationship. It describes a forbidden, yet thrilling relationship, exciting to listen to.

Most importantly, Marianelli needed to open the film with something extremely Russian. He takes the exact melody from Tchaikovsky‟s last movement in his 4th

Symphony and uses the flute to add running flourishes in different rhythmic patterns. Note the melody in first Tchaikovsky‟s symphony, (Figure 24 Start and Approx. 1:35 Track 12) then in Marianelli‟s “Overture” (Figure 25 Track 11)

Figure 23

19Rosenbloom, Etan (2012). Dario Marianelli on Anna Karenina. [ONLINE] Available at:

http://www.ascap.com/playback/2012/11/wecreatemusic/fmf-dario-marianelli-on-anna-karenina.aspx. [Last Accessed 18 July 2013].

20 this original study argues that the main characteristic of music is that it expresses and evokes emotion, and that all composers whose music has a tonal basis

have used the same, or closely similar, melodic phrases, harmonies, and rhythms to affect the listener in the same ways. He supports this view with hundreds of musical examples, ranging from plainsong to Stravinsky, and contends that music is a language in the specific sense that we can identify idioms and draw up a list of meanings. Deryck Cooke, (1959). The Language of Music. 1st ed. Oxford University Press: .

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Also note the flourishes in “Vronsky follows Anna to Petersburg” (figure 26) which are used in a similar way to Marianelli in “Overture” (figure 24) Which in a similar fashion, rise and fall in quick and smooth successions using semi quavers and triplets. This helps in setting the Russian context. It is clear how complex this music is, reflecting the great sophisticated works of classical composers.

To achieve the intensity, its obvious how important the classical techniques are to achieve an atmosphere and describe the character and pivotal moments in the film.

Figure 24

Figure 25

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Lord of the Rings – Writing in a Classical style

In the Lord of The Rings score composed by Howard Shore, even the untrained music listener cannot fail to be over whelmed by the powerful music. The film offers over 200 musical cues (per film), which all have very small gaps between each „piece‟.21

Just looking at the Lord of The Rings, ones overall impression is very much that of an ongoing opera overture, that has a similar uninterrupted flow of Wagner‟s opera‟s. Moreover, the score‟s musical structure depends on the dramatic structure, with one of the fundamental elements of this musical structure being the leitmotif. A leitmotif is a musical motif, often a brief excerpt that over the course of a music drama, comes to be associated with a character, a place, a situation, or a thing. The motif then undergoes variations and modifications determined by the dramatic settings in which it appears. 22

Oddly enough, Tolkiens Trilogy follows quite closely to the Wagner‟s Ring Cycle opera “Der Ring des Nibelungen”. Howard Shore therefore pulls onto ideas from the classical work to describe a similar conflict, similar characters, and a similar setting.23 There are often certain pieces of Wagners opera which sound similar to certain themes in Shores score. Shore considered his score to be a “single, coherent, dramatic work – an opera” By looking at certain leitmotifs from some selected pieces from the films soundtrack and by looking at the leitmotifs and pieces from Wagners Ring Cycle, we can see far classical music has influenced one of the most effective and popular scores of all time.

The Ring Leitmotif (Figure 27 Track 13) if first used in an explanation to the history of the ring. The historical account ends with the ring‟s unexpected possession by a Hobbit and

21 The running time for the theatrical releases of each of the first two films is about 178 minutes with 150 minutes of music in the first film and 160

minutes in the second, which equates to over eighty percent of each film. Shore has composed well over 10 hours of music, which in extended DVD versions, totals over 11 hours of music.

22 Royal S. Brown, (1994). 'Style and Interactions'. In: Bernard Herrmann, Miklós Rósza, Henry Mancini, Rick Altman (ed), Overtones and Undertones: Reading Film Music. 1st ed. : University of California Press. pp.5-96.

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uncertainty about what will happen next. This suspense is represented musically as the Prologue ends with a sustained E-flat minor chord which progresses to E – Flat Major in the next section.

In Wagner‟s Ring Leitmotif (figure 28) we‟d find the E minor key, where the middle voice outlines a minor scale first going down then back up. If we look at Deryck Cooke‟s famous criticisms10 we‟d agree that it suggests an ongoing feeling of pain and suspense.

Repetition and variation of melodic material help a leitmotivic score achieve coherency. Recurring leitmotifs are especially valuable in epic works which compromise numerous character and narrative elements such as in Wagner‟s work, which is then reflective in Shore‟s. He uses this technique most clearly in his varied treatment of the Fellowship leitmotif, (figure 28, Track 14) which appears frequently throughout all here films and serves structurally to identify connections between characters and to signify travel and action. Always played in a major tonality, it is a motivational leitmotif and signifies the movement of the fellowship. After its initial statement in the formation of the fellowship where its played by horns and strings dove tailing through the melody, played in legato and at a relatively slow tempo in a soothing and relaxing way. In a march, as the fellowship leave on their journey, only the brass players play the melody, accompanied by a strong timpani roll which makes the motif sound triumphant. During a horse ride, the bass brass players play the melody, accompanied by fast moving timpani, tremolo on strings and the clashing cymbols, becoming urgent and threatening. Using written and well explained expressive techniques such as legato,

Figure 27

Page 4 Carter the period of Romantic music (roughly 1825-1914) which was subsequently perfected by Wagner and Mahler.

Finally, it is interesting to note that dur ing Wagner’s lifetime there were a set of key characteristics given to all the major and minor keys put together by Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart (1739-1791) in his book Ideen zu einer Ästhetik der Tonkunst. These key characteristics were well known to the majority of composers of the day.5 Undoubtedly, Wagner was included in that group. It is difficult to say whether Wagner used ideas from Schubart or his own. However, a good case can be made that Wagner was influenced by Schubart’s ideas.

With the foundation in Cooke’s ideas regarding musical expression in hand, we can turn to the leitmotifs of Richard Wagner’s Der Ring des Niblungen. The first motive I would like to explore is the one associated with the Ring itself.6

Example 1 – The Ring motive

In Example 1 we find the definitive version of the Ring motive. It takes place in the key of E minor, and essentially outlines a vii°7 chord, which is made up entirely of intervals of a minor third. For this I would use both Cooke’s terms #3 and #6 to analyze this passage7, because the middle voice is outlining a minor scale first going down and then back up. When we look at Cooke’s meanings we can’t help but agree with the

5

Rita Steblin. A History of Key Characteristics in the Eighteenth and Ear ly Nineteenth Centuries (Ann Arbor, MI, UMI Research Press, 1983). pp. 74.

6

All musical examples are taken from the following source:

John Weinstock, http://www.utexas.edu/courses/wagner/home.html (Accessed: [12/4/02]).

7

See Appendix A for more details.

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expressiano, lamentoso, classical music relys on these huge variety of marked stylistic sugestions to create a full work of art, able to develop an intense piece of work to accompany intense works of film.

Howard Shore‟s uses a classical orchestra of epic proportions including a large choir to add to the variety of tone colours. Although, pushing boundaries, his orchestra is reflective of Wagner‟s massive orchestra, which has also pushed orchestral boundaries, consisting of over

- Woodwinds:

 3 flautists doubling on alto flutes, piccolo, irish whistles and flutes

 3 oboes (Doubling on English horn)

 3 Clarinets (Doubling on Bass Clarinet)

 3 Bassoons (Doubling on Bass Bassoon) - Brass:

 5 Horns in F

 4 Trumpets in B-Flat (piston and rotary valve)

 3 Trombones

 3 Tubas - Percussion

 3 Timpani‟s

 Chimes

 Tamtams (Medium and Large)

 5 Suspended gongs  Cymbals  Snare Drum  2 Bodhráns  3 Taiko drums  Marimba

 Piano (Double on celesta) - Strings  3 harps  16 Violins I  16 Violins II  12 Violas  10 Cello‟s  8 Double Basses - Choir

- Ethnic and exotic instruments: fiddle, double fiddle, anvil, accordion, celtic harp, mandolin,

- Woodwinds:  3 flutes  2 Piccolos  3 oboes  English Horn  3 Clarinets  2 Bass Clarinets  3 Bassoons - Brass:  8 Horns in F  3 Trumpets in B-Flat  4 Trombones  4 Tubas - Percussion  2 Timpani‟s

 Tamtams (Medium and Large)

 Cymbals  Glockenspiel  Snare Drum  Triangle - Strings  6 harps  16 Violins I  16 Violins II  12 Violas  10 Cello‟s  8 Double Basses - Choir Figure 28

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100 instruments. 24 25 26

Shore composes for a variety of instruments, giving melodies to a variety of instruments, which often all play simultaneously. Instead of writing melodies typically played primarily by the string section, importance of brass players is highlighted, playing more of the core song, rather than just accompaniment to other solo instruments. Wagner‟s love for writing complex brass parts (figure 29) is also shown in Shores score. Unlike popular culture music, composers must use overwhelmingly coloristic tone colours to create an atmosphere of time and place. However, both the Composers stay within the classical music elements by writing music for classical instruments and using the instruments in conventional ways. To achieve the full effect of setting the scene, Shore also uses classical ethnic exotic instruments to set the fantasy scene, inspired by Irish and Scottish folk music tone colours. Automatically, one can listen to the wood whistle in the hobbits theme and instantly associate it with a folk story. (Track15)

24Der Ring des Nibelungen (Fledermaus1990) (2011), Der Ring des Nibelungen video, YouTube, 15 February viewed 11 January 2010

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-HujjNQPv2U

25 Lord of the Rings Symphony Full Length (Gilthoniel1337) 2011 Lord of the Rings Video 10th May 2013

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybZINoDv8I8

26

(2013). Das Rheingold, WWV 86A (Wagner, Richard). [ONLINE] Available at:

http://imslp.org/wiki/Das_Rheingold,_WWV_86A_(Wagner,_Richard). [Last Accessed 31 August 2013].

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The use of the choir is too, reflective of Wagner‟s opera as well as all of the large famous choral works. The choir does not sing in English, and for majority of the score, sing only open notes of simple vowels. Like a classical work, the mood relies heavily on the notes which are sung and the way in which they are sung, like any other instrument in the orchestra.

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Although there is not a definite clear line between classical music and popular music, it‟s extremely clear the complexities of classical music and how the relationship between the notes, structure, techniques, rhythm, textures and tone colours work together and intertwine to create articulate works of art, valued by those musically educated enough to understand and analyse the relationship and its effects. These complexities have been very important in developing classical music, and according to the film industry, has been a fundamental aspect in the success of cinema.

Without the complex characteristics of classical music, the phsycological response from viewers would be absolutely minimal. Composers have had to adapt the concepts of classical music to ensure that their complex scores, will influence the arousal of complex emotions from the audience. In doing so, directors and composers have drawn on classical music on many different degrees to achieve their desired affect of their music, setting a scene, setting a tone a character and a concept. Ultimately, classical music is the strongest way to portray such

emotions and thus, composers rely on the concepts of classical music to create a score with the ability to create a relationship on a stronger level with the viewer.

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