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Munich Personal RePEc Archive

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Rhodes, Andrew and Wilson, Chris M

Toulouse School of Economics, School of Business and Economics,

Loughborough University

18 July 2016

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❋❛❧s❡ ❆❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣

❆♥❞r❡✇ ❘❤♦❞❡s ❛♥❞ ❈❤r✐s ▼✳ ❲✐❧s♦♥

❏✉❧② ✶✽✱ ✷✵✶✻

❆❜str❛❝t

❚❤❡r❡ ✐s ✇✐❞❡s♣r❡❛❞ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝❡ t❤❛t s♦♠❡ ✜r♠s ✉s❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ t♦ ♦✈❡rst❛t❡ t❤❡ ✈❛❧✉❡ ♦❢ t❤❡✐r ♣r♦❞✉❝ts✳ ❲❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r ❛ ♠♦❞❡❧ ✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r ✐s ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ♣✉♥✐s❤ s✉❝❤ ❢❛❧s❡ ❝❧❛✐♠s✳ ❲❡ ❝❤❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❡ ❛♥ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✇❤❡r❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❛❝t✐✈❡❧② ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝❡s r❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❜✉②❡rs✱ ❛♥❞ ❛♥❛❧②③❡ t❤❡ ❡✛❡❝ts ♦❢ ♣♦❧✐❝② ✉♥❞❡r ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ♦❜❥❡❝t✐✈❡s✳ ❲❡ ❡st❛❜❧✐s❤ ♣r❡❝✐s❡ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥s ✇❤❡r❡ ♣♦❧✐❝② ♦♣t✐♠❛❧❧② ♣❡r♠✐ts ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ s❤♦✇ ❤♦✇ t❤❡s❡ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥s ✈❛r② ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❡❧② ✇✐t❤ ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ❛♥❞ ♠❛r❦❡t ♣❛r❛♠❡t❡rs✳ ❲❡ ❛❧s♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r t❤❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s ❢♦r ♣r♦❞✉❝t ✐♥✈❡st♠❡♥t ❛♥❞ ✐♥❞✉str② s❡❧❢✲r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥✱ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥♥❡❝t ♦✉r r❡s✉❧ts t♦ t❤❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ ♦♥ ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ❝✉r✈❛t✉r❡✳

❑❡②✇♦r❞s✿ ▼✐s❧❡❛❞✐♥❣ ❆❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣❀ Pr♦❞✉❝t ◗✉❛❧✐t②❀ P❛ss✲t❤r♦✉❣❤❀ ❙❡❧❢✲❘❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ❏❊▲ ❝♦❞❡s✿ ▼✸✼❀ ▲✶✺❀ ❉✽✸

∗❘❤♦❞❡s✿ ❚♦✉❧♦✉s❡ ❙❝❤♦♦❧ ♦❢ ❊❝♦♥♦♠✐❝s✱ ❋r❛♥❝❡❀ ❛♥❞r❡✇✳r❤♦❞❡s❅ts❡✲❢r✳❡✉✳ ❲✐❧s♦♥✿ ❙❝❤♦♦❧ ♦❢ ❇✉s✐♥❡ss ❛♥❞

❊❝♦♥♦♠✐❝s✱ ▲♦✉❣❤❜♦r♦✉❣❤ ❯♥✐✈❡rs✐t②✱ ❯❑❀ ❝✳♠✳✇✐❧s♦♥❅❧❜♦r♦✳❛❝✳✉❦✳ ❲❡ ✇♦✉❧❞ ❧✐❦❡ t♦ t❤❛♥❦ ❆❧❡①❡✐ ❆❧❡①❛♥❞r♦✈✱ ▼❛r❦ ❆r♠str♦♥❣✱ ▼✐❦❡ ❇❛②❡✱ ❉❛♥✐❡❧ ●❛r❝✐❛✱ ▼❛tt❤❡✇ ●❡♥t③❦♦✇✱ ❚❤♦♠❛s ❏❡✐ts❝❤❦♦✱ ❏✉st✐♥ ❏♦❤♥s♦♥✱ ❇r✉♥♦ ❏✉❧❧✐❡♥✱ ▼❛rt✐♥ P❡✐t③✱ ▼✐❝❤❛❡❧ P♦✇❡❧❧✱ ❘♦❜❡rt ❘✐t③✱ ❏❡❛♥ ❚✐r♦❧❡✱ ❚✐❛♥❧❡ ❩❤❛♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ ✈❛r✐♦✉s ❛✉❞✐❡♥❝❡s ✐♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ t❤♦s❡ ❛t t❤❡ ◆♦rt❤ ❆♠❡r✐❝❛♥ ❊❝♦♥♦♠❡tr✐❝ ❙♦❝✐❡t② ✭P❤✐❧❛❞❡❧♣❤✐❛✮✱ ❈❊P❘ ✭❩✉r✐❝❤✮✱ ❊❙❙❊❚ ✭●❡r③❡♥s❡❡✮✱ ■■❖❈ ✭❇♦st♦♥✮✱ ❊❊❆ ✭▼❛♥♥❤❡✐♠✮✱ ❈❘❊❙❚✱ ❍❊❈❊❘✱ ❚❍❊▼❆✱ ❚♦✉❧♦✉s❡✱ t❤❡ ❇❡r❧✐♥ ■❖ ❉❛②✱ t❤❡ ✼t❤ ❲♦r❦s❤♦♣ ♦♥ t❤❡ ❊❝♦♥♦♠✐❝s ♦❢ ❆❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ▼❛r❦❡t✐♥❣ ✭❱✐❡♥♥❛✮✱ ❊❆❘■❊ ✭▼✉♥✐❝❤✮ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ◆■❊ ❲♦r❦s❤♦♣ ♦♥ ❆❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✭▼❛♥❝❤❡st❡r✮✳ ❲❡ ❛❧s♦ t❤❛♥❦ ❑❛♠②❛ ❇✉❝❤ ❢♦r ❤❡r r❡s❡❛r❝❤ ❛ss✐st❛♥❝❡✳

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✶ ■♥tr♦❞✉❝t✐♦♥

❇✉②❡rs ❛r❡ ♦❢t❡♥ r❡❧✐❛♥t ♦♥ ✜r♠s t♦ ♦❜t❛✐♥ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❛❜♦✉t ♣r♦❞✉❝t ❝❤❛r❛❝t❡r✐st✐❝s✳ ❚♦ ❡①♣❧♦✐t t❤✐s✱ s♦♠❡ ✜r♠s ❞❡❧✐❜❡r❛t❡❧② ❡♥❣❛❣❡ ✐♥ ✇❤❛t ✇❡ ❝❛❧❧ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✲ t❤❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ ✐♥❝♦rr❡❝t ♦r ❡①❛❣❣❡r❛t❡❞ ♣r♦❞✉❝t ❝❧❛✐♠s✳ ❚❤❡② ❞♦ t❤✐s ✐♥ ❛ r❛♥❣❡ ♦❢ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❝♦♥t❡①ts ❛♥❞ ❞❡s♣✐t❡ ♣♦t❡♥t✐❛❧ ❧❡❣❛❧ ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s✶✳ ❘❡❝❡♥t ♣♦❧✐❝② ❝❛s❡s ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡ ❉❛♥♥♦♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♣❛✐❞ ✩✷✶♠ t♦ ✸✾ ❯❙ st❛t❡s

❛❢t❡r ✐t ♠✐s❧❡❞ ❝♦♥s✉♠❡rs ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ ❤❡❛❧t❤ ❜❡♥❡✜ts ♦❢ ✐ts ❆❝t✐✈✐❛ ②♦❣✉rt ♣r♦❞✉❝ts✱ ❙❦❡❝❤❡rs ✇❤✐❝❤ ♣❛✐❞ ✩✹✵♠ ❛❢t❡r ❢❛❧s❡❧② st❛t✐♥❣ t❤❛t ✐ts t♦♥✐♥❣ s❤♦❡s ❤❡❧♣❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ✇❡✐❣❤t ❧♦ss✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ♠❛♥✉❢❛❝t✉r❡r ♦❢ ◆✉r♦❢❡♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✇❛s ✜♥❡❞ ✶✳✼♠ ❆✉str❛❧✐❛♥ ❞♦❧❧❛rs ❛❢t❡r ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ❢❛❧s❡ ❝❧❛✐♠s ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ ❡✛❡❝t✐✈❡♥❡ss ♦❢ ✐ts ♣❛✐♥❦✐❧❧❡rs✳ ❙✐♠✐❧❛r❧②✱ ✐♥ s♦♠❡ r❡❧❛t❡❞ ❡①❛♠♣❧❡s✱ ❝❛r ♠❛♥✉❢❛❝t✉r❡rs s✉❝❤ ❛s ❱♦❧❦s✇❛❣❡♥ ❛♥❞ ▼✐ts✉❜✐s❤✐ ❛r❡ ❢❛❝✐♥❣ ♠✉❧t✐✲❜✐❧❧✐♦♥ ❞♦❧❧❛r ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s ❛❢t❡r ❝❤❡❛t✐♥❣ t❡sts ✐♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❝❧❛✐♠s ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡✐r ❡♠✐ss✐♦♥ ❧❡✈❡❧s ♦r ❢✉❡❧ ❡✣❝✐❡♥❝②✷✳ ❆❞❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧ ❡✈✐❞❡♥❝❡

❛❧s♦ ❝♦♠❡s ❢r♦♠ ❛❝❛❞❡♠✐❝ r❡s❡❛r❝❤ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝❛r❡❢✉❧❧② ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥ts t❤❡ ❡①✐st❡♥❝❡ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ✐ts ❛❜✐❧✐t② t♦ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ❞❡♠❛♥❞✸

❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❞❡s♣✐t❡ t❤❡ ❡①✐st❡♥❝❡ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✱ t❤❡ t❤❡♦r❡t✐❝❛❧ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ ❤❛s ❧❛r❣❡❧② r❡str✐❝t❡❞ ❛tt❡♥t✐♦♥ t♦ tr✉t❤❢✉❧ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ■♥ t❤✐s ♣❛♣❡r✱ ✇❡ ❞❡✈❡❧♦♣ ❛♥ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ♠♦❞❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✇❤❡r❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ ❛❝t✐✈❡❧② ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝❡ r❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❜✉②❡rs✳ ❚♦✉❣❤❡r ❧❡❣❛❧ ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s r❡❞✉❝❡ t❤❡ ❢r❡q✉❡♥❝② ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rts✱ ❜✉t ❛❧s♦ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ t❤❡✐r ❝r❡❞✐❜✐❧✐t②✳ ❆s ❛ r❡s✉❧t ♦❢ t❤❡ ❧❛tt❡r ❡✛❡❝t✱ ✇❡ s❤♦✇ ✇❤❡♥ ❛♥❞ ❤♦✇ str♦♥❣❡r ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s ❝❛♥ r❡❞✉❝❡ ❜✉②❡r ❛♥❞ s♦❝✐❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡✳ ■♥ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✱ ❜② ✉s✐♥❣ s♦♠❡ r❡s✉❧ts ♦♥ ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ❝✉r✈❛t✉r❡✱ t❤❡ ♣❛♣❡r ❞❡r✐✈❡s ♣r❡❝✐s❡ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥s ♦♥ ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ❛♥❞ ♠❛r❦❡t ♣❛r❛♠❡t❡rs s✉❝❤ t❤❛t ❛ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r ♦♣t✐♠❛❧❧② ✉s❡s ❛ ❧♦✇ ♣❡♥❛❧t② t♦ ♣❡r♠✐t ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❲❡ t❤❡♥ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r s❡✈❡r❛❧ ✇✐❞❡r ✐ss✉❡s ✐♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ ✐♥✈❡st♠❡♥t ✐♥❝❡♥t✐✈❡s✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ♣♦t❡♥t✐❛❧ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧✐t② ♦❢ ✐♥❞✉str② s❡❧❢✲r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥✳

■♥ ♠♦r❡ ❞❡t❛✐❧✱ ❙❡❝t✐♦♥ ✷ ✐♥tr♦❞✉❝❡s ♦✉r ♠❛✐♥ ♠♦❞❡❧ ✇❤❡r❡ ❛ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧✐st ✐s ♣r✐✈❛t❡❧② ✐♥✲ ❢♦r♠❡❞ ❛❜♦✉t ✐ts ♣r♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ❲❤✐❧❡ ✇❡ ❧❛t❡r ❡①t❡♥❞ t❤❡ r❡s✉❧ts ✐♥ ❛ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ✇❛②s✱ ✇❡ ✐♥✐t✐❛❧❧② ❢♦❝✉s ♦♥ t❤❡ ❝❛s❡ ✇❤❡r❡ q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s ❡✐t❤❡r ❵❤✐❣❤✬ ♦r ❵❧♦✇✬ ❛♥❞ ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡ t✇♦ t②♣❡s ❤❛✈❡ s②♠♠❡tr✐❝ ♠❛r❣✐♥❛❧ ❝♦sts✳ ❚❤❡ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r ✜rst ❝♦♠♠✐ts t♦ ❛ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ❢♦r ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❚❤❡♥ ❤❛✈✐♥❣ ❧❡❛r♥❡❞ ✐ts t②♣❡✱ t❤❡ ✜r♠ ❝❤♦♦s❡s ❛ ♣r✐❝❡ ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦❡s ❛ ✭♣♦ss✐❜❧② ❢❛❧s❡✮ ❝❧❛✐♠ ❛❜♦✉t

■♥ t❤❡ ❯❙✱ ♠♦st ❢❡❞❡r❛❧✲❧❡✈❡❧ r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ✐s ❝♦♥❞✉❝t❡❞ ❜② t❤❡ ❋❚❈ ✇❤✐❝❤ ♣✉♥✐s❤❡s ♦✛❡♥s❡s ✇✐t❤ ✈❛r✐♦✉s ♣✉❜❧✐❝

♠❡❛s✉r❡s✱ ✐♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ ♠♦♥❡t❛r② ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s✳ ■♥ ❊✉r♦♣❡✱ ♠♦st ❝♦✉♥tr✐❡s ❡♠♣❧♦② ✈❛r②✐♥❣ ❧❡✈❡❧s ♦❢ ✐♥❞✉str② s❡❧❢✲r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ❛❧♦♥❣s✐❞❡ st❛t✉t♦r② r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥s✳ ❋♦r ✐♥st❛♥❝❡✱ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❯❑✱ ♠♦st r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ✐s ❝♦♥❞✉❝t❡❞ ❜② t❤❡ ✐♥❞✉str②✲❧❡❞ ❆❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❙t❛♥❞❛r❞s ❆✉t❤♦r✐t②✳ ■t ✐s ❡♥❞♦rs❡❞ ❜② ✈❛r✐♦✉s ❣♦✈❡r♥♠❡♥t❛❧ ❜♦❞✐❡s✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ♣♦✇❡r t♦ ✐ss✉❡ ✜♥❡s✳

❋♦r ❢✉rt❤❡r ❞❡t❛✐❧s✱ s❡❡ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❢t❝✳❣♦✈✴♥❡✇s✲❡✈❡♥ts✴♣r❡ss✲r❡❧❡❛s❡s✴✷✵✶✵✴✶✷✴❞❛♥♥♦♥✲❛❣r❡❡s✲❞r♦♣✲

❡①❛❣❣❡r❛t❡❞✲❤❡❛❧t❤✲❝❧❛✐♠s✲❛❝t✐✈✐❛✲②♦❣✉rt✱ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❢t❝✳❣♦✈✴♥❡✇s✲❡✈❡♥ts✴♣r❡ss✲r❡❧❡❛s❡s✴✷✵✶✷✴✵✺✴s❦❡❝❤❡rs✲ ✇✐❧❧✲♣❛②✲✹✵✲♠✐❧❧✐♦♥✲s❡tt❧❡✲❢t❝✲❝❤❛r❣❡s✲✐t✲❞❡❝❡✐✈❡❞✱ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❜❜❝✳❝♦✳✉❦✴♥❡✇s✴❜✉s✐♥❡ss✲✸✻✶✻✼✵✶✶✱ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❜❜❝✳❝♦✳✉❦✴♥❡✇s✴❜✉s✐♥❡ss✲✸✻✻✺✶✽✺✸✱ ❛♥❞ ❤tt♣✿✴✴✇✇✇✳❜❜❝✳❝♦✳✉❦✴♥❡✇s✴❜✉s✐♥❡ss✲✸✻✶✸✼✼✶✾✳ ❆❝✲ ❝❡ss❡❞ ✵✼✴✶✽✴✶✻✳

❊✳❣✳ ❩✐♥♠❛♥ ❛♥❞ ❩✐t③❡✇✐t③ ✭✷✵✶✻✮✱ ❘❛♦ ❛♥❞ ❲❛♥❣ ✭✷✵✶✺✮✱ ❛♥❞ ❈❛✇❧❡② ❡t ❛❧ ✭✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❙❡❡ ❛❧s♦ ▼❛②③❧✐♥ ❡t ❛❧

✭✷✵✶✹✮ ❢♦r ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❢♦r♠ ♦❢ ❢❛❦❡ ✉s❡r r❡✈✐❡✇s✳

(4)

✐ts q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ❇✉②❡rs s✉❜s❡q✉❡♥t❧② ✉♣❞❛t❡ t❤❡✐r ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ❛♥❞ ♠❛❦❡ t❤❡✐r ♣✉r❝❤❛s❡ ❞❡❝✐s✐♦♥s✱ ❜❡❢♦r❡ t❤❡ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r ✐♥st✐❣❛t❡s ❛♥② ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s✳ ❲❡ ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ t❤✐s s❡t✲✉♣ ❝❧♦s❡❧② ❛♣♣r♦①✐♠❛t❡s ♠❛♥② ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t ♠❛r❦❡ts ✇❤❡r❡ ❜✉②❡rs ❛r❡ ✉♥❛❜❧❡ t♦ ✈❡r✐❢② ❝❧❛✐♠s✱ ♦r ❝❛♥ ♦♥❧② ❞♦ s♦ ❛❢t❡r ❛ ❧♦♥❣ t✐♠❡✱ ❛♥❞ ✇❤❡r❡ ♣♦❧✐❝② ♣❧❛②s ❛ ❦❡② r♦❧❡ ✐♥ r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♥❣ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳

❙❡❝t✐♦♥ ✸ ❝❤❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❡s ❛♥ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s❡s tr✉t❤❢✉❧❧② ❛♥❞ ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ ♠❛② ❡♥❣❛❣❡ ✐♥ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❚❤✐s ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ❞♦❡s ♥♦t r❡s❡♠❜❧❡ ❛ st❛♥❞❛r❞ ♣r✐❝❡ s✐❣♥❛❧✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ❞✉❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❛ss✉♠♣t✐♦♥ ♦❢ s②♠♠❡tr✐❝ ❝♦sts✳ ■♥st❡❛❞✱ ✐t s♠♦♦t❤❧② ✉♥✐✜❡s s❡✈❡r❛❧ ♦t❤❡r✇✐s❡ s❡♣❛r❛t❡ ❝❛s❡s ❞❡♣❡♥❞✐♥❣ ♦♥ t❤❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ♣❡♥❛❧t②✳ ❋✐rst❧② ✇❤❡♥ t❤❡ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r✬s ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐s ❧❛r❣❡✱ t❤❡r❡ ✐s ♥♦ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❍❡r❡✱ ❛s ✐♥ t❤❡ st❛♥❞❛r❞ ❞✐s❝❧♦s✉r❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡✱ q✉❛❧✐t② ❝❧❛✐♠s ❛r❡ ❢✉❧❧② ✈❡r✐✜❛❜❧❡ ❛♥❞ ♣r♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s ♣❡r❢❡❝t❧② r❡✈❡❛❧❡❞ ✇✐t❤✐♥ ❛ ❢✉❧❧ s❡♣❛r❛t✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠✳ ❙❡❝♦♥❞❧② ✇❤❡♥ t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐s s♠❛❧❧✱ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ ❛❧✇❛②s ❝♦♥❞✉❝ts ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤✐♥ ❛ ❢✉❧❧ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠✳ ■♥ t❤✐s ❝❛s❡✱ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✐s ❝❤❡❛♣ t❛❧❦ ❛♥❞ s♦ ❜✉②❡rs s✐♠♣❧② ♠❛✐♥t❛✐♥ t❤❡✐r ♣r✐♦r ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ❡✈❡♥ ❛❢t❡r ♦❜s❡r✈✐♥❣ ❛ ❤✐❣❤ ❝❧❛✐♠✳ ❋✐♥❛❧❧②✱ ✇❤❡♥ t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐s ♠♦❞❡r❛t❡✱ ♦✉r ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✐♥✈♦❧✈❡s ❛ ♥♦✈❡❧ ❢♦r♠ ♦❢ ♣❛rt✐❛❧❧② ✈❡r✐✜❛❜❧❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❍❡r❡✱ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ ❡♥❣❛❣❡s ✐♥ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐st✐❝❛❧❧② ❜② ♠✐①✐♥❣ ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ ✐✮ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡✱ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt ❛♥❞ ❛ r❡❧❛t✐✈❡❧② ❤✐❣❤ ♣r✐❝❡✱ ❛♥❞ ✐✐✮ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ tr✉t❤❢✉❧❧② ✇✐t❤ ❛ r❡❧❛t✐✈❡❧② ❧♦✇ ♣r✐❝❡✳ ❚❤❡r❡❢♦r❡ ✇❤❡♥ ❜✉②❡rs ♦❜s❡r✈❡ ❛ ❤✐❣❤ ❝❧❛✐♠✱ t❤❡② ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡❧② ✉♣❞❛t❡ t❤❡✐r ❜❡❧✐❡❢ t❤❛t q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s ❤✐❣❤✳ ❍❡♥❝❡✱ ✐♥ ❝♦♥tr❛st t♦ ❢✉❧❧ s❡♣❛r❛t✐♦♥✱ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❞♦❡s ❛r✐s❡ ✐♥ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ❜✉t ✉♥❧✐❦❡ ✐♥ ❢✉❧❧ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣✱ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s❡❞ ❝❧❛✐♠s ❞♦ st✐❧❧ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡ ❜✉②❡rs ✇✐t❤ s♦♠❡ ♥❡✇ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ ✜r♠✬s q✉❛❧✐t②✳

❙❡❝t✐♦♥ ✹ t❤❡♥ ❛♥❛❧②③❡s ❤♦✇ ♠❛r❣✐♥❛❧ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ❛✛❡❝t ❛ ✈❛r✐❡t② ♦❢ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ♠❡❛s✉r❡s✳ ❲❡ ✜rst ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s✳ ❍❡r❡✱ ❛ r❡❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡s t❤❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❣❡♥❡r❛t❡s t✇♦ ♦♣♣♦s✐♥❣ ❡✛❡❝ts✳ ❚❤❡ ✜rst ❵♣❡rs✉❛s✐♦♥✬ ❡✛❡❝t ❤❛r♠s ❜✉②❡rs ❜② ♣r♦♠♣t✐♥❣ t❤❡♠ t♦ ❜✉② t♦♦ ♠❛♥② ✉♥✐ts ♦❢ ❛ ♣r♦❞✉❝t ❛t ❛♥ ✐♥✢❛t❡❞ ♣r✐❝❡✳ ❚❤❡ s❡❝♦♥❞ ❡✛❡❝t ❞❡r✐✈❡s ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ ✐♠♣❛❝t ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ♦♥ ❞❛♠❛❣✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❝r❡❞✐❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ❝❧❛✐♠s✳ ❯♥❞❡rst❛♥❞✐♥❣ t❤❡ ✐♠♣❛❝t ♦♥ ❝r❡❞✐❜✐❧✐t② ❣♦❡s ❜❛❝❦ t♦ ❛t ❧❡❛st ◆❡❧s♦♥ ✭✶✾✼✹✮ ❛♥❞ ✐s ✇❡❧❧✲ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t❡❞ ❡♠♣✐r✐❝❛❧❧② ✭❡✳❣✳ ❉❛r❦❡ ❛♥❞ ❘✐❝❤✐❡ ✷✵✵✼✮✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✐♥st❡❛❞ ♦❢ ✈✐❡✇✐♥❣ t❤✐s ✐♠♣❛❝t ❛s ❞❡tr✐♠❡♥t❛❧✱ ✇❡ ❞♦❝✉♠❡♥t ❛ ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛❧ ❵♣r✐❝❡✬ ❡✛❡❝t ✇❤❡r❡❜② ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❝♦✉♥t❡r❛❝ts ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧② ♣♦✇❡r ❜② ❧♦✇❡r✐♥❣ ❜✉②❡rs✬ q✉❛❧✐t② ❡①♣❡❝t❛t✐♦♥s ❛♥❞ ♣r♦♠♣t✐♥❣ ❧♦✇❡r ♣r✐❝❡s✳

❚♦ ❝♦♠♣❛r❡ t❤❡s❡ t✇♦ ❡✛❡❝ts ✉♥❞❡r ❛ r❡❧❛t✐✈❡❧② ❣❡♥❡r❛❧ ❢♦r♠ ♦❢ ❞❡♠❛♥❞✱ ✇❡ t❤❡♥ ✉t✐❧✐③❡ s♦♠❡ r❡❝❡♥t r❡s✉❧ts ♦♥ ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ❝✉r✈❛t✉r❡ ❛♥❞ ❝♦st ♣❛ss✲t❤r♦✉❣❤ ✭❲❡②❧ ❛♥❞ ❋❛❜✐♥❣❡r ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❙✉❝❤ r❡s✉❧ts ❛r❡ ❜❡✐♥❣ ✉s❡❞ ✐♥ ❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ❛♣♣❧✐❝❛t✐♦♥s✱ s✉❝❤ ❛s ♣r✐❝❡ ❞✐s❝r✐♠✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ✭❡✳❣✳ ❈❤❡♥ ❛♥❞ ❙❝❤✇❛rt③ ✷✵✶✺✱ ❈♦✇❛♥ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ r❛t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ❢♦❝✉s✐♥❣ ♦♥ ❝♦st ❝❤❛♥❣❡s✱ ✇❡ ❛♥❛❧②③❡ t❤❡ ✐♠♣❛❝t ♦❢ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ✐♥ q✉❛❧✐t② ♦♥ ♣r✐❝❡✱ ✇❤✐❝❤ ✇❡ t❡r♠ ❛s ❵q✉❛❧✐t② ♣❛ss✲t❤r♦✉❣❤✬✳ ■♥ ♠❛♥② ❝❛s❡s✱ ✇❡ s❤♦✇ ❤♦✇ t❤❡ ♣❡rs✉❛s✐♦♥ ❡✛❡❝t ❞♦♠✐♥❛t❡s s✉❝❤ t❤❛t ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s ✐s ♠❛①✐♠✐③❡❞ ❜② ❡❧✐♠✐♥❛t✐♥❣ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✇❡ ❛❧s♦ ❢♦r♠❛❧✐③❡ ❛ s❡t ♦❢ ♣❛r❛♠❡t❡r ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥s ✇❤❡r❡

(5)

t❤❡ ♣r✐❝❡ ❡✛❡❝t ❞♦♠✐♥❛t❡s✳ ❍❡r❡✱ t❤❡ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐s s♦❢t❡r s♦ ❛s t♦ ✐♥❞✉❝❡ ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❙✉❝❤ ♣❛r❛♠❡t❡r ❝❛s❡s ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡ t❤♦s❡ ✇❤❡r❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t② ❧❡✈❡❧s ❛r❡ ❤✐❣❤ ♦r ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ❤✐❣❤ q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s ❧❛r❣❡✳

◆❡①t✱ ✇❡ t✉r♥ t♦ t❤❡ ❡✛❡❝t ♦♥ ♣r♦✜ts✳ ❯♥s✉r♣r✐s✐♥❣❧② t❤❡ ❧♦✇ ✭❤✐❣❤✮ t②♣❡ ❛❧✇❛②s ♣r❡❢❡rs s♠❛❧❧❡r ✭❧❛r❣❡r✮ ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s✳ ■♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣❧② ❤♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❡① ❛♥t❡✱ t❤❡ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧✐st ✇❡❛❦❧② ♣r❡❢❡rs str♦♥❣ ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s t♦ ❡r❛❞✐❝❛t❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ s♦ t❤❛t ✐t ❝❛♥ ♣r✐❝❡ ♠♦r❡ ❡✛❡❝t✐✈❡❧② ✉♥❞❡r ❤✐❣❤ q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ❍❡♥❝❡✱ ✐❢ t❤❡ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧✐st ❝♦✉❧❞ ❝♦♠♠✐t ✭♣❡r❤❛♣s ✈✐❛ s♦♠❡ t❤✐r❞✲♣❛rt②✮✱ ✐ts ❝❤♦✐❝❡ ♦❢ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✇♦✉❧❞ ❝♦✐♥❝✐❞❡ ✇✐t❤ t❤❛t ♣r❡❢❡rr❡❞ ❜② ❜✉②❡rs ✐♥ ♠❛♥② ❝✐r❝✉♠st❛♥❝❡s✳ ❚❤✐s ♦✛❡rs ♣♦t❡♥t✐❛❧ s✉♣♣♦rt ❢♦r ❊✉r♦♣❡✬s ✉s❡ ♦❢ s❡❧❢✲r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❢♦r ♦t❤❡r ❝✐r❝✉♠st❛♥❝❡s✱ ✐♥ ❝♦♥tr❛st t♦ t❤❡ ✈✐❡✇ t❤❛t s❡❧❢✲r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ♠❛② ❜❡ t♦♦ s♦❢t✱ t❤❡ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧✐st✬s ♣r❡❢❡rr❡❞ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐s t♦♦ str♦♥❣ r❡❧❛t✐✈❡ t♦ ❜✉②❡rs✬ ♣r❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡s✳

▲❛st❧②✱ ✇❡ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r t♦t❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡✳ ❍❡r❡✱ ❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❧❡❛❞s t♦ t✇♦ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❡✛❡❝ts✳ ❖♥ t❤❡ ♦♥❡ ❤❛♥❞✱ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❧♦✇❡rs t❤❡ ❝r❡❞✐❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ❛♥② ❤✐❣❤ ❝❧❛✐♠ ❛♥❞ s♦ ♣r♦♠♣ts ❛♥② t②♣❡ ✇✐t❤ s✉❝❤ ❛ ❝❧❛✐♠ t♦ ❢✉rt❤❡r r❡❞✉❝❡ ✐ts ♦✉t♣✉t ❜❡❧♦✇ t❤❡ s♦❝✐❛❧❧② ❞❡s✐r❛❜❧❡ ❧❡✈❡❧✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ♦♥ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ❤❛♥❞✱ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❛❧s♦ ❛❧❧♦✇s t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ t♦ ❡①♣❛♥❞ ✐ts ♦✉t♣✉t✳ ❲❡ t❤❡♥ ❝❤❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❡ ❛ s❡t ♦❢ ♣❛r❛♠❡t❡r ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥s ✇❤❡r❡ t❤✐s ❧❛tt❡r ♦✉t♣✉t ❡①♣❛♥s✐♦♥ ✐s ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛❧ ❛♥❞ ❞♦♠✐♥❛t❡s t❤❡ ❢♦r♠❡r ❡✛❡❝t✱ s✉❝❤ t❤❛t ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✐s ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧✳

❙❡❝t✐♦♥ ✺ ❡①t❡♥❞s t❤❡ ♠❛✐♥ ♠♦❞❡❧ t♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r t❤❡ ❛❞❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧ ❡✛❡❝ts ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✇❤❡♥ ♣r♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s ❡♥❞♦❣❡♥♦✉s✳ ❚❤✐s ✐s ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t t♦ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ r❡❞✉❝❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t② ✐♥✈❡st♠❡♥t ❜② ❧✐♠✐t✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❛✈❛✐❧❛❜❧❡ r❡t✉r♥s ❢r♦♠ ❤✐❣❤ q✉❛❧✐t② ♣r♦❞✉❝ts✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ✇❤✐❧❡ ✇❡ ❝♦♥✜r♠ t❤❛t s✉❝❤ ❛♥ ❵✐♥✈❡st♠❡♥t✬ ❡✛❡❝t ♣r♦♠♣ts t❤❡ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r t♦ s❡❧❡❝t ❛ ✇❡❛❦❧② ❤✐❣❤❡r ♣❡♥❛❧t②✱ ✇❡ ❢✉rt❤❡r s❤♦✇ ❤♦✇ ❛ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ r❡♠❛✐♥ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧ ❢♦r ❜✉②❡r ❛♥❞ s♦❝✐❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡✳ ■♥ ❛❞❞✐t✐♦♥✱ ♦♥❝❡ q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s ❡♥❞♦❣❡♥♦✉s✱ ✇❡ ❛❧s♦ s❤♦✇ ❤♦✇ ❛ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ❝❛♥ r❛✐s❡ t❤❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳

❋✐♥❛❧❧②✱ ❙❡❝t✐♦♥ ✻ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡rs s♦♠❡ r♦❜✉st♥❡ss ✐ss✉❡s✳ ❋✐rst✱ ✇❡ ❛❧❧♦✇ ❢♦r ❛♥ ❛r❜✐tr❛r② ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ q✉❛❧✐t② t②♣❡s✳ ◗✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❡❧② t❤❡ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s r❡♠❛✐♥s t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❛s ❢♦r t❤❡ t✇♦✲t②♣❡ ❝❛s❡ ❡①❝❡♣t ♥♦✇ t❤❡ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r ♠✉st ❛❧s♦ ❞❡❝✐❞❡ ✇❤✐❝❤ t②♣❡s ❝❛♥ ❡♥❣❛❣❡ ✐♥ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❲❡ s❤♦✇ ❤♦✇ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ r❡♠❛✐♥ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧ ❢♦r t②♣❡s ✇✐t❤ ❵♠♦❞❡r❛t❡✬ q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ❙❡❝♦♥❞✱ ✇❡ ❧❡t t❤❡ ✜r♠ t②♣❡s ✈❛r② ✐♥ ♠❛r❣✐♥❛❧ ❝♦sts✳ ❍❡r❡✱ t❤❡ r❡s✉❧t✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ❛♥❞ ♣♦❧✐❝② r❡s✉❧ts r❡♠❛✐♥ q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❡❧② r♦❜✉st ❛❢t❡r ♠❛❦✐♥❣ str♦♥❣❡r r❡q✉✐r❡♠❡♥ts ♦♥ ❜✉②❡r ❜❡❧✐❡❢s✳ ❚❤✐r❞✱ ✇❡ ❡①❛♠✐♥❡ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐t✐✈❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t ✇❤❡r❡ ❛♥ ✐♥❝✉♠❜❡♥t ❢❛❝❡s ❛♥ ❡♥tr❛♥t ✇✐t❤ ♣r✐✈❛t❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ❲❡ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛t❡ ❛♥ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✇✐t❤ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ t❤❛t ✐s q✉❛❧✐t❛t✐✈❡❧② s✐♠✐❧❛r t♦ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧②✱ ❛♥❞ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡ r❡❧❛t❡❞ ♣♦❧✐❝② r❡s✉❧ts ❢♦r ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s✱ ♣r♦✜ts✱ ❛♥❞ t♦t❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡✳

(6)

❘❡❧❛t❡❞ ▲✐t❡r❛t✉r❡✿ ❚❤❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ t②♣✐❝❛❧❧② ❢♦❝✉s❡s ♦♥ tr✉t❤❢✉❧ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✭❡✳❣✳ ❆♥❞❡rs♦♥ ❛♥❞ ❘❡♥❛✉❧t ✷✵✵✻✱ ❏♦❤♥s♦♥ ❛♥❞ ▼②❛tt ✷✵✵✻✹✮✳ ■♥ ❡❛r❧✐❡r ✇♦r❦✱ ◆❡❧s♦♥ ✭✶✾✼✹✮ ♦✛❡r❡❞ ❛

s❡♠✐♥❛❧ ❞✐s❝✉ss✐♦♥ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❤♦✇ r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ♠❛② ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ✐ts ❝r❡❞✐❜✐❧✐t②✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ s✐♥❝❡ t❤❡♥✱ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ✐ts r❡❣✉❧❛t✐♦♥ ❤❛s ♦♥❧② ❜❡❡♥ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r❡❞ ❜② s♦♠❡ r❡❝❡♥t ♣❛♣❡rs✳ ❙♦♠❡ ♣❛♣❡rs ❛ss✉♠❡ t❤❛t ❜✉②❡rs ❛r❡ ♥❛✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ s♦ ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ ❛❧❧ ❝❧❛✐♠s ✭❡✳❣✳ ●❧❛❡s❡r ❛♥❞ ❯❥❤❡❧②✐ ✷✵✶✵✱ ❍❛tt♦r✐ ❛♥❞ ❍✐❣❛s❤✐❞❛ ✷✵✶✷✮✳ ❍❡r❡✱ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ r❛✐s❡s ✜r♠s✬ ♣r♦✜ts✱ ❧♦✇✲ ❡rs ❝♦♥s✉♠❡r s✉r♣❧✉s✱ ❛♥❞ ❝❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ t♦t❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ❜② ♦✛s❡tt✐♥❣ t❤❡ ♦✉t♣✉t ❞✐st♦rt✐♦♥ ❢r♦♠ ✐♠♣❡r❢❡❝t ❝♦♠♣❡t✐t✐♦♥✳ ❖t❤❡r ♣❛♣❡rs s❡❡❦ t♦ ❡♥❞♦❣❡♥✐③❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❝r❡❞✐❜✐❧✐t② ✇✐t❤ r❛t✐♦♥❛❧ ❜✉②❡rs✳ ❖♥❡ s❡t ♦❢ ♣❛♣❡rs✱ ✐♥❝❧✉❞✐♥❣ s♦♠❡ ✇✐t❤✐♥ ♠❛r❦❡t✐♥❣✱ ✐♥tr♦❞✉❝❡ ❤❡t❡r♦❣❡♥❡♦✉s t❛st❡s s♦ t❤❛t ❝❧❛✐♠s ❝❛♥ ❣❛✐♥ ❝r❡❞✐❜✐❧✐t② ❜② ❢♦r❢❡✐t✐♥❣ r❡✈❡♥✉❡s ❢r♦♠ s♦♠❡ ❜✉②❡rs ✭❡✳❣✳ ❈❤❛❦r❛❜♦rt② ❛♥❞ ❍❛r❜❛✉❣❤ ✷✵✶✹✮✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ t❤❡s❡ ♣❛♣❡rs ♣❧❛❝❡ ❧✐tt❧❡ ❡♠♣❤❛s✐s ♦♥ ♣♦❧✐❝②✳ ❆♥♦t❤❡r s❡t ♦❢ ♣❛♣❡rs ❡①❛♠✐♥❡ ❧❡❣❛❧ ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s ✐♥ ✇❛②s ♠♦r❡ r❡❧❛t❡❞ t♦ ♦✉r ♣❛♣❡r✳ ❈♦rts ✭✷✵✶✸✱ ✷✵✶✹❛✱ ✷✵✶✹❜✮ ❡①❛♠✐♥❡s ❛♥ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❛❝q✉✐s✐t✐♦♥ s❡tt✐♥❣ ✇❤❡r❡ ❛ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧✐st ❦♥♦✇s ✐ts t②♣❡ ❜✉t ✜♥❞s ✐t ❝♦st❧② t♦ ❧❡❛r♥ ✐ts ♣r❡❝✐s❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ❚♦t❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ✐s ❛ss✉♠❡❞ t♦ ❜❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤❡ ✜♥❡♥❡ss ♦❢ ❝♦♥s✉♠❡r ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥✳ ❋♦r ❧♦✇ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❝♦sts✱ t♦t❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ✐s ♠❛①✐♠✐③❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ❤✐❣❤ ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s t❤❛t ✐♥❞✉❝❡ t❤❡ ✜r♠ t♦ ❧❡❛r♥ ✐ts q✉❛❧✐t② ❛♥❞ ❡r❛❞✐❝❛t❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r ✇❤❡♥ ❧❡❛r♥✐♥❣ ❝♦sts ❛r❡ ❤✐❣❤❡r✱ s✉❝❤ t❤❛t t❤❡ ✜r♠ ❝❤♦♦s❡s ♥♦t t♦ ❦♥♦✇ ✐ts q✉❛❧✐t②✱ ❤✐❣❤ ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s ❝❛♥ ❞❛♠❛❣❡ t♦t❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ❜② ❞✐s❝♦✉r❛❣✐♥❣ t❤❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ■♥st❡❛❞✱ ❧♦✇❡r ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s ❝❛♥ r❛✐s❡ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ❜② ✐♥❞✉❝✐♥❣ t❤❡ ✜r♠ t♦ ✉s❡ s♣❡❝✉❧❛t✐✈❡ q✉❛❧✐t② ❝❧❛✐♠s t♦ s✐❣♥❛❧ ✐ts t②♣❡ ❡✈❡♥ ✇❤❡♥ s✉❝❤ ❝❧❛✐♠s ❛r❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ✇✐t❤ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t②✳ ❯♥❞❡r ❛ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ♠❡❝❤❛♥✐s♠✱ P✐❝❝♦❧♦ ❡t ❛❧ ✭✷✵✶✺✮ ❞❡♠♦♥str❛t❡ t❤❛t ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ ♠❛①✐♠✐③❡ ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s ✐♥ ❛ ❞✉♦♣♦❧② ✇❤❡r❡ t❤❡ ✜r♠s ❤❛✈❡ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ♣r♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t✐❡s✳ ❚❤❡② s❤♦✇ t❤❛t ✐t ✐s ❛❧✇❛②s ♦♣t✐♠❛❧ t♦ ✉s❡ ③❡r♦ ❵❧❛✐ss❡③✲❢❛✐r❡✬ ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s t♦ ✐♥❞✉❝❡ ❢✉❧❧ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ r❛t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ❢✉❧❧ s❡♣❛r❛t✐♦♥✳ ■♥t✉✐t✐✈❡❧②✱ t❤✐s ❝r❡❛t❡s ❛ ❞♦✇♥✇❛r❞ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐t✐✈❡ ♣r❡ss✉r❡ ♦♥ ♣r✐❝❡s ❜② ♠❛❦✐♥❣ t❤❡ ✜r♠s ❛♣♣❡❛r ✉♥❞✐✛❡r❡♥t✐❛t❡❞✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❛❢t❡r st✉❞②✐♥❣ ❛ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧② ✈❡rs✐♦♥ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♠♦❞❡❧✱ t❤❡ ❛✉t❤♦rs s✉❣❣❡st t❤❛t t❤✐s r❡s✉❧t ❝❛♥ ♦♥❧② ❛r✐s❡ ✐♥ ❛ ❝♦♠♣❡t✐t✐✈❡ ❝♦♥t❡①t✳✺

❖✉r r❡s❡❛r❝❤ ❞✐✛❡rs ❢r♦♠ t❤✐s ♣r❡✈✐♦✉s ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ ✐♥ ❛ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ✐♠♣♦rt❛♥t r❡s♣❡❝ts✳ ❋✐rst❧②✱ ✇❡ ❛♥❛❧②③❡ ❛ r✐❝❤❡r ❝❧❛ss ♦❢ s❡♠✐✲♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐❛✳ ❯♥❧✐❦❡ t❤❡ ❢✉❧❧ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ s❡♣❛r❛t✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐❛ ✐♥ ♣❛st ♠♦❞❡❧s✱ t❤❡s❡ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐❛ ❛❧❧♦✇ ❢♦r ❢❛❧s❡ ❝❧❛✐♠s t♦ ❛r✐s❡ ✐♥ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠✱ ❛♥❞ t♦ ✐♥✢❛t❡ ❜✉②❡rs✬ ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ❜❡②♦♥❞ t❤❡✐r ♣r✐♦rs✳ ❙❡❝♦♥❞❧②✱ ❜② ✉s✐♥❣ ❛ ♠♦r❡ ❣❡♥❡r❛❧ ❢♦r♠ ♦❢ ❞❡♠❛♥❞✱ ✇❡ ❤✐❣❤❧✐❣❤t ❛ ♥♦✈❡❧ r♦❧❡ ❢♦r ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ❝✉r✈❛t✉r❡ ♥♦t ♣r❡s❡♥t ✐♥ ♦t❤❡r ♣❛♣❡rs✳ ❚❤✐s ❛❧s♦ ❡♥❛❜❧❡s ✉s t♦ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡ ♣r❡❝✐s❡ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥s ❢♦r ✇❤❡♥ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✐s ❜❡♥❡✜❝✐❛❧✱ ❛♥❞ t♦ s❤♦✇ ❤♦✇ t❤❡

❙❡❡ ❛❧s♦ t❤❡ ❝♦♠♣r❡❤❡♥s✐✈❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ r❡✈✐❡✇s ❜② ❇❛❣✇❡❧❧ ✭✷✵✵✼✮ ❛♥❞ ❘❡♥❛✉❧t ✭✷✵✶✺✮✳

■♥ ♠♦r❡ ❞✐st❛♥t ✇♦r❦✱ ❉❛✉❣❤❡t② ❛♥❞ ❘❡✐♥❣❛♥✉♠ ✭✶✾✾✼✮ st✉❞② ❤♦✇ ♣✉♥✐t✐✈❡ ❞❛♠❛❣❡s ❢♦r ❢❛❧s❡ s❛❢❡t② ❝❧❛✐♠s

❝❛♥ ❤❡❧♣ s✉♣♣♦rt s❡♣❛r❛t✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐❛ ✇❤❡♥ ✜r♠s ❢❛❝❡ ❧✐❛❜✐❧✐t② ❧♦ss❡s ❢♦r ♣r♦❞✉❝t ❞❡❢❡❝ts✱ ❇❛r✐❣♦③③✐ ❡t ❛❧ ✭✷✵✵✾✮ ❡①❛♠✐♥❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❝♦♠♣❛r❛t✐✈❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✱ ❛♥❞ ❉r✉❣♦✈ ❛♥❞ ❚r♦②❛✲▼❛rt✐♥❡③ ✭✷✵✶✺✮ ❛♥❛❧②③❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈✐❝❡ ✇❤❡r❡ ✜r♠s ❝❛♥ ❛❧s♦ ❝❤♦♦s❡ t❤❡ ✈❛❣✉❡♥❡ss ♦❢ t❤❡✐r ❝❧❛✐♠s✳

(7)

♦♣t✐♠❛❧ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✈❛r✐❡s ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❡❧② ✇✐t❤ ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ❛♥❞ ♠❛r❦❡t ♣❛r❛♠❡t❡rs✳ ❚❤✐r❞❧②✱ ✇❡ s❤♦✇ t❤❛t ❝♦♠♣❡t✐t✐♦♥ ✐s ♥♦t ♥❡❝❡ss❛r② ❢♦r ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ t♦ ♠❛①✐♠✐③❡ ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s✳ ▼♦r❡♦✈❡r r❛t❤❡r t❤❛♥ ❢♦❝✉s✐♥❣ ♦♥ ❥✉st ♦♥❡ ♦❜❥❡❝t✐✈❡✱ ✇❡ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡ ❛ ✉♥✐✜❡❞ s❡t ♦❢ r❡s✉❧ts ❢♦r ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s✱ t♦t❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ❛♥❞ ✜r♠ ♣r♦✜ts✳

❖✉r ♣❛♣❡r ✐s r❡❧❛t❡❞ t♦ ❛ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ❜r♦❛❞❡r ❛r❡❛s✳ ❋✐rst✱ ✐t ❛❞❞s t♦ t❤❡ ❣r♦✇✐♥❣ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡ ♦♥ t❤❡ ❡❝♦♥♦♠✐❝s ♦❢ ❝♦♥s✉♠❡r ♣r♦t❡❝t✐♦♥ ♣♦❧✐❝② ✇❤✐❝❤ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡rs ♦t❤❡r t♦♣✐❝s✱ s✉❝❤ ❛s ❤✐❣❤✲ ♣r❡ss✉r❡ s❛❧❡s t❛❝t✐❝s ✭❆r♠str♦♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❩❤♦✉ ✷✵✶✻✮ ❛♥❞ r❡❢✉♥❞ r✐❣❤ts ✭■♥❞❡rst ❛♥❞ ❖tt❛✈✐❛♥✐ ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ❙❡❝♦♥❞✱ ♦✉r ♠♦❞❡❧ r❡❧❛t❡s t♦ ❛ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t✐♦♥ ♣❛♣❡rs t❤❛t st✉❞② ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ❧②✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ♣❡rs✉❛s✐♦♥ ✉♥❞❡r ❢✉❧❧ r❛t✐♦♥❛❧✐t② ✭❡✳❣✳ ❑❛rt✐❦ ✷✵✵✾✱ ❛♥❞ ❑❛♠❡♥✐❝❛ ❛♥❞ ●❡♥t③❦♦✇ ✷✵✶✶✮✳ ■♥ ❝♦♥tr❛st✱ ✇❡ st✉❞② ♣♦❧✐❝②✲r❡❧❛t❡❞ ❧②✐♥❣ ❝♦sts ✇✐t❤✐♥ ❛ s♣❡❝✐✜❝ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❝♦♥t❡①t✱ ✇❤❡r❡ ❛ t❤✐r❞✲♣❛rt② ✐♥✢✉❡♥❝❡s ♥♦t ♦♥❧② t❤❡ ❛♠♦✉♥t ♦❢ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ t❤❛t ✐s ❝♦♠♠✉♥✐❝❛t❡❞ t♦ ❜✉②❡rs ❜✉t ❛❧s♦ ✐♥❞✐r❡❝t❧② t❤❡ ♣r✐❝❡ t❤❛t t❤❡② ♣❛②✳ ❚❤✐r❞✱ ♦✉r ♣❛♣❡r ✐s r❡❧❛t❡❞ t♦ t❤❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡s ♦♥ ♣r✐❝❡ s✐❣♥❛❧✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ q✉❛❧✐t② ❞✐s❝❧♦s✉r❡ ✭s❡❡ ❇❛❣✇❡❧❧ ✷✵✵✼ ❛♥❞ ❉r❛♥♦✈❡ ❛♥❞ ❏✐♥ ✷✵✶✵ ❢♦r r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❡ r❡✈✐❡✇s✮✳ ❚❤❡s❡ ❧✐t❡r❛t✉r❡s ❛❧s♦ ♥♦t❡ t❤❛t t♦t❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ♠❛①✐♠✐③❡❞ ❜② s♦♠❡ ❢♦r♠ ♦❢ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❞✉❡ t♦ ❡✐t❤❡r ✐✮ t❤❡ ♦✉t♣✉t ❞✐st♦rt✐♦♥s ❢r♦♠ ♣r✐❝❡ s✐❣♥❛❧✐♥❣ ✉♥❞❡r s❡♣❛r❛t✐♦♥✱ ♦r ✐✐✮ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❝♦sts ♦❢ ❞✐s❝❧♦s✉r❡✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ♦✉r r❡s✉❧ts ♣r♦✈✐❞❡ ❝❧❡❛r ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥s t♦ ❝❤❛r❛❝t❡r✐③❡ ✇❤❡♥ ✭♣❛rt✐❛❧✮ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❜✉②❡r✲ ♦r ✇❡❧❢❛r❡✲♦♣t✐♠❛❧ ❡✈❡♥ ✇❤❡♥ tr✉t❤❢✉❧ ❞✐s❝❧♦s✉r❡ ✐s ❝♦st❧❡ss✱ ❛♥❞ ✇❤❡♥ ❢✉❧❧ s❡♣❛r❛t✐♦♥ ❞♦❡s ♥♦t r❡q✉✐r❡ t❤❡ ✜r♠ t♦ ❞✐st♦rt ✐ts ♦✉t♣✉t ❛✇❛② ❢r♦♠ t❤❡ ❢✉❧❧ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ❧❡✈❡❧✳

✷ ▼♦❞❡❧

❆ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧✐st s❡❧❧s ♦♥❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t t♦ ❛ ✉♥✐t ♠❛ss ♦❢ ♣♦t❡♥t✐❛❧ ❜✉②❡rs✳ ❚❤❡ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧✐st ✐s ♣r✐✈❛t❡❧② ✐♥❢♦r♠❡❞ ❛❜♦✉t ✐ts ♣r♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t② q✳ ❙♣❡❝✐✜❝❛❧❧②✱ t❤❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t ✐s ♦❢ ❧♦✇ q✉❛❧✐t② L ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❜✲

❛❜✐❧✐t② x (0,1)✱ ❛♥❞ ♦❢ ❤✐❣❤ q✉❛❧✐t② H ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② 1x✱ ✇❤❡r❡ −∞ < L < H <

❆✈❡r❛❣❡ ❡① ❛♥t❡ q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s t❤❡♥ ❞❡✜♥❡❞ ❛sq¯=xL+ (1x)H.❋♦r ♦✉r ♠❛✐♥ ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ✇❡ ❛ss✉♠❡

t❤❛t ♠❛r❣✐♥❛❧ ❝♦sts ❛r❡ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t ♦❢ q✉❛❧✐t② ❛♥❞ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐③❡❞ t♦ ③❡r♦✳ ❊❛❝❤ ❜✉②❡r ❤❛s ❛ ✉♥✐t ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ❛♥❞ ✈❛❧✉❡s ❛ ❣✐✈❡♥ ♣r♦❞✉❝t ♦❢ q✉❛❧✐t② q ❛tq+ε✱ ✇❤❡r❡ ε ✐s ❛ ❜✉②❡r✬s ♣r✐✈❛t❡❧② ❦♥♦✇♥

♠❛t❝❤ ✇✐t❤ t❤❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t✳ ❚❤✐s ♠❛t❝❤ ✐s ❞r❛✇♥ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t❧② ❛❝r♦ss ❜✉②❡rs ✉s✐♥❣ ❛ ❞✐str✐❜✉t✐♦♥ ❢✉♥❝t✐♦♥ G(ε) ✇✐t❤ s✉♣♣♦rt [a, b] ✇❤❡r❡ −∞ ≤ a < b ≤ ∞✳ ❚❤❡ ❛ss♦❝✐❛t❡❞ ❞❡♥s✐t② g(ε) ✐s

str✐❝t❧② ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡✱ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s❧② ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t✐❛❜❧❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❤❛s ❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ❤❛③❛r❞ r❛t❡✳

❚❤❡ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧✐st s❡♥❞s ❛ ♣✉❜❧✐❝❧② ♦❜s❡r✈❛❜❧❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s❡♠❡♥t ♦r ❵r❡♣♦rt✬r∈ {L, H}❛t ♥♦ ❝♦st✱

✇❤❡r❡ ❛ r❡♣♦rtr =z ✐s ❡q✉✐✈❛❧❡♥t t♦ ❛ ❝❧❛✐♠ ✏Pr♦❞✉❝t q✉❛❧✐t② ✐sz✑✳ ❚❤❡ ❜✐♥❛r② r❡♣♦rt s♣❛❝❡ ✐s

✇✐t❤♦✉t ❧♦ss ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡r❡ ❛r❡ ♦♥❧② t✇♦ ✜r♠ t②♣❡s ❛♥❞ r❡♣♦rts ❛r❡ ❝♦st❧❡ss✳ ❆ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r ✐s ❛❜❧❡ t♦ ✈❡r✐❢② ❛♥② ❛❞✈❡rt✐s❡❞ ❝❧❛✐♠ ❛♥❞ ✐♠♣♦s❡ ❛ ♣❡♥❛❧t②φ ✐❢ ✐t ✐s ❢❛❧s❡✱ ✇❤❡r❡ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣

✐s ❞❡✜♥❡❞ ❛s t❤❡ ✉s❡ ♦❢ ❛ ❤✐❣❤ q✉❛❧✐t② r❡♣♦rt r = H✱ ❜② ❛ ✜r♠ ✇✐t❤ ❧♦✇ q✉❛❧✐t② q = L✳ ❚❤❡

(8)

♣❡♥❛❧t②φ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t❡❞ ❛s ❛♥ ❡①♣❡❝t❡❞ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐❢ ❝❧❛✐♠s ❛r❡ ♦♥❧② ✈❡r✐✜❡❞ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐st✐❝❛❧❧②✳

❚❤❡ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r ❝❛♥ ❝♦st❧❡ss❧② ❝❤♦♦s❡ ❛♥② ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ♣❡♥❛❧t②✱ φ 0✱ ✐♥ ♦r❞❡r t♦ ♠❛①✐♠✐③❡ ♦♥❡

♦❢ t❤r❡❡ ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ ♦❜❥❡❝t✐✈❡s✿ ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s✱ t♦t❛❧ ♣r♦✜t✱ ♦r t♦t❛❧ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡✳ ❆♥② ♣❡♥❛❧t✐❡s t❤❛t ✐♥✈♦❧✈❡ ❛ ✜♥❡ ❣♦ t♦ t❤❡ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r✳✻

❚❤❡ t✐♠✐♥❣ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❣❛♠❡ ✐s ❛s ❢♦❧❧♦✇s✳ ❆t st❛❣❡ ✶ t❤❡ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r ♣✉❜❧✐❝❧② ❝♦♠♠✐ts t♦ ❛ ♣❡♥❛❧t② φ ❢♦r ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❆t st❛❣❡ ✷ t❤❡ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧✐st ♣r✐✈❛t❡❧② ❧❡❛r♥s ✐ts q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ■t t❤❡♥

❛♥♥♦✉♥❝❡s ❛ ♣r✐❝❡ p ❛♥❞ ✐ss✉❡s ❛ r❡♣♦rt r ∈ {L, H}✳ ❆t st❛❣❡ ✸ ❜✉②❡rs ❞❡❝✐❞❡ ✇❤❡t❤❡r t♦ ❜✉②

t❤❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t✱ t❛❦✐♥❣ ✐♥t♦ ❛❝❝♦✉♥t φ ❛s ✇❡❧❧ ❛s t❤❡ ✜r♠✬s ♣r✐❝❡ ❛♥❞ r❡♣♦rt✳ ❋✐♥❛❧❧② ❛t st❛❣❡ ✹

t❤❡ ♣♦❧✐❝②♠❛❦❡r ✈❡r✐✜❡s t❤❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s❡❞ ❝❧❛✐♠ ❛♥❞ ❛❞♠✐♥✐st❡rs t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t②✱ φ✱ ✐❢ ✐t ✐s ❢❛❧s❡✳ ❚❤❡

s♦❧✉t✐♦♥ ❝♦♥❝❡♣t ✐s P❡r❢❡❝t ❇❛②❡s✐❛♥ ❊q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✭P❇❊✮✳ ❆❧❧ ♦♠✐tt❡❞ ♣r♦♦❢s ❛r❡ ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡❞ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❛♣♣❡♥❞✐① ✉♥❧❡ss st❛t❡❞ ♦t❤❡r✇✐s❡✳

✸ ❊q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ❆♥❛❧②s✐s

✸✳✶ ❇❡♥❝❤♠❛r❦ ✇✐t❤ ❑♥♦✇♥ ◗✉❛❧✐t②

❆s ❛ ✜rst st❡♣✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r ❛ ❜❡♥❝❤♠❛r❦ ❝❛s❡ ✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ t❤❡ ✜r♠ ✐s ❦♥♦✇♥ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ q✉❛❧✐t②q✳ ◗✉❛❧✐t②

❝❧❛✐♠s ❛r❡ t❤❡♥ r❡❞✉♥❞❛♥t ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ✐t ✐s ✇❡❛❦❧② ♦♣t✐♠❛❧ ❢♦r t❤❡ ✜r♠ t♦ ✉s❡ tr✉t❤❢✉❧ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❆♥ ✐♥❞✐✈✐❞✉❛❧ ❜✉②❡r ♣✉r❝❤❛s❡s t❤❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t ✐❢ ❛♥❞ ♦♥❧② ✐❢ ε pq s✉❝❤ t❤❛t ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ❡q✉❛❧s D(pq) = 1G(pq)✳ ❚❤❡ ✜r♠ t❤❡♥ ❝❤♦♦s❡s ✐ts ♣r✐❝❡ t♦ ♠❛①✐♠✐③❡ p[1G(pq)]✱ ❛♥❞ s♦✿

▲❡♠♠❛ ✶✳ ❙✉♣♣♦s❡ t❤❡ ✜r♠ ✐s ❦♥♦✇♥ t♦ ❤❛✈❡ q✉❛❧✐t②q✱ ❛♥❞ ❞❡✜♥❡ q

e=−b❛♥❞ q˜=−a+1/g(a)✳

❚❤❡ ✜r♠✬s ♦♣t✐♠❛❧ ♣r✐❝❡✱ p∗(q), ✐s ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ✐♥ q ❛♥❞ s❛t✐s✜❡s✿

p∗(q) =

        

0 ✐❢ qq

e

1−G(p∗(q)q)

g(p∗(q)q) ✐❢ q∈

q

e,q˜

a+q ✐❢ q

✭✶✮

❲❤❡♥ q q

e✱ q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s s♦ ❧♦✇ t❤❛t t❤❡ ✜r♠ ✇♦✉❧❞ ♠❛❦❡ ③❡r♦ s❛❧❡s ❡✈❡♥ ✐❢ ✐t ♣r✐❝❡❞ ❛t

♠❛r❣✐♥❛❧ ❝♦st✳ ❚❤❡ ♠❛r❦❡t ✐s ✐♥❛❝t✐✈❡✱ ❛♥❞ ✇❡ ♥♦r♠❛❧✐③❡ t❤❡ ✜r♠✬s ♣r✐❝❡ t♦ ③❡r♦ ✇✐t❤♦✉t ❧♦ss✳ ❲❤❡♥ ✐♥st❡❛❞ q (q

e,q˜), t❤❡ ✜r♠ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧❧② s❡❧❧s t♦ s♦♠❡ ❜✉t ♥♦t ❛❧❧ ❜✉②❡rs s✉❝❤ t❤❛t p ∗(q)

s❛t✐s✜❡s t❤❡ ✉s✉❛❧ ♠♦♥♦♣♦❧② ✜rst ♦r❞❡r ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥✳ ❋✐♥❛❧❧② ✐❢ qq,˜ q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s s♦ ❤✐❣❤ t❤❛t

t❤❡ ✜r♠ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧❧② s❡❧❧s t♦ ❛❧❧ ♣♦t❡♥t✐❛❧ ❝✉st♦♠❡rs ❜② ♣r✐❝✐♥❣ ❛t t❤❡ ✇✐❧❧✐♥❣♥❡ss✲t♦✲♣❛② ♦❢ t❤❡ ♠❛r❣✐♥❛❧ ❜✉②❡r✱a+q✱ s✉❝❤ t❤❛t t❤❡ ♠❛r❦❡t ✐s ❵❝♦✈❡r❡❞✬✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r✱ ❢♦r s♦♠❡ ❞✐str✐❜✉t✐♦♥s✱q˜=

❛♥❞ s♦ t❤✐s ✜♥❛❧ ❝❛s❡ ✐s r❡❞✉♥❞❛♥t✳ ❍❡♥❝❡❢♦rt❤ t♦ ❛✈♦✐❞ s♦♠❡ ✉♥✐♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣ ❝❛s❡s✱ ❧❡t q > q¯

e✭♦r

¯

q+b >0✮ s✉❝❤ t❤❛t ❛ ♣r♦❞✉❝t ♦❢ ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ q✉❛❧✐t② ❛❧✇❛②s ❤❛s s♦♠❡ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ✈❛❧✉❡✳

▼♦r❡ ❜r♦❛❞❧②✱ ♦♥❡ ❝♦✉❧❞ ❛❧s♦ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t φt♦ ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡ ❛♥② ❞✐r❡❝t ❝♦sts ♦❢ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ❛ ❢❛❧s❡ ❝❧❛✐♠✳ ❋♦r ✐♥st❛♥❝❡✱

❛s ✐♥ t❤❡ ❝❛s❡ ♦❢ ❱♦❧❦s✇❛❣❡♥✱ t❤❡s❡ ❝♦✉❧❞ ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡ t❤❡ ❝♦sts ♦❢ ❢❛❧s✐❢②✐♥❣ ❡♠✐ss✐♦♥s t❡sts✳

(9)

❖✉r ❧❛t❡r ❛♥❛❧②s✐s ✇✐❧❧ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r ❤♦✇ t❤❡ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧ ♣r✐❝❡ ✈❛r✐❡s ✇✐t❤ q✉❛❧✐t②✱ ❛♥❞ ✇❡ ✇✐❧❧ s♦♠❡t✐♠❡s r❡❢❡r t♦dp∗(q)/dq❛s ❵q✉❛❧✐t② ♣❛ss✲t❤r♦✉❣❤✬✳ ❋✐rst❧② ❢♦rq(q

e,q˜)✱ ❛❢t❡r ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t✐❛t✐♥❣

t❤❡ ✜rst ♦r❞❡r ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥✿

dp∗(q)

dq =

1σ(p∗(q)q)

2σ(p∗(q)q)), ✭✷✮

✇❤❡r❡ σ(ψ) = [1G(ψ)]g′(ψ)/g(ψ)2 ✐s t❤❡ ❝✉r✈❛t✉r❡ ♦❢ ❞❡♠❛♥❞ ✭s❡❡ ❆❣✉✐rr❡ ❡t ❛❧ ✷✵✶✵✱ ❛♥❞

❲❡②❧ ❛♥❞ ❋❛❜✐♥❣❡r ✷✵✶✸✮✳ ■t t❤❡♥ ❢♦❧❧♦✇s t❤❛t dp∗(q)/dq [0,1) ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ♦✉r ❛ss✉♠♣t✐♦♥ ♦❢

❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ❤❛③❛r❞ r❛t❡ ✐♠♣❧✐❡s t❤❛t D(pq) ✐s ❧♦❣❝♦♥❝❛✈❡ ✐♥ ♣r✐❝❡✱ s✉❝❤ t❤❛t σ(ψ) 1✳

■♥t✉✐t✐✈❡❧②✱ ❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ✐♥ q✉❛❧✐t② q ♣r♦❞✉❝❡s ❛ ♣❛r❛❧❧❡❧ ♦✉t✇❛r❞ s❤✐❢t ✐♥ t❤❡ ✐♥✈❡rs❡ ❞❡♠❛♥❞

❝✉r✈❡✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ✜r♠ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧❧② r❡s♣♦♥❞s ❜② ❜♦t❤ ❝❤❛r❣✐♥❣ ❛ ❤✐❣❤❡r ♣r✐❝❡ ❛♥❞ ❜② s❡❧❧✐♥❣ t♦ str✐❝t❧② ♠♦r❡ ❜✉②❡rs✳✼ ❙❡❝♦♥❞❧②✱ ✇❤❡r❡ ❛♣♣r♦♣r✐❛t❡✱ ✇❤❡♥ qq˜q✉❛❧✐t② ♣❛ss✲t❤r♦✉❣❤ ✐s ♦♥❡✳

❚❤❡ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ♣r♦✜t ❡❛r♥❡❞ ❜② ❛ ✜r♠ ♦❢ ❦♥♦✇♥ q✉❛❧✐t②q ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ✇r✐tt❡♥ ❛s

π∗(q) = p∗(q) [1G(p∗(q)q)]. ✭✸✮

■t ✐s str❛✐❣❤t❢♦r✇❛r❞ t♦ s❤♦✇ t❤❛t π∗(q) ✐s ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ ❝♦♥✈❡① ✐♥ q ❣✐✈❡♥ t❤❛t g(ε) ❤❛s ❛♥

✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ❤❛③❛r❞ r❛t❡✳ ❋✐♥❛❧❧②✱ ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s ❝❛♥ ❜❡ ❡①♣r❡ss❡❞ ❛s

v∗(q) =

ˆ b+q

p∗(q)

[1G(zq)]dz. ✭✹✮

❖❜s❡r✈❡ t❤❛t v∗(q) = 0 ✇❤❡♥ q q

e ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ♥♦ ❜✉②❡r ♣✉r❝❤❛s❡s t❤❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t✱ ❜✉t t❤❛t ❜✉②❡r

s✉r♣❧✉s ✐s ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ ✇❡❛❦❧② ✐♥❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ✐♥ q > q

e✳ ❲❡ ❢✉rt❤❡r ❞✐s❝✉ss t❤❡ s❤❛♣❡ ♦❢ v

(q) ✐♥

❙❡❝t✐♦♥ ✹✳✶ ❜❡❧♦✇✳

✸✳✷ Pr✐✈❛t❡❧②✲❑♥♦✇♥ ◗✉❛❧✐t②

❍❡♥❝❡❢♦rt❤ ✇❡ ❛ss✉♠❡ t❤❛t t❤❡ ✜r♠ ✐s ♣r✐✈❛t❡❧② ✐♥❢♦r♠❡❞ ❛❜♦✉t ✐ts q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ❆s ✐s t②♣✐❝❛❧ ✐♥ s✐❣♥❛❧✐♥❣ ❣❛♠❡s✱ t❤❡r❡ ❡①✐sts ❛ ❧❛r❣❡ ♥✉♠❜❡r ♦❢ P❇❊ ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ ❜✉②❡rs ❝❛♥ ❛ttr✐❜✉t❡ ❛♥② ♦✛✲♣❛t❤ ❝❧❛✐♠ ♦r ♣r✐❝❡ t♦ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡✳ ❲❡ t❤❡r❡❢♦r❡ ♣r♦❝❡❡❞ ❛s ❢♦❧❧♦✇s✳ ❋✐rst❧② ✇❡ ♦♥❧② ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r P❇❊ ✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡ ♠❛❦❡s ❛ tr✉t❤❢✉❧ ❝❧❛✐♠ ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② ♦♥❡✳ ❆❧t❤♦✉❣❤ t❤❡r❡ ❞♦ ❡①✐st P❇❊ ✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡ r❡♣♦rts r=L✱ t❤❡s❡ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐❛ r❡q✉✐r❡ ❜✉②❡rs t♦ ♣❡r✈❡rs❡❧② ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ t❤❛t

❛ ✜r♠ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ❤✐❣❤❡r ❝❧❛✐♠ ❤❛s ❧♦✇❡r q✉❛❧✐t②❀ s✉❝❤ ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ❞♦ ♥♦t s❛t✐s❢② ❝♦♠♠♦♥ r❡✜♥❡♠❡♥ts s✉❝❤ ❛s ❉✶✳ ❙❡❝♦♥❞❧② t❤❡♥✱ ✐❢ ❛ ✜r♠ r❡♣♦rts r = L ✐t ✐s r❡❛s♦♥❛❜❧❡ ❢♦r ❜✉②❡rs t♦ ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡ t❤❛t

q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s ❧♦✇ ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② ♦♥❡✳ ❚❤❡r❡❢♦r❡ ✐❢ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ r❡♣♦rts r=L✐t s❤♦✉❧❞ ❝❤❛r❣❡ ✐ts

❢✉❧❧ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ♣r✐❝❡ p∗(L)✱ ❛♥❞ ❤❡♥❝❡ ❡❛r♥ π(L)✳ ■❢ ✐♥st❡❛❞ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ r❡♣♦rts r = H✱ ✐t

❲❡②❧ ❛♥❞ ❋❛❜✐♥❣❡r ✭✷✵✶✸✮ ♥♦t❡ t❤❛t t❤❡ ♦♣t✐♠❛❧ ♣r✐❝❡ ❝❤❛♥❣❡ ❢r♦♠ ❛♥② ♦✉t✇❛r❞ ✉♥✐t s❤✐❢t ✐♥ ✐♥✈❡rs❡ ❞❡♠❛♥❞

✭s✉❝❤ ❛s ❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ✐♥ q✉❛❧✐t② ✇✐t❤✐♥ ♦✉r ♠♦❞❡❧✮ ❡q✉❛❧s ♦♥❡ ♠✐♥✉s ❝♦st ♣❛ss✲t❤r♦✉❣❤✳

(10)

♠✉st ❝❤❛r❣❡ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ♣r✐❝❡ ❛s t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡✱ ♦t❤❡r✇✐s❡ ❜✉②❡rs ✇♦✉❧❞ ❝♦rr❡❝t❧② ✐♥❢❡r ✐ts t②♣❡ ❛♥❞ ✐t ✇♦✉❧❞ ❡❛r♥ ✭✇❡❛❦❧②✮ ❧❡ss t❤❛♥π∗(L)✳ ❚❤✐r❞❧②✱ ✇❡ ♥❡❡❞ t♦ ❞❡t❡r♠✐♥❡ t❤❡ ♣r✐❝❡ ❝❤❛r❣❡❞ ❜② t❤❡

✜r♠ ✇❤❡♥ ✐t r❡♣♦rts r =H✳ ▼❛♥② s✉❝❤ ♣r✐❝❡s ❝❛♥ ❢♦r♠ ❛ P❇❊ ❡✈❡♥ ❛❢t❡r ❛♣♣❧②✐♥❣ st❛♥❞❛r❞

r❡✜♥❡♠❡♥ts s✉❝❤ ❛s ❉✶✱ ❞✉❡ t♦ t❤❡ s②♠♠❡tr② ✐♥ ♠❛r❣✐♥❛❧ ❝♦sts✳✽ ❚❤❡r❡❢♦r❡ t♦ ♠❛❦❡ ❢✉rt❤❡r

♣r♦❣r❡ss ✐♥ s❡❧❡❝t✐♥❣ ❛♠♦♥❣st t❤❡s❡ ♣r✐❝❡s✱ ✇❡ r❡str✐❝t ❛tt❡♥t✐♦♥ t♦ ❜✉②❡r ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ✇❤✐❝❤ ❞❡♣❡♥❞ ♦♥❧② ♦♥ t❤❡ ✜r♠✬s ❝❧❛✐♠ ❛♥❞ ♥♦t ✐ts ♣r✐❝❡✳ ❚❤✐s ✐♠♣❧✐❡s t❤❛t t❤❡ ✜r♠ s❤♦✉❧❞ ❝❤❛r❣❡p∗(qe

H)✇❤❡♥

✐t ♠❛❦❡s ❛ ❤✐❣❤ r❡♣♦rt✱ ✇❤❡r❡ qe

H ≡ E(q|r=H) ❞❡♥♦t❡s ❜✉②❡r ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ❛❢t❡r ♦❜s❡r✈✐♥❣ ❛ ❤✐❣❤

r❡♣♦rt✳ ❖♥❡ ❥✉st✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ ❢♦r t❤✐s r❡str✐❝t✐♦♥ ✐s ❛s ❢♦❧❧♦✇s✳ ◆♦t✐❝❡ t❤❛t ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧ ♦♥ s❡♥❞✐♥❣ ❛ ❤✐❣❤ r❡♣♦rt✱ t❤❡ ♣❛②♦✛ ❢✉♥❝t✐♦♥s ♦❢ t❤❡ t✇♦ t②♣❡s ❞✐✛❡r ♦♥❧② ❜② t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t② φ✳ ❚❤❡r❡❢♦r❡

❜✉②❡rs ♠✐❣❤t r❡❛s♦♥❛❜❧② ❡①♣❡❝t t❤❡ t✇♦ t②♣❡s t♦ ♣r✐❝❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ✇❛② ❛❢t❡r r❡♣♦rt✐♥❣ r=H✱

❛♥❞ t❤❡r❡❢♦r❡ ❛✈♦✐❞ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ❛♥② ♣r✐❝❡✲❜❛s❡❞ ✐♥❢❡r❡♥❝❡s✳✾ ❲❡ ❝❛♥ t❤❡♥ st❛t❡✿

Pr♦♣♦s✐t✐♦♥ ✶✳ ❙✉♣♣♦s❡ ❛ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡ ❛❧✇❛②s r❡♣♦rts tr✉t❤❢✉❧❧②✱ ❛♥❞ ❜✉②❡r ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ❞❡♣❡♥❞ ♦♥❧② ♦♥ t❤❡ ✜r♠✬s ❝❧❛✐♠✳ ❚❤❡r❡ ❡①✐sts ❛ ✉♥✐q✉❡ P❇❊✶✵✱ ✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤✿

✐✮ ❆ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡ ❝❧❛✐♠s r =H ❛♥❞ ❝❤❛r❣❡s p∗(qe H)✳

✐✐✮ ❆ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ r❛♥❞♦♠✐③❡s✳ ❲✐t❤ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② y∗ ✐t ❝❧❛✐♠s r = H ❛♥❞ ❝❤❛r❣❡s p(qe

H)✳ ❲✐t❤

♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② 1y∗ ✐t ❝❧❛✐♠s r =L ❛♥❞ ❝❤❛r❣❡s p(L)

✲ ❲❤❡♥ φ φ1 ≡π∗(¯q)−π∗(L)✱ y∗ = 1

✲ ❲❤❡♥ φ φ0 ≡π∗(H)−π∗(L)✱ y∗ = 0

✲ ❲❤❡♥ φ (φ1, φ0)✱ y∗ ∈(0,1)❛♥❞ ✉♥✐q✉❡❧② s♦❧✈❡s

π∗(qeH)φ =π∗(L), ✭✺✮

where qe H =

xy∗L+ (1x)H

1x+xy∗ . ✭✻✮

✐✐✐✮ ❇✉②❡r ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ❛r❡ Pr (q =H|r =L) = 0 ❛♥❞ Pr (q =H|r =H) = 11x+xxy∗.

❲❤❡♥ φ π(H)π(L)✱ ❉✶ s❡❧❡❝ts ❛ ❢✉❧❧② s❡♣❛r❛t✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ ♣❧❛②s {r =

L, p=p∗(L)}✱ ✇❤✐❧st t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡ ♣❧❛②s{r=H, p(H)}.❍♦✇❡✈❡r ✇❤❡♥φ < π(H)π(L)♠❛♥② ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠

♦✉t❝♦♠❡s ❛r❡ ❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t ✇✐t❤ ❉✶✳ ❆♠♦♥❣ ♦t❤❡rs✱ t❤✐s ✐♥❝❧✉❞❡s ❛ ❝♦♥t✐♥✉✉♠ ♦❢ s❡♠✐✲♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐❛✱ ✇❤❡r❡ ❢♦r ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❧❡✈❡❧s ♦❢ s♦♠❡ ♣r✐❝❡pspt❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡ ♣❧❛②s

{r=H, p=psp

}✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ r❛♥❞♦♠✐③❡s ❜❡t✇❡❡♥ {r=L, p=p∗(L)} ❛♥❞{r=H, p=psp}

❆♥♦t❤❡r ❥✉st✐✜❝❛t✐♦♥ ✐s ❛s ❢♦❧❧♦✇s✳ ❋✐rst✱ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r ❛ ❞✐✛❡r❡♥t ❣❛♠❡G✐♥ ✇❤✐❝❤ ❧♦✇ ❛♥❞ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡s ♦♥❧② s✐❣♥❛❧

✈✐❛ t❤❡✐r ♣r✐❝❡✱ ❛♥❞ ❤❛✈❡ ♣❛②♦✛ ❢✉♥❝t✐♦♥sΠ(p, qe)φ❛♥❞Π(p, qe)r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❡❧② ✇❤❡r❡qe✐s ❜✉②❡rs✬ ❜❡❧✐❡❢ ❛❜♦✉t q✉❛❧✐t②✳ ❚❤✐s ❣❛♠❡ ❤❛s ♠❛♥② P❇❊ ❛♥❞ ❉✶ ❤❛s ♥♦ ❜✐t❡✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r ▼❛✐❧❛t❤ ❡t ❛❧✬s ✭✶✾✾✸✮ ❯♥❞❡❢❡❛t❡❞ r❡✜♥❡♠❡♥t s❡❧❡❝ts ❛ ✉♥✐q✉❡ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✇✐t❤ ♣r✐❝❡arg max Π(p, qe)✱ ❛♥❞ ✐s ❝♦♥s✐st❡♥t ✇✐t❤ ♣r✐❝❡✲✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t ❜✉②❡r ❜❡❧✐❡❢s✳ ◆♦✇ r❡t✉r♥ t♦ ♦✉r ❣❛♠❡✳ ❙✉♣♣♦s❡ ❜✉②❡rs ❡①♣❡❝t t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ t♦ r❡♣♦rtr=H ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t②y∈(0,1]✱

❛♥❞ ✐♥t❡r♣r❡t ❛♥② ♦✛✲♣❛t❤ ♣r✐❝❡ ❛s ❛ ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ s✐❣♥❛❧ ❛❜♦✉t t❤❡ ✜r♠✬s t②♣❡ ❜✉t ♥♦t ❛❜♦✉ty✳ ❚❤❡♥ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧ ♦♥

r❡♣♦rt✐♥❣ r=H✱ t❤❡ ✜r♠ ❝❛♥ ❜❡ t❤♦✉❣❤t ♦❢ ❛s ♣❧❛②✐♥❣ ❣❛♠❡ G✇❤❡♥ ❝❤♦♦s✐♥❣ ✐ts ♣r✐❝❡✱ ❛♥❞ t❤✉s ❜♦t❤ t②♣❡s

s❤♦✉❧❞ ♣♦♦❧ ♦♥ p∗(qe

H)✱ ✇✐t❤ ❜✉②❡rs✬ ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ❜❡✐♥❣ ✐♥❞❡♣❡♥❞❡♥t ♦❢ ♣r✐❝❡✳

✶✵■♥ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r✱ t❤❡ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✐s ✉♥✐q✉❡ ✉♣ t♦ ♦✛✲♣❛t❤ ❜❡❧✐❡❢s✿ ✇❤❡♥φ < φ

1 t❤❡ ❝❧❛✐♠r=L✐s ♦✛✲♣❛t❤✱ ❛♥❞

❛ r❛♥❣❡ ♦❢ ❜❡❧✐❡❢sPr (q=L|r=L)❧❡❛❞ t♦ t❤❡ s❛♠❡ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ♣❧❛②✳

(11)

❚❤❡ ❡①❛❝t ♥❛t✉r❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✐♥ Pr♦♣♦s✐t✐♦♥ ✶ ❞❡♣❡♥❞s ✐♥t✉✐t✐✈❡❧② ♦♥ ✇❤❡t❤❡r t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ❢♦r ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✐s ❵❧♦✇✬✱ ❵♠❡❞✐✉♠✬✱ ♦r ❵❤✐❣❤✬✳ ❋✐rst❧②✱ ✐❢ φ φ0 ≡ π∗(H)−π∗(L)

t❤❡ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ❤❛s ❢✉❧❧ s❡♣❛r❛t✐♦♥✱ ✇✐t❤ ❜♦t❤ t②♣❡s r❡♣♦rt✐♥❣ tr✉t❤❢✉❧❧② ❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐s s✉✣❝✐❡♥t❧② ❤✐❣❤ t❤❛t tr✉t❤✲t❡❧❧✐♥❣ ✐s ❛ ❞♦♠✐♥❛♥t str❛t❡❣② ❢♦r t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡✳ ❆❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✐s ♣❡r❢❡❝t❧② ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐✈❡ ❛♥❞ ❝❧❛✐♠s ❛r❡ ❢✉❧❧② ❜❡❧✐❡✈❡❞ ❜② ❜✉②❡rs✳ ❈♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❧②✱ ❡❛❝❤ t②♣❡ q

{L, H}s❡ts ✐ts ❢✉❧❧ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ♣r✐❝❡p∗(q)✱ ❛♥❞ ❡❛r♥s ✐ts ❢✉❧❧ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥ ♣r♦✜tπ(q)✳ ❙❡❝♦♥❞❧②✱

✐❢φφ1 ≡π∗(¯q)−π∗(L)t❤❡ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ❤❛s ❢✉❧❧ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣✱ ✇✐t❤ ❜♦t❤ t②♣❡s s❡♥❞✐♥❣ ❛ ❤✐❣❤ r❡♣♦rt

❜❡❝❛✉s❡ t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t② ✐s s✉✣❝✐❡♥t❧② ❧♦✇ t❤❛t ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ✐s ❛ ❞♦♠✐♥❛♥t str❛t❡❣② ❢♦r t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡✳ ❯♣♦♥ s❡❡✐♥❣ ❛ ❤✐❣❤ ❝❧❛✐♠ ❜✉②❡rs t❤❡♥ ♠❛✐♥t❛✐♥ t❤❡✐r ♣r✐♦r ❜❡❧✐❡❢ t❤❛t t❤❡ ✜r♠✬s ❛✈❡r❛❣❡ q✉❛❧✐t② ✐s q¯✳ ❆s s✉❝❤✱ ❜♦t❤ t②♣❡s s❡t p∗(¯q)❛♥❞ ❡❛r♥ ♣r♦✜ts ♦❢ π∗(¯q)❛♥❞ π∗(¯q)φ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❡❧②✳

❋✐♥❛❧❧② ❛♥❞ ♠♦st ✐♥t❡r❡st✐♥❣❧②✱ ✐❢ φ (φ1, φ0) t❤❡ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ ✐s s❡♠✐✲♣♦♦❧✐♥❣✳ ❍❡r❡ t❤❡ ❧♦✇

t②♣❡ r❛♥❞♦♠✐③❡s✱ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ ❛ ❢❛❧s❡ r❡♣♦rt ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② y∗ (0,1) ❛♥❞ ❛ tr✉t❤❢✉❧ r❡♣♦rt ✇✐t❤

❝♦♠♣❧❡♠❡♥t❛r② ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② 1y∗✳ ❯♣♦♥ s❡❡✐♥❣ ❛ ❤✐❣❤ r❡♣♦rt ❜✉②❡rs t❤❡r❡❢♦r❡ ✉♣❞❛t❡ t❤❡✐r

❜❡❧✐❡❢ ❛❜♦✉t q✉❛❧✐t② t♦

qHe E(q|r=H) = xy∗L+ (1−x)H

1x+xy∗ ∈(¯q, H).

❈♦♥s❡q✉❡♥t❧② t❤❡ ❤✐❣❤ t②♣❡ r❡♣♦rts r = H ❛♥❞ ❝❤❛r❣❡s p∗(qe

H)✱ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ r❛♥❞♦♠✐③❡s

❜❡t✇❡❡♥r=L❛♥❞ ♣r✐❝❡p∗(L)✱ ❛♥❞ r❡♣♦rtr =H ❛♥❞ ♣r✐❝❡p(qe

H)✳ ❚❤❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② ✇✐t❤ ✇❤✐❝❤

t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ ❧✐❡s✱ y∗✱ s❛t✐s✜❡s ❡q✉❛t✐♦♥ ✭✺✮ ❛♥❞ ❡♥s✉r❡s t❤❛t t❤❡ ♣❛②♦✛s ❢r♦♠ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣

❛♥❞ tr✉t❤✲t❡❧❧✐♥❣ ❛r❡ ❡q✉❛❧✳ ■❢ ✐♥st❡❛❞ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ ❧✐❡❞ ✇✐t❤ ❛ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② ❛❜♦✈❡ ✭❜❡❧♦✇✮ y∗

❜✉②❡rs✬ ❡①♣❡❝t❡❞ q✉❛❧✐t②qe

H ✇♦✉❧❞ ❜❡ t♦♦ ❧♦✇ ✭❤✐❣❤✮ ❛♥❞ ❤❡♥❝❡ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ ✇♦✉❧❞ ❤❛✈❡ ❛ str✐❝t

♣r❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡ t♦ r❡♣♦rt tr✉t❤❢✉❧❧② ✭❢❛❧s❡❧②✮✱ ②✐❡❧❞✐♥❣ ❛ ❝♦♥tr❛❞✐❝t✐♦♥✳ ❍❡♥❝❡ r❛♥❞♦♠✐③❛t✐♦♥ ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② y∗ ✐s ❛♥ ❡ss❡♥t✐❛❧ ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♦❢ t❤✐s ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠✳

◆♦t✐❝❡ t❤❛t ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ ❡①✐sts ✐♥ ❜♦t❤ t❤❡ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❛♥❞ t❤❡ s❡♠✐✲♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐❛✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r ✐♥ ❛ ♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠✱ ❜✉②❡rs ❡✛❡❝t✐✈❡❧② ✐❣♥♦r❡ ❤✐❣❤ ❝❧❛✐♠s ❛♥❞ s✐♠♣❧② ♠❛✐♥t❛✐♥ t❤❡✐r ♣r✐♦r ❜❡❧✐❡❢✳ ❖♥ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ❤❛♥❞✱ s❡♠✐✲♣♦♦❧✐♥❣ ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐❛ ❤❛✈❡ t❤❡ ♠♦r❡ ❛♣♣❡❛❧✐♥❣ ❢❡❛t✉r❡ t❤❛t ❤✐❣❤ ❝❧❛✐♠s ❞♦ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡ ❜✉②❡rs ✇✐t❤ s♦♠❡ ✉s❡❢✉❧ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐♦♥✱ ❛♥❞ t❤✉s ✐♥❞✉❝❡ t❤❡♠ t♦ ♣♦s✐t✐✈❡❧② ✉♣❞❛t❡ t❤❡✐r ❜❡❧✐❡❢✱ ✇✐t❤ qe

H >q.¯

✹ ❚❤❡ ❊✛❡❝ts ♦❢ P♦❧✐❝②

❋✐rst ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r t❤❡ ❡✛❡❝ts ♦❢ ♣♦❧✐❝② ♦♥ t❤❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✱ y∗✳ ❇② ✉s✐♥❣ ❡q✉❛t✐♦♥s ✭✺✮

❛♥❞ ✭✻✮ ✐t ❢♦❧❧♦✇s t❤❛t✿

▲❡♠♠❛ ✷✳ ❚❤❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ y∗✱ ✐s ❝♦♥t✐♥✉♦✉s ❛♥❞ ✇❡❛❦❧② ❞❡❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤❡ ❧❡✈❡❧

♦❢ ♣❡♥❛❧t② φ✳

(12)

❚❤✐s ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ♠♦❞❡❧ ✐s ✉s❡❢✉❧ ❛♥❛❧②t✐❝❛❧❧② ✐♥ t❤❡ s✉❜sq✉❡♥t s❡❝t✐♦♥s✱ ❛♥❞ ❡♥s✉r❡s t❤❛t str♦♥❣❡r ♣♦❧✐❝② s♠♦♦t❤❧② ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡s t❤❡ ✐♥❢♦r♠❛t✐✈❡♥❡ss ♦❢ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣✳ ❲❤❡♥φ > φ0 ♦rφ < φ1✱

❛ ❧♦✇ q✉❛❧✐t② ✜r♠ ❤❛s ❛ str✐❝t ♣r❡❢❡r❡♥❝❡ ❢♦r tr✉t❤✲t❡❧❧✐♥❣ ♦r ❧②✐♥❣ r❡s♣❡❝t✐✈❡❧②✱ ❛♥❞ s♦ s♠❛❧❧ ❝❤❛♥❣❡s ✐♥ φ ❤❛✈❡ ♥♦ ❡✛❡❝t✳ ❍♦✇❡✈❡r ✇❤❡♥ φ [φ1, φ0]✱ t❤❡ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣ y∗

s❛t✐s✜❡s t❤❡ ✐♥❞✐✛❡r❡♥❝❡ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥ ✭✺✮ ❛♥❞ ✐s str✐❝t❧② ❞❡❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ✐♥φ ❢r♦♠1t♦0✳ ■♥t✉✐t✐✈❡❧②✱ t♦

♠❛✐♥t❛✐♥ ✐♥❞✐✛❡r❡♥❝❡ ♦❢ t❤❡ ❧♦✇ t②♣❡ ❛s φ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡s✱ ❤✐❣❤ r❡♣♦rts ♠✉st ❜❡❝♦♠❡ ♠♦r❡ ❝r❡❞✐❜❧❡✳

❙✐♥❝❡ ❜✉②❡rs ❛r❡ ❇❛②❡s✐❛♥✱ t❤✐s ✐s ♦♥❧② ♣♦ss✐❜❧❡ ✐❢ y∗ ✐s str✐❝t❧② ❧♦✇❡r✳

✹✳✶ ❇✉②❡r ❙✉r♣❧✉s

❲❡ ♥♦✇ ❝♦♥s✐❞❡r t❤❡ ❡✛❡❝ts ♦❢ ♣♦❧✐❝② ♦♥ ❛ ✈❛r✐❡t② ♦❢ ✇❡❧❢❛r❡ ♠❡❛s✉r❡s✱ st❛rt✐♥❣ ✇✐t❤ ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s✳ ❯s✐♥❣ Pr♦♣♦s✐t✐♦♥ ✶ ✇❡ ❝❛♥ ✇r✐t❡ ❡①♣❡❝t❡❞ ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s ❛s

E(v) = x(1y∗)

ˆ b

p∗(L)L

(L+εp∗(L)) dG(ε) +xy∗

ˆ b

p∗(qe H)−qHe

(L+εp∗(qeH)) dG(ε)

+(1x)

ˆ b

p∗(qe H)−qeH

(H+εp∗(qeH)) dG(ε). ✭✼✮

■♥ ✇♦r❞s✱ ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② x(1y∗) t❤❡ ✜r♠ s❡♥❞s ❛ ❧♦✇ r❡♣♦rt ❛♥❞ ❝❤❛r❣❡s p(L)✳ ❇✉②❡rs

❝♦rr❡❝t❧② ✐♥❢❡r ❧♦✇ q✉❛❧✐t②✱ ❜✉② ✐❢εp∗(L)L✱ ❛♥❞ r❡❝❡✐✈❡L+εp(L)✳ ❚❤❡♥ ✇✐t❤ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t②

1x+xy∗t❤❡ ✜r♠ s❡♥❞s ❛ ❤✐❣❤ r❡♣♦rt ❛♥❞ ❝❤❛r❣❡sp∗(qHe)✳ ❇✉②❡rs ✉♣❞❛t❡ t❤❡✐r ❜❡❧✐❡❢s ❛❝❝♦r❞✐♥❣

t♦ ❡q✉❛t✐♦♥ ✭✻✮✱ ❛♥❞ ❜✉② ✐❢ ε p∗(qe

H)−qHe✳ ❲✐t❤ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② xy∗/(1−x+xy∗)✱

t❤❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t ✐s ❧♦✇ q✉❛❧✐t②✱ ❛♥❞ ❜✉②❡rs r❡❝❡✐✈❡ L+εp∗(qe

H)✳ ❲✐t❤ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥❛❧ ♣r♦❜❛❜✐❧✐t② (1x)/(1x+xy∗)✱ t❤❡ ♣r♦❞✉❝t ✐s ❤✐❣❤ q✉❛❧✐t②✱ ❛♥❞ ❜✉②❡rs r❡❝❡✐✈❡ H+εp(qe

H)✳ ❆❢t❡r

❝♦❧❧❡❝t✐♥❣ t❡r♠s ❛♥❞ ✉s✐♥❣ t❤❡ ❞❡✜♥✐t✐♦♥ ♦❢v∗(q)✐♥ ❡q✉❛t✐♦♥ ✭✹✮✱ t❤❡ ❛❜♦✈❡ ❡①♣r❡ss✐♦♥ s✐♠♣❧✐✜❡s

❛s ❢♦❧❧♦✇s✱ ✇❤❡r❡ E(v) ✐s ❥✉st ❛ ❝♦♥✈❡① ❝♦♠❜✐♥❛t✐♦♥ ♦❢v∗(L) ❛♥❞ v(qe H)✳

E(v) = x(1y∗)v∗(L) + (xy∗+ 1x)v∗(qHe). ✭✽✮

❲❡ ♥♦✇ ❡①♣❧♦✐t t❤❡ s♠♦♦t❤ ❢❡❛t✉r❡ ♦❢ ♦✉r ❡q✉✐❧✐❜r✐✉♠ t♦ ✐♥✈❡st✐❣❛t❡ t❤❡ ❡✛❡❝t ♦❢ ❛ ♠❛r❣✐♥❛❧ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ✐♥ t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t②φ✳ ■♥ ♣❛rt✐❝✉❧❛r ▲❡♠♠❛ ✸ ✇✐❧❧ ♣r♦✈✐❞❡ ❝♦♥❞✐t✐♦♥s ✉♥❞❡r ✇❤✐❝❤ ❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡

✐♥ t❤❡ ♣❡♥❛❧t② φ ❧❡❛❞s t♦ ❛ r❡❞✉❝t✐♦♥ ✐♥ ❡①♣❡❝t❡❞ ❜✉②❡r s✉r♣❧✉s✳ ❚♦ ✉♥❞❡rst❛♥❞ ✇❤② t❤✐s ❝❛♥

❤❛♣♣❡♥✱ r❡❝❛❧❧ t❤❛t t❤❡ ❧❡✈❡❧ ♦❢ ❢❛❧s❡ ❛❞✈❡rt✐s✐♥❣y∗ ✐s ❛ ❞❡❝r❡❛s✐♥❣ ❢✉♥❝t✐♦♥ ♦❢ φ✱ ❛♥❞ ♥♦t❡ t❤❛t

❛♥ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ✐♥y∗ ♣r♦❞✉❝❡s t✇♦ ❡✛❡❝ts✳ ❖♥ t❤❡ ♦♥❡ ❤❛♥❞✱ ❜✉②❡rs ❛r❡ ♠♦r❡ ❧✐❦❡❧② t♦ r❡❝❡✐✈❡ ❛ ❢❛❧s❡

❛❞✈❡rt ❛♥❞ s♦ ❜❡ ♣❡rs✉❛❞❡❞ t♦ ❜✉② ❛ ❧♦✇ q✉❛❧✐t② ♣r♦❞✉❝t ❛t ❛♥ ✐♥✢❛t❡❞ ♣r✐❝❡ p∗(qe

H)> p∗(L)✳

❍♦✇❡✈❡r ♦♥ t❤❡ ♦t❤❡r ❤❛♥❞✱ t❤❡ ✐♥❝r❡❛s❡ ✐♥ ❧②✐♥❣ ❞❛♠❛❣❡s t❤❡ ❝r❡❞✐❜✐❧✐t② ♦❢ ❤✐❣❤ q✉❛❧✐t② ❝❧❛✐♠s✱ ❛♥❞ ❢♦r❝❡s ❛♥② t②♣❡ ♠❛❦✐♥❣ s✉❝❤ ❛ ❝❧❛✐♠ t♦ r❡❞✉❝❡ ✐ts ♣r✐❝❡✳ ■♥ ♠♦r❡ ❞❡t❛✐❧✱ ✉s✐♥❣ ❡q✉❛t✐♦♥ ✭✽✮

Figure

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References