10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics and 22nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

16 

(1)10th International Conference on Computational Linguistics -:ll. 22nd An nual Meeti ng of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Proceedings. of C o l i n g 8 4. 2-6 July 1984 Stanford University, California.

(2) Published by the Association for Computational Linguistics © 1984, Association for Computational Linguistics Order copies of this and other ACL proceedings from: Donald E. Walker (ACL) Bell Communications Research 445 South Street MRE 2A379 Morristown, NJ 07960, USA..

(3) PREFACE I hope you like the p r o g r a m m e ; I do p e r s o n a l l y , a n d look f o r w a r d to h e a r i n g m a n y of the p a p e r s , e v e n those I d i s a g r e e with. T h e r e h a s b e e n a lot of effort b e h i n d the p r o d u c t i o n of w h a t you see, a n d e n o r m o u s t h a n k s a r e due to the l a r g e c o m m i t t e e of 40 d i s t i n g u i s h e d p e r s o n s who g a v e a g r e a t deal of t i m e to r e v i e w a l a r g e field quickly. T h e m e t h o d used was m o r e a k i n to t h a t of previous C O L I N G m e e t i n g s t h a n of A C L ones, b u t I t h i n k it h a s yielded a p r o g r a m m e as i n t e r e s t i n g as those produced by m o r e s t r e n u o u s methods.. I also owe a special p e r s o n a l. word of t h a n k s to my b a c k - u p t e a m a t E s s e x who coped w i t h t h e dog w o r k while s t a y i n g in touch with m e d u r i n g a y e a r a w a y in A u s t r a l i a a n d C o s t a Rica. I now h a v e m u c h u n w a n t e d e x p e r i e n c e on the r e l a t i v e v i r t u e s of nets, telex, p h o n e s a n d m a i l in a r a n g e of c o u n t r i e s . A n o t h e r especial p e r s o n a l word of t h a n k s is due Don W a l k e r , who w a s officially A C L liaison, b u t in fact m u c h more. I hope, then, t h a t you will enjoy and profit f r o m the p r o g r a m m e and find the n a t i o n a l , c o n t i n e n t a l , linguistic a n d g e n d e r b a l a n c e to y o u r taste. I f not, r e m e m b e r how l i t t l e of it w a s r e a l l y u n d e r our control. ! hope, too, t h a t the n o - c h a i r sessions will c a u s e y o u no p r o b l e m s of n o v e l t y or insecurity. T h e m e t h o d is now well e s t a b l i s h e d in the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d I t h i n k of it as j u s t a form of s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c o m m o n sense. Yorick W i l k s The International Committee on Computational Linguistics Bernard Vauquois (chairman), David Hays (honorary member), Eva Hajicova, Brian Harris, Kolbj0rn Heggstad, Martin Kay, Hans Karlgren, Olga Kulagina, Makoto Nagao, Guy Rondeau, Helmut Schnelle, Petr Sgall, Hiroshi Wada, Don Walker, Yorick Wilks, Antonio Zampolli The Executive Committee of the Association for Computational Linguistics Mar(ha W. Evens (President), Lance A. Miller (Vice President), Donald E. Walker (Secretary-Treasurer), Lauri J. Karttunen, Ralph M. Weischedel, Mitchell Marcus, James Allen (AJCL Editor), Aravind Joshi (SNLP Editor).. Officers of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics Eva Haji~ovd(Chair), Harold L. Somers (Secretary), Michael Rosner, (Treasurer), Hubert Lehmann, Remko J. Scha, Benny Brodda. Coling Reviewers. Jonathan Allen, Jaime Carbonnell, Gerald Gazdar, Barbara Grosz, Eva Hajicova, Brian Harris, George Heidorn, Roderick Johnson, Aravind Joshi, Ronald Kaplan, Hans Karlgren, Martin Kay, Margaret King, Richard Kittredge, Vutaka Kusanagi, Jan Landsbergen, Wendy Lehnert, William Mann, Makato Nagao, Raymond Perrauit, Stanley Petrick, Stephen Pulman, Christopher Riesbeck, Graeme Ritchie, Jane Robinson, Guy Rondeau, Helmut Schnelle, Petr Sgail, Candace Sidner, Karen Sparck Jones, Bernard Vauquois, Walther yon Hahn, Wolfgang Wahlster, Hiroshi Wada, Donald Walker, Bonnie Webber, Ralph Weischedel, Sho Yoshida, Antonio Zampolli. iii.

(4) The Program. July 2. 1600-1700 Long and Short P a p e r s I. M a c h i n e T r a n s l a t i o n. 1030-1130 Invited P a p e r User Models in Dialog Systems Wolfgang Wahlstcr. (D). Multilingual Text-Processing in a Two-Byte Code: Current Issues Lloyd B. Anderson (US). II. G e n e r a t i o n (US). III. N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e I n t e r f a c e Transforming English Interfaces to Other Natural Languages: an Experiment with Portuguese Gabriel Pereira Lopes. (P). (F). V. P a r s i n g A Stochastic Approach to Sentence Parsing Tetsunosuke Fujisaki. (S). III. L a n g u a g e a n d T e a c h i n g Limited Domain Systems for Language Teaching S. G. Pulman (GB) GTT: A General Transducer for Teaching Computational Linguistics P. Shann & J. L. Cochard (CH) A Parsing Architecture Based on Distributed Memory Machines Jon M. Slack Automated Determination of Sublanguage Syntactic Usage Ralph Grishman, Ngo Thanh Nhan, Elaine Marsh & [,ynette Hirschmann. (GB) (US). V. S e m a n t i c s a n d K n o w l e d g e R e p r e s e n t a t i o n Semantic Interpretation Using KL-ONE Norman K. Sondheimer, Ralph M. Weischedel, & Robert J. Bobrow (US) Two Theories for Computing the Logical Form of Mass Expressions Francis Jeffry Petletier & Lenhart K. Schubert (Ca). (j). 1400-1530 Panel Discussion a n d S h o r t P a p e r s I. P a n e l Discussion Questions in Quantitative Linguistics Hans Karlgren (chair). II. P a r s i n g a n d Linguistic T h e o r y Bounded Context Parsing and Easy Learnability Robert C. Berwick (US) The Representation of Constituent Structures for Finite-State Parsing D. Terence Langendoen & Yedidyah Langsam (US) Features and Values Lauri Karttunen (US). III. Lexicography and the Lexicon Applications of a Lexicographical Data Base for German Wolfgang Teubert (D) Denormalisation and Cross Referencing in Theoretical Lexicography Joseph E. Grimes (US) Lexicon Features for Japanese Syntactic Analysis in Mu-Project-JE Yoshiyuki Sakamoto, Masayuki Satoh, & Tetsuya lshikawa (J). IV. N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e I n t e r f a c e Toward a Redefinition of Yes/No Questions Julia Hirschberg (US) The Syntax and Semantics of User-Defined Modifiers in a Transportable Natural Language Processor Bruce W. Ballard (US) Interaction of Knowledge Sources in a Portable Natural Language Interface Carole D. Hafner (US). V. S e m a n t i c N e t w o r k s Uses of C-Graphs in a Prototype for Automatic Translation Marco A. Clemente-Salazar Quasi-Indexical Reference in Propositional Semantic Networks William J. Rapaport & Stuart C. Shapiro The Costs of Inheritance in Semantic Networks Robert F. Simmons. Computer Simulation of Spontaneous Speech Production Bengt Sigurd. IV. P a r s i n g a n d S y n t a x. IV. D i s c o u r s e Un Outil Multidimensionnel de l'Analyse du Discours J. Chauche. (US). II. S p e e c h. 1130-1200 S h o r t P a p e r s I. M a c h i n e T r a n s l a t i o n. Conveyir.g Implicit Content in Narrative Summaries Malcom E. Cook, Wendy G. Lehnert, & David D. McDonald. Functional Unification Grammar: A Formalism for Machine Translation Martin Kay. (M) (US) (US). 1530-1600 Coffee. £v.

(5) July 3. III. Parsing and Knowledge Entity-Oriented Parsing Philip J. Hayes. 0900-1000 Invited Lecture Syntactic and Semantic Parsability Geoffrey K. Pullum. ~US). 1000-1030 Coffee 1030-1200 L o n g a n d S h o r t P a p e r s I. P a r s i n g. and. Logic. If. Inference. III. H a r d w a r e Considerations {It). IV. Machine Translation. {d). G. Thurrnair. (l). Xiuming Huang On Parsing Preferences Lenhart K. Schubert. (GB) (Ca). 1530-1600 Coffee 1600-1700 A Computational Theory of the Function of Clue Words in Argument Understanding Robin Cohen (Ca). If. Speech Control Structures and Theories of Interaction in Speech Understanding Systems E. J. Briscoe & B. K. Boguraev. (GB). III. Machine T r a n s l a t i o n Analysis Grammar of Japanese in the Mu.ProjectmA ProceduJ'al Approach to Analysis Grammar Jun-ichi Tsujii, Jun-ichi Nakamura, & Makoto Nagao. (J). Lexicon-Grammar and the Syntactic Analysis of French Mauriee Gros~. (F). V. Data Bases and Retrieval (D) (Fi). 1400-1530 Panel Discussion and Short P a p e r s I. Panel Discussion Natural Language and Databases, Again Koran Sparck Jones {chair) .Madeieine Bates, Jaime G. Carbenell, Dan Fliekinger, Kathleen R. McKeown. II. P r a g m a t i c s Representing Knowledge about Knowledge and Mutual Knowledge Said Soulhi (F) Understanding Pragmatically Ill-Formed Input Sandra Carberry (US) Referring a~ Requesting. Phihp R. Cohen. Simplifying Deterministic Parsing Alan W. Carter and Michael J. Freiling (Ca) Dealing with Conjunction in a Machine Translation Environment. IV. Parsing and Syntax. V. Morphology and the Lexicon. A General Computational Model for Word.Form Recognition and Production Kimmo Koskenniemi. The Design of the Kernel A,'chitecture of the Eurotra System R. I,. Johnson, S. Krauwer, M. A. Rosner, and G. B. Varile (GB~ Machine Translatmn What Type of Post-Editing on What Type of Documents for What Type of Users Anne-Marie Laurian (F). I. Pragmatics (D). A ('nse Analysis Method Cooperaang with A T N G and its Application to ~tachine Translation Hitoshl lida, Kentaro Offura, & Hirosato Nomura (d) A [)rover Treatment of Syntax and Semantics in Machine Translation Yoshthlko Nitta, At.sushi Okajima, Hiroyuki Kaji, & YouJchi Hidano (d) A Consideration nn the Concepts Structure and Language in Relation to Seiccnons of Translatton Equiualents of Verbs in Mat:hint Trrznsiation Systems. Detecting Patterns in a Lezical Data Base Nicoletta Calzalarl Linguistic Problems in Multilingual Morphological Decomposition. (J). V. Parsing and Syntax. Preccatm:,, False Inferences Aravind doshl, Bonme Webber, & Ralph M. Weischedel {US) Problem Locahzation Strategies for Pragmatics Processing in Natural Language Front Ends Lance A. Ramshaw & Ralph M. Weischedel (US). Sho Yoshida. (J). IV. Machine Translation. The Semantics of Grammar Formali.,wns Seen as Computer Languaf4es Fernando C. N. Perelra & Stuart M. Shieber (US) The Rcsoiut;on of Quantzficational Amblgu4ties in the TENDUM (,)mputatwna[ l.lngutsttcs Rcnearch System Harry Bunt {NL). A Connectioni~t Model of Some Aspects of Anaphor Resolution Ronan Reilly Concurrent Parsing in Programmable Logic Array (PLA-) N e t s ~ Prooosais and Problems Helmut Sch nelle. (US). Combining Functionality attd Object-Orientedness for Natural Language Processing Toyoaki Nishida & Shuji Doshita Use of Heuristic Knowledge in Chinese Language Analysis Yiming Yang, Toyoaki Nishida, & Shuji Doshita. (US). Building a Large Knowledge Base for a Natural Language System Jerry R. Hobbs (US) Linguistically Motivated Descriptive Term Selection K. Sparck Jones & J. L TaR (GB).

(6) July 5. IV. Syntax and Parsing. 0900- Invited Lecture Comptltational Linguistics in Commerce Gary G. Hendrix. (US). 1000-1030 Coffee 1030-1200 Long and Short P a p e r s I. Inference and Semantics lnferencing on Linguistically Semant& Structures Eva Haji~ov~ & Milena Hn~tkov~i (Cz) Semantic Relevance attd Aspect Dependency in a Given Subject Domain Burghard B. Rieger (D). II. Pragmatics A Plan Recognition Model for Clarification Subdialogue$ Diane J. Litman & James F. Allen. A Computational TI, eory of Dispositions Lotfi A. Zadeh. (US). (US). III. Generation Using Focus to Generate Complex and Simple Sentences Marcia A. Derr & Kathleen R. McKeown A Rational Reconstruction of the PROTEUS Sentence Planner Graeme Ritchie. (US) (GB). IV. Machine Translation Software Tools for the Environment of a Computer Aided Translation System Daniel Bachut & Nelson Verastegui (F) Design of a Machine Translation System for a Sublanguage Beat Buchmann, Susan Warwick & Patrick Shann (CH) Grammar Writing System (GRADE) of Mu-Machine Translation Project and its Characteristics Jun-ichi Nakamura, Jun-ichi Tsujii, & Makoto Nagao (J). V. Speech and Phonology Automatic Generation of lntanation Contours for a Text-to-Speech System Roger M. Meli & Frank Fallside (GB) A Discovery Algorithm for Certain Phonological Rules Mark Johnson (US) What Not to Say Jan Fornell (S). 1400-1530 Panel Discussion and Short P a p e r s I. Panel Discussion. II. Parsing and p r o g r a m m i n g Languages (US) (J) (US). III. Generation Discourse Structures for Text Generation William C. Mann Semantic Rule Based Text Generation Michael L. Mauldin Controlling Lexieal Substitution in Computer Text Generation Robert Granville. V. Discourse and Texts Automatic Construction of Discourse Representation Structures Franz Guenther & Hubert Lehmann (D) Textual Expertise in Word Experts: An Approach to Text Parsing Basel on Topic/Comment Monitoring Udo Hahn (D) Some Linguistic Aspects for Automatic Text Understanding Yutaka Kusanagi (J). 1530-1600 Coffee 1600.1700 Long and Short P a p e r s I. Discourse A Syntactic Approach to Discourse Semantics Livia Polanyi & Remko Scha. (NL). II. Machine Translation Dealing with Incompleteness of Linguistic Knowledge on Language Translation~Transfer and Generation Stage of a Mu Machine Translation Project Makoto Nagao, Toyoaki Nishida, & Jun-Ichi Tsujii (J). III. Natural Language Interface Lexieal Semantics in Human-Computer Communication Jarrett Rosenberg A Response to the Need for Summary Responses J. K. Kalita, M. J. Colbourn, & G. I. McCalla. (US) (Ca). IV Flexible P ars in g Coping with Extragrammaticality Jaime G. Carbonell & Philip J. Hayes Correcting Object-Related Misconceptions: How Should the System Respond? Kathleen F. McCoy. (US) (US). V. Cross-Linguistic Issues An Algorithm for Identifying Cognates between Related Languages J. B. M. Guy (Aus) From HOPE en rESPERANCE: On the Role of Computational Neurolinguistics in Cross-Language Studies Helen M. Gigley (US). When Is the Next ALPAC Report Due? Margaret King(chair) Alan Melby, Makoto Nagao, Sergei Perschke, Jonathan Slocum, Bernard Vauquois, Yorick Wilks LR Parsers for Natural Languages Masaru Tomita LFG System in Prolag Hideki Yasukawa The Design of a Computer Language for Linguistic Information Stuart M. Shieber. Understanding of Japanese in an Interactive Programming System Kenji Sugiyama, Masayuki Kameda, Kouji Akiyama, & Akifumi Makinouchi (US) Two-Way Finite Automata Dependency Grammar: A Parsing Method for Inflectional Free Word Order Languages Esa Nelimarkka, H. Jappinen, & A. Lehtola (Fi) Interruptable Transition Networks Sergei Nirenburg (US). (US) (US) (US). v£.

(7) July 6. V. Computational Linguistics A n International Delphi Poll on Future Trends in Information Linguistics Rainer Kuhlen. 0900-1000 Invited Lecture What is Semantics Trying to Tell Us? Brian C. Smith. 1000-1030 Coffee 1030-1200 P a n e l D i s c u s s i o n a n d S h o r t P a p e r s I. Panel Discussion. Machine Translation: Its History, Current Status and Future Prospects Jonathan Slocum (US). 1530-1600 Coffee 1600-1700 C l o s i n g S e s s i o n. Machine-Readable Dictionaries Donald E. Walker (chair) Robert A. Amsier, Nicoletta Calzolari, Martin Kay, George A. Miller, Howard R. Webber. II. Machine Translation Transfer in a Multilingual M T System Steven Krauwer & Louis des Tombe Expert Systems and Other Techniques in M T Systems Christian Boitet & Rene Gerber Robust Processing in Machine Translation Doug Arnold & Rod Johnson. (NL) (F) (GB). III. Syntactic Analysis Disamhiguating Grammatically Ambiguous Sentences by Asking Masaru Tomita (US) Ambiguity Resolution in the tluman Syntactic Parser: An Experimental Study Howard S. Kurtzman (US) Conceptual Analysis of Garden-Path Sentences Michael J. Pazzani (US). IV Generation Language Generation from Conceptual Structure: Synthesis of German in a Japanese~German M T Project J. Laubsch, D. Roesner, K. Hanakata & A. Lesniewski Natural Lanl4uage driven Image Generation Giovanni Adorni, Mauro Di Manzo & Fausto Giunchiglia Conceptual and Linguistic Decisions in Generation Laurence Danlos. (D) (I) (F). V. Parsing and Semantics A Computational Analysis of Complex Noun Phrases in Navy Messages Elaine Marsh Another Look at Nominal Compounds Pierre Isabelle Semantic Parsing as Graph Language Transformation: A Multidimensional Approach to Parsing Highly Inflectional Languages Eero Hyv6nen. (US) (Ca). (Fi). 1400-1430 Short Papers L Machine Translation Handling Syntactical Ambiguity in Machine Translation Vladimir Pericliev. (BuD. II. Semantics Argumentation in Representation Semantics Pierre-Yves Raecah. (F). Ill. Speech Voice Simulation: Factors Affecting Quality and Naturalness B. Yegnanarayana, d. M. Naik, & D. G. Childers. (Ind). IV. Parsing and Semantics Interpreting Syntactically Ill-Formed Sentences Leonardo Lesmo & Pietro Torasso. (D). 1430-1530 Invited Lecture. (US). (I). vii.

(8)

(9)

(10) T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S Interaction of Knowledge Sources in a Portable Natural Language Interface. Multilingual Text-Processing in a TwoByte Code: Current Issues L l o y d B. A n d e r s o n. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 1. C a r o l e D. H a f n e r . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Conveying Implicit Content in Narrative Summaries. Uses of C-Graphs in a Prototype for Automatic Translation. M a l c o m E. Cook, W e n d y G. L e h n e r t , & D a v i d D. McDonald . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. M a r c o A. C l e m e n t e - S a l a z a r. Transforming English Interfaces to Other Natural Languages: an Experiment with Portuguese G a b r i e l P e r e i r a Lopes . . . . . . . .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Bengt Sigurd 20. . . . . . . . . . . . .. S. G. P u l m a n 24. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 75. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 79. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 84. GTT: A General Transducer for Teaching Computational Linguistics. 28. P. S h a n n & J. L. C o c h a r d. . . . . . . . . .. 88. A Parsing Architecture Based on Distributed Memory Machines 34. J o n M. S l a c k. Denormalisation and Cross Referencing in Theoretical Lexicography J o s e p h E. G r i m e s. 71. Limited Domain Systems for Language Teaching. Applications of a Lexicographical Data Base for German Wolfgang Teubert. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Computer Simulation of Spontaneous Speech Production. 16. Features and Values Lauri Karttunen. The Costs of Inheritance in Semantic Networks. Martin Kay. The Representation of Constituent Structures for Finite-State Parsing D. T e r e n c e L a n g e n d o e n & Y e d i d y a h L a n g s a m. 65. Functional Unification Grammar: A Formalism for Machine Translation. Bounded Context Parsing and Easy Learnability R o b e r t C. B e r w i c k. 61. Quasi-Indexical Reference ill Propositional Semantic Networks. R o b e r t F. S i m m o n s. A Stochastic Approach to Sentence Parsing Tetsunosuke Fujisaki . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. W i l l i a m J. R a p a p o r t & S t u a r t C. S h a p i r o. Un Outil Multidimensionnel de l'Analyse du Discours J. C h a u c h ~. 57. . . . . . . . . . .. ..... 92. Automated Determination of Sublanguage Syntactic Usage 38. Ralph G r i s h m a n , Ngo T h a n h Nhan, E l a i n e M a r s h & Lynette Hirschmann . . . . . . . . . . 96. Lexicon Features for Japanese Syntactic Analysis in Mu-Project-JE. Semantic Interpretation Using KL-ONE. Yoshiyuki Sakamoto, Masayuki Satoh, & Tetsuya Ishikawa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42. N o r m a n K. S o n d h e i m e r , R a l p h M. W e i s c h e d e l , & R o b e r t J. B o b r o w . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101. Toward a Redefinition of Yes/No Questions. Two Theories for Computing the Logical Form of Mass Expressions. Julia Hirschberg . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48. F r a n c i s J e f f r y P e l l e t i e r & L e n h a r t K. S c h u b e r t 108. The Syntax and Semantics of User-Defined Modifiers in a Transportable Natural Language Processor B r u c e W. B a l l a r d. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Syntactic and Semantic Parsability G e o f f r e y K. P u l l u m . . . . . . . . . . . . 52. 112. The Semantics of Grammar Formalisms Seen as Computer Languages F e r n a n d o C. N. P e r e i r a & S t u a r t M. S h i e b e r. ix. . 123.

(11) Is There Natural Language after Databases?. The Resolution of Quantificational Ambiguities in the TEND UM Computational Linguistics Research System Harry Bunt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. J a i m e G. C a r b o n e l l . . . . . . . . . . . . 130. Preventing False Inferences Aravind Joshi, Bonnie Webber, & R a l p h M. W e i s c h e d e l. . . . . . . . . . .. 134. Problem Localization Strategies for Pragmatics Processing in Natural Language Front Ends L a n c e A. R a m s h a w & R a l p h M. W e i s c h e d e l. . 139. A Connectionist Model of Some Aspects of Anaphor Resolution Ronan Reilly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 144. Concurrent Parsing in Programmable Logic Array (PLA-) Nets-- Proposals and Problems Helmut Schnelle. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 150. 154. Yoshihiko Nitta, Atsushi Okajima, Hiroyuki Kaji, & Youichi Hidano . . . . . . . . . . . . 159. A Consideration on the Concepts Structure and Language in Relation to Selections of Translation Equivalents o f Verbs in Machine Translation Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Natural Language for Expert Systems: Comparisons with Database Systems K a t h l e e n R. M c K e o w n. . . . . . . . . . .. Said Soulhi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Sandra Carberry. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Referring as Requesting Philip R. C o h e n . . . . . . . . .. Toyoaki Nishida & Shuji Doshita . . . . . .. 167. 170. 174. A General Computational Model for WordForm Recognition and Production 178. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 212. 218. & Shuji Doshita. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 222. R. L. J o h n s o n , S. K r a u w e r , M. A. R o s n e r , a n d G. B. V a r i l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226. Machine Translation: What Type of PostEditing on What Type of Documents for What Type of Users . . . . . . . . . . .. 236. Simplifying Deterministic Parsing 239. Xiuming Huang. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 243. On Parsing Preferences 182. There is Still Gold in the Database Mine Madeleine Bates. 207. Dealing with Conjunction in a Machine Translation Environment. Natural Language and Databases, Again . . . . . . . . . . .. 200. Use of Heuristic Knowledge in Chinese Language Analysis Y i m i n g Y a n g , T o y o a k i Nishida,. A l a n W. C a r t e r a n d M i c h a e l J. F r e i l i n g. Karen Sparck Jones. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. G. T h u r m a i r. . . . . . . . . . . .. 194. Understanding Pragmatically Ill-Formed Input. Anne-Marie Laurian. Kimmo Koskenniemi. 190. Representing Knowledge about Knowledge and Mutual Knowledge. Linguistic Problems in Multilingual Morphological Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 188. The Design of the Kernel Architecture of the Eurotra System. Detecting Patterns in a Lexical Data Base Nicoletta Calzolari. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Combining Functionality and Object-Orientedness for Natural Language Processing. A Proper Treatment of Syntax and Semantics in Machine Translation. Sho Yoshida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Dan Flickinger. Philip J. Hayes. Hitoshi Iida, Kentaro Ogura, . . . . . . . . . . .. Panel on Natural Language and Databases. Entity-Oriented Parsing. A Case Analysis Method Cooperating with ATNG and its Application to Machine Translation & Hirosato Nomura. 186. 184. L e n h a r t K. S c h u b e r t. . . . . . . . . . . .. 247.

(12) A Computational Theory of the Function of Clue Words in Argument Understanding Robin C o h e n. Design of a Machine Translation System for a Sublanguage. ~. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 251. Beat Buchmann, Susan Warwick & Patrick Shann. Control Structures and Theories of Interaction in Speech Understanding Systems E. J. Briscoe & B. K. B o g u r a e v . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Grammar Writing System (GRADE) of Mu-Machine Translation Project and its Characteristics. 259. Analysis Grammar of Japanese in the MuProjectmA Procedural Approach to Analysis Grammar. J u n - i c h i N a k a m u r a , J u n - i c h i Tsujii, & Makoto Nagao . . . . . . . . . . . . .. J u n - i c h i Tsujii, J u n - i c h i N a k a m u r a , & M a k o t o Nagao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267. A Discovery Algorithm for Certain Phonological Rules. Lexicon-Grammar and the Syntactic Analysis of French. Mark Johnson. M a u r i c e Gross . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. J a n Fornell. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 283. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Masaru Tomita. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. E v a Haji~ova & M i l e n a Hn~itkova. The Design of a Computer Language for Linguistic Information. 291. Semantic Relevance and Aspect Dependency in a Given Subject Domain. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. : . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... 358. 362 367. Semantic Rule Based Text Generation Michael L. Mauldin. 312. Controlling Lexical Substitution in Computer Text Generation Robert Granville. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 376. 381. Understanding of Japanese in an Interactive Programming System. . 319. Kenji S u g i y a m a , M a s a y u k i K a m e d a , Kouji A k i y a m a , & Akifumi Makinouehi . . . . . . . . . . 385. Two- Way Finite Auto mata Dependency Grammar: A Parsing Method for Inflectional Free Word Order Languages. 327. Software Tools for the Environment of a Computer Aided Translation System Daniel B a c h u t & Nelson V e r a s t e g u i. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 302. A Rational Reconstruction of the P R O T E U S Sentence Planner G r a e m e Ritchie. . . . . . . . . . . . .. William C. M a n n. Using Focus to Generate Complex and Simple Sentences M a r c i a A. Derr & K a t h l e e n R. M c K e o w n. 354. Discourse Structures for Text Generation. 298. A Computational Theory of Dispositions Lotfi A. Z a d e h. . . . . . . . . . . . .. S t u a r t M. S h i e b e r. A Plan Recognition Model for Clarification Subdialogues D i a n e J. L i t m a n & J a m e s F. A l l e n. 352. LFG System in Prolog. 287. Hideki Yasukawa. B u r g h a r d B. Rieger . . . . . . . . . . . .. 348. LR Parsers for Natural Languages. Inferencing on Linguistically Semantic Structures . . . . .. 344. When Is the Next A L P A C Report Due? Margaret King. Linguistically Motivated Descriptive Term Selection K. S p a r c k J o n e s & J. I. T a i t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 338. What Not to Say 275. Building a Large Knowledge Base for a Natural Language System J e r r y R. H o b b s. 334. Esa N e l i m a r k k a , H. J a p p i n e n , &. 330. A. L e h t o l a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 389. Interruptable Transition Networks Sergei N i r e n b u r g. xi. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 393.

(13) Automatic Construction of Discourse Representation Structures. Machine-Readable Dictionaries, Lexical Data Bases and the Lexical System. Franz Guenther & Hubert Lehmann. N i c o l e t t a Calzolari. ..... 398. Textual Expertise in Word Experts: A.n •Approach to Text Parsing Based on Topic~Cornment Monitoring Udo H a h n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Martin Kay. 402. 409. A Syntactic Approach to Discourse Semantics Livia Polanyi & Remko Scha . . . . . . . .. 413. Dealing with Incompleteness of Linguistic Knowledge on Language Translation--Transfer and Generation Stage of a Mu Machine Translation Project. . . . . . . . . . . . .. G e o r g e A. Miller. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. H o w a r d R. W e b b e r. . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..... . . . . . .. D o u g A r n o l d & Rod J o h n s o n . . . . . . . .. 428. Masaru Tomita. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Coping with Extragrammaticality. Cohceptual Analysis of Garde n-Path Sentences M i c h a e l J. P a z z a n i. 444. Language Generation from Conceptual Structure: Synthesis of German in a Japanese~German MT Project & A. L e s n i e w s k i. 448. 452. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 481. 486. 491. Natural Language driven Image Generation 495. Conceptual and Linguistic Decisions in Generation Laurence Danlos . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 457. A Computational Analysis of Complex Noun Phrases in Navy Messages. 458. Elaine Marsh. Lexical Knowledge Bases R o b e r t A. A m s l e r. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. & Fausto Giunchiglia . . . . . . . . . . .. Machine-Readable Dictionaries . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 476. G i o v a n n i Adorni, M a u r o Di M a n z o. From HOPE en l'ESPERANCE: On the Role of Computational Neurolinguistics in Cross-Language Studies. D o n a l d E. W a l k e r. 472. J. L a u b s c h , D. Roesner, K. H a n a k a t a. An Algorithm for Identifying Cognates between Related Languages. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 437. Correcting Object-Related Misconceptions: How Should the System Respond?. H e l e n M. Gigley. 468. Disambiguating Grammatically Ambiguous Sentences by Asking. H o w a r d S. K u r t z m a n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 464. Robust Processing in Machine Translation 420. J. K. K a l i t a , M. J. Colbourn, & G. I. M c C a l l a . 432. J. B. M. G u y. 463. Transfer in a Multilingual MT System S t e v e n K r a u w e r & Louis des T o m b e. Ambiguity Resolution in the Human Syntactic Parser: An Experimental Study. K a t h l e e n F. McCoy . . . . . . . . . . . .. 462. Machine-Readable Components in a Variety of Information-System Applications. A Response to the Need for Summary Responses. J a i m e G. C a r b o n e l l & Philip J. H a y e s . . . .. 461. How to Misread a Dictionary. C h r i s t i a n B o i t e t & Ren~ G e r b e r. Lexical Semantics in Human-Computer Communication Jarrett Rosenberg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Expert Systems and Other Techniques in MT Systems. Makoto Nagao, Toyoaki Nishida, & J u n - I c h i Tsujii . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 460. The Dictionary Server. Some Linguistic Aspects for Automatic Text Understanding Yutaka Kusanagi. . . . . . . . . . . . .. xii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 501. 505.

(14) Another Look at Nominal Compounds Pierre Isabelle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 509. Semantic Parsing as Graph Language Transformation: A Multidimensional Approach to ParsD~g Highly Inflectional Languages Eero HyvSnen. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 517. Handling Syntactical Ambiguity in Machine Translation Vladimir Pericliev. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 521. Argumentation in Representation Semantics Pierre-Yves Raccah. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 525. Voice Simulation: Factors Affecting Quality and Naturalness B. Y e g n a n a r a y a n a , & D. G. C h i l d e r s. J . M. N a i k , . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 530. Interpreting Syntactically Ill-Formed Sentences Leonardo Lesmo & Pietro Torasso. . . . . .. 534. An International Delphi Poll on Future Trends in Information Linguistics Rainer Kuhlen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 540. Machine Translation: Its History, Current Status and Future Prospects Jonathan. Slocum . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 546. xiii.

(15) AUTHORINDEX Giovanni Adorni. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 495. Philip J. Hayes. . . . . . . . . .. Kouji Akiyama. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 385. Youichi Hidano. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 159. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 302. Julia Hirschberg. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48. R o b e r t A. A m s l e r. . . . . . . . . . . .. 458. L l o y d B. A n d e r s o n. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Lynette Hirschmann . . . . . . . . . . Milena Hn~tkovd . . . . . . . . . . .. 96 291. James F. Allen. Doug Arnold. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Daniel Bachut. . . . . . . . .. Bruce W. Ballard. . . . . .. 1 472. J e r r y R. H o b b s. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 283. 330. Xiuming Huang. . . . . . .. 243. . . . . . . . . . . .. 52. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 184. . . . . . . . . . . .. 20. Robert J. Bobrow . . . . . . . . . . . .. 101. Madeleine Bates R o b e r t C. B e r w i c k B. K . B o g u r a e v. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. Christian Boitet . . . . . . . . . . . . E. J. B r i s c o e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Beat Buchmann Harry Bunt. . . . . . . . . .. .. Sandra Carberry. . . . . . . . .. A l a n W. C a r t e r J. Chauch4. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. Tetsuya Ishikawa H. J a p p i n e n. . . . . . . . . . . .. 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 389. . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 226. Mark Johnson. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 344. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 472. 170, 4 6 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 159. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 432. J. K. Kalita. 200. Masayuki. 186, 4 3 7 .. .. Kameda. Lauri Karttunen. . 239. Martin Kay. 11. Margaret. 530. . . . . . . . . . . . .. King. Steven Krauwer. 251 432. H o w a r d S. K u r t z m a n Yutaka Kusanagi .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Laurence Danlos. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 501. M a r c i a A. D e r r. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 319. . . . . . . . . . .. Ren~ Gerber. D. T e r e n c e L a n g e n d o e n. 5. 218, 2 2 2. 24 491. Anne-Marie. . . . . . . . . . .. 236. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 398. Laurian. W e n d y G. L e h n e r t. 239. A. L e h t o l a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. H e l e n M. G i g l e y Robert Granville J o s e p h E. G r i m e s Ralph Grishman. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 534. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 491. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 302. 452. Diane J. Litman. 495. Gabriel Pereira Lopes . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 381. Akifumi Makinouchi. . . . . . . . . . . .. 38. W i l l i a m C. M a n n. . . . . . . . . . . .. 367. M a u r o Di M a n z o. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 495. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 96. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 275. Elaine Marsh. Franz Guenther . . . . . . . . . . . . J . B. M. G u y . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 398 448. M i c h a e l L. M a u l d i n. Maurice Gross. C a r o l e D. H a f n e r Udo Hahn. 5 389. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Fausto Giunchiglia. A. L e s n i e w s k i. 468. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Leonardo Lesmo. 16. 481 409 24. Hubert Lehmann. . . . . . . . . . . .. 540. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 188. Fujisaki. 178. 226, 464. Yedidyah Langsam . . . . . . . . . . . J. Laubsch . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 348. . . . . . . . . . . .. 352. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Michael J. Freiling Tetsunosuke. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Dan Flickinger Jan Fornell. Rainer Kuhlen. 28 75, 4 6 1. . . . . . . . . . .. 88 207. 134. 385. . . . . . . . . . . . .. Kimmo Koskenniemi. J . L. C o c h a r d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P h i l i p R. C o h e n . . . . . . . . . . . .. M a l c o m E. C o o k. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 61. Robin Cohen . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. J . C o l b o u r n . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. Shuji Doshita. 509. R. L. J o h n s o n Rod Johnson. . 334. 154. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Hiroyuki Kaji. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. M a r c o A. C l e m e n t e - S a l a z a r. Pierre Isabelle. . 259. 517. 130. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. D. G. C h i l d e r s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. J a i m e G. C a r b o n e l l. Hitoshi Iida. . . . . . .. Aravind Joshi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Nicoletta Calzolari. Eero Hyv0nen. 468 259 .. 212, 437. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. G. I. M c C a l l a Kathleen. 57. . . . . . . . . . . .. 8 385. 96, 5 0 5. . . . . . . . . . .. 376. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 432. F. M c C o y. 402. D a v i d D. M c D o n a l d. Eva Haji~ov~. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 291. Kathleen. K. H a n a k a t a. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 491. G e o r g e A. M i l l e r. xiv. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. R. M c K e o w n. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 444 5. 190, 319. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 462.

(16) Makoto Nagao. . . . . . . . .. J . M. N a i k . . . . . . Jun-ichi Nakamura . . . Esa Nelimarkka . . . . Ngo Thanh Nhan . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 393 . . . . . . . 218, 222, 4 2 0. Yoshihiko Nitta Hirosato Nomura Kentaro Ogura Atsushi Okajima. . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. 334 134. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 486 108. Hideki Yasukawa B. Y e g n a n a r a y a n a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 358 530. F e r n a n d o C. N. P e r e i r a Vladimir Pericliev . . Livia Polanyi . . . . Geoffrey K. P u l l u m . . S. G. P u l m a n . . . . Pierre-Yves Raccah . . L a n c e St. R a m s h a w . . William J. Rapaport . Ronan Reilly . . . . B u r g h a r d B. R i e g e r . . Graeme Ritchie . . . D. R o e s n e r . . . . . Jarrett Rosenberg . . M. A. R o s n e r . . . . Yoshiyuki Sakamoto . Masayuki Satoh . . . Remko Scha . . . . .. 123 521 413 112 84 525 139 65 144 298 327 491 428 226 42 42 413. Sho Yoshida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lotfi A. Z a d e h . . . . . . . . . . . .. 167 312. Helmut Schnelle . . . . . . . . . Lenhart K. Schubert . . . . . . . P. S h a n n . . . . . . . . . . . . Patrick Shann . . . . . . . . . . S t u a r t C. S h a p i r o . . . . . . . . S t u a r t M. S h i e b e r . . . . . . . . Bengt Sigurd . . . . . . . . . . R o b e r t F. S i m m o n s . . . . . . . . J o n M. S l a c k . . . . . . . . . . Jonathan Slocum . . . . . . . . . N o r m a n K. S o n d h e i m e r . . . . . . Said Soulhi . . . . . . . . . . . Karen Sparck Jones . . . . . . . Kenji Sugiyama . . . . . . . . . J : I. T a i t . . . . . . . . . . . . Wolfgang Teubert . . . . . . . . G. T h u r m a i r . . . . . . . . . . . Louis des Tombe . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. Susan Warwick Bonnie Webber. M i c h a e l J. P a z z a n i . . . . . . . . . . . Francis Jeffry Pelletier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 226 330 457. H o w a r d R. W e b b e r . . . . . . . . . . . 463 R a l p h M. W e i s c h e d e l . . . . . 101, 134, 139. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. G. B. V a r i l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nelson Verastegui . . . . . . . . . . . D o n a l d E. W a l k e r . . . . . . . . . . .. 159 154 154 159. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 354, 476. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. Pietro Torasso . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 J un-ichi Tsujii . . . . . . . . 267, 338, 4 2 0. . . . . 530 . 267,338 . . . . 389 . . ".. 96. Sergei Nirenburg Toyoaki Nishida. . . . .. Masaru Tomita. 267, 3 3 8 , 4 2 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 108, . . . . . . . . . 123, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Yiming Yang. 150 247 88 334 65 362 79 71 92 546 101 194 287 385 287 34 174 464 XV. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 222. ..

(17)

New documents

To examine whether lone parents and working-age adults with a disability were less disadvantaged in the Social democratic countries, we focused on the social risk gap: the percentage

In this paper we compare the behavior of n-gram models and Recurrent Neural Network Language Models RNNLMs with regard to properties of their generated language... We investigate the

Analyses revealed that longer proper names - in terms of number of tokens and proper name attributes - are more likely to be generated early in the text, in the object role of a

The tree kernel function produces the syntactic similarity score between each sentence in the given body of text and the generated question.. Each sentence contributes a score to the

Women in Group 2 had 46 per cent, of their number with a poor or bad condition of the hair, while the highest in any of the other groups was only 20 per cent., and became less as the

As the QG - STEC IRR reliability scores show, it seems that judges interpret an annotation scheme for these criteria very differently, when they use the scheme independently, with

The research of Gkatzia et al 2013 relates most closely to the LARC project - they generated reports based on time-series data from student lecture attendance and weekly questionnaires,

In that sense, drawing upon the eight transport-related exclusion categories described in section 3.1 and the relationship of transport disadvantage and social exclusion proposed by

The results are consistent with what was reported by Wang and Gaizauskas 2015 – that whilst both bboxdist and bboxsize show that content selection is dependent on these features,

In contrast, in interrogative sentences we have more problematic cases: one realized sentence is identical to the gold 19; two realized sentences are different only in the word order