Use of Plastic Waste in Bituminous Road
Pratiksha Singh Rajput R. K. Yadav
M.E. Student Associate Professor
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
Jabalpur Engineering College Jabalpur, India Jabalpur Engineering College Jabalpur, India
Disposal of waste materials including waste plastic bags has become a serious problem and waste plastics are burnt for apparent disposal which cause environmental pollution. Utilization of waste plastic in bituminous mixes has proved that the properties of mix are improved and disposal problems are also solved to some extent. The cleaned Plastic waste is cut into a size such that it passes through 2.36 mm sieve using shredding machine. The aggregate mix is heated and the plastic is effectively coated over the aggregates. This plastic waste coated aggregates are mixed with hot bitumen to prepare job mix formula. The use of the innovative technology will not only strengthen the road construction but also increase the road life as well as will help to reduce the environment pollution. The present study investigates the use of waste plastic as a modifier for semi dense bituminous concrete. In this study the shredded plastic waste is mixed in hot aggregate and the plastic modified mix is prepared using 6%,8%,10%,12%, and 14%plastic by weight of bitumen .it has been found that the Marshall stability value is maximum when 12% plastic waste is added to the mix. The other Marshall parameters are also improved with the addition of plastic waste into the bituminous mix. Keywords: Plastic Waste, Bitumen, Aggregates
Any nation's progress is directly dependent on infrastructure. India is on the threshold of a major forward thrust in the field of transportation infrastructure. Over the past two decades, traffic volumes have increased, demanding from pavement engineers, stronger and long lasting pavements. New methods of pavement design are being developed to improve the performance of roads. New materials are being used to replace the old ones to improve the durability, strength, aesthetics and economy. One of the promising ways is to use plastics in bituminous road construction industry. Today, the availability of the waste plastics is enormous, as the plastic materials have become part and parcel of daily life. If not recycled, their present disposal is either by land filling or by incineration. Both these processes have certain impact on the environment. Under this circumstance, an alternate use for the waste plastics is the need of the hour. In this study to the Marshall properties of bituminous mixes have been found when plastic wastes are incorporated into them. Plastic in different forms is found to be almost 5% in municipal solid waste, which is toxic in nature. It is a common sight in both urban and rural areas to find empty plastic bags and other type of plastic packing material littering the roads as well as drains. Due to its biodegradability it creates stagnation of water and associated hygiene problems. In order to overcome this problem research has been carried out whether this waste plastic can be reused productively. The experimentation at several institutes indicated that the waste plastic, when added to hot aggregate will form a fine coat of plastic over the aggregate and such aggregate, when mixed with the binder is found to give higher strength, higher resistance to water and better performance over a period of time. Use of higher percentage of plastic waste reduces the need of bitumen by 10%. It also increases the strength and performance of the road. Plastic roads would be a boon for India’s hot and extremely humid climate, where temperatures frequently cross 50°C and torrential rains create havoc, leaving most of the roads with big potholes.
This paper envisages the use of waste plastic in different proportion (6% to 14% by weight of bitumen) to prepare job mix formulae for S.D.B.C. The variation Marshall properties of for the mixes containing different amount of plastic waste are studied.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
The Use of plastic waste in flexible pavements would open up a solution for the disposal issues regarding plastic wastes. Many research works have been done in the area of use of plastic waste in bituminous road construction.
Dr. R. Vasudevan(2007) investigated that the coating of plastics reduces the porosity, absorption of moisture and improves soundness. The polymer coated aggregate bitumen mix forms better material for flexible pavement construction as the mix shows higher Marshall Stability value and suitable Marshall Coefficient. Hence the use of waste plastics for flexible pavement is one of the best methods for easy disposal of waste plastics. Use of plastic bags in road help in many ways like Easy disposal of waste, better road and prevention of pollution.
Swami et al. (2012)investigated the Use of waste plastic in the construction of bituminous Road. They concluded that plastic waste consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic could be used as a coating over aggregates and this coated stone could be used for Road construction.
Sultana et al. (2012) investigated the utilization of waste plastic as a strength modifier in surface course of flexible and rigid pavements. They concluded that the potential use of waste plastic as a modifier for asphalt concrete and cement concrete pavement. Gawande et al. (2012) investigated the “An overview on waste plastic utilization in asphalting of roads”. They reviewed techniques to use plastic waste for construction purpose of roads and flexible pavements.
Raji et al.(2007)investigated the “Utilization of marginal materials as an ingredient in bituminous mixes”. They concluded that when plastic wastes can be used as additives on bituminous pavements. Hence in their study, the properties of bituminous mix when modified with shredded syringe plastic waste were investigated. The work was carried out by mixing shredded autoclaved plastic syringes with heated aggregates by dry process.
Bhageerathy et al.(2014) investigated the use of Biomedical Plastic Waste in Bituminous Road Construction. They concluded that the Marshall stability value of plastic modified mix was found to be 51 percent more than that for the normal mix which indicates an increase in load carrying capacity
III. MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
In this study VG30 viscosity grade Bitumen is used. Coarse aggregates of 9.5mm and 6mm size, hard, angular, BT metal and fine aggregates (dust) is used in different proportion to satisfy MORTH specification as shown in table (1) .the apparent specific gravities are found as under .
9.5mm aggregate- 2.81 6 mm aggregate 2.82 Fine aggregate (Dust) 2.80
To study the effect of mixing plastic waste in bituminous mixes. the following methodology was adopted
The plastic waste like carry bags, Polythenes etc. was collected and shredded to size passing through 2.36 mm sieve and Retained on 600 micron sieve. The shredded plastic waste was mixed in the hot aggregates. Normal mix specimens were prepared with bitumen contents of 4.5 percent, 5 percent, 5.5 percent and 6 percent. The Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC) was found out using Marshall test. Plastic modified mix specimens with plastic contents of 6%,8%,10%,12%,and 14% by weight of bitumen were prepared through dry process by adding plastic to heated aggregates. Marshall test were conducted on plastic modified mix specimens to study different parameters.
IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The Marshall specimen were prepared without adding plastic waste and adding plastic waste 6%to 14% by weight of bitumen in the mix .The Marshall parameters obtained are summarized in table 2.the variation of stability ,flow value ,buik density ,air voids and voids fill bitumen (VFB%) and optimum binder content is shown in fig 1 to 6.
Table – 1
Grading of aggregate (SDBC) IS Seive Size (mm) % passing by weight Combined grading
A : B : C : D 40 : 30 : 28 : 2
Specified Limit as Per MORTH 9.5 mm (A) 6 mm (B) Dust (C) Filler (D)
9.5 mm 82 100 100 100 92.8 90-100
4.75 mm 6.5 36 100 100 43.4 35-51
2.36 mm 0 5 98 100 30.9 24-39
1.18 mm 0 0 59 100 26.7 15-30
300 u 0 0 46 100 13.8 9-19
75 u 0 0 10 2 % 3 3-8
Gradation of the mix 9.5 mm 6.0 mm Dust Filler 40% 30% 28% 2%
Table – 2
Marshall Parameters for SDBC using plastic waste in different proportions
mix Optimum binder content (OBC)
Stability (kg) Flow (mm) Unit weight (g/cc) Air voids (%) VFB (%)
BP0 5.5 9.6 2.62 2.34 4.2 71.9
BP6 5.7 11.9 2.7 2.35 4.0 72.0
BP0- Bitumen with o % Plastic waste BP6- Bitumen with 6 % Plastic waste BP8- Bitumen with 8 % Plastic waste BP10- Bitumen with10 % Plastic waste BP12- Bitumen with 12 % Plastic waste BP14- Bitumen with 14 % Plastic waste
Fig. 1: Variation of stability with bitumen content (Plastic modified)
Fig. 3: Variation of Air Voids with Bitumen Content (Plastic modified)
Fig. 6: Variation of optimum binder content with bitumen content (Plastic modified)
Based on the results obtained from laboratory test on S.D.B.C. containing different proportion of waste plastic the following conclusions are drawn :-
1) By increasing the percentage of waste plastic into the mix the Marshall stability value are increased and maximum stability is found for the mix containing 12% plastic by weight of the bitumen. At 14% plastic content the stability value has decreased. Therefore the optimum plastic content is found as 12%.
2) The flow value goes continuous increasing with the addition of plastic content in the mix.
3) The % air voids in the mix decreases continuously and VFB continuously increases with the addition of the plastic waste in the mix.
From the above test results it can be concluded that addition of plastic waste to the semi dense bituminous concrete mix significantly improves the performance in the mix .The strength and voids parameter also satisfied the requirement of MORTH specification. The optimum plastic content was obtained as 12% by weight of the bitumen content.
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