Res N431s THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS. josr

58 

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(1)
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A

CHURCH

LIBRARY-ARCHIVES

THE

CHURCH

OF

JESUS CHRIST

OF

LATTER-DAY SAINTS

Res

979.2251

N431s

1871

josr

(3)

Digitized

by

the

Internet

Archive

in

2012

with

funding

from

Corporation

of

the

Presiding

Bishop,

The

Church

of

Jesus

Christ

of

Latter-day

Saints

(4)

i.WahsatchMountains. ?. PresidentBrighamYoung's School-house. 3.CityMall. 4.Sir

SALT

LAKE

CITY-

AN

ALLE

(5)

iND

JALLEY

LOOKINC

SOUTH,

OjU iDeseretNewsOffice. 8..EastTempleStreet. 9-FoundationofTemple. 10.

New

T

(6)

sated

to

a scenic

surprise.

The

le

Wasatch,

emerges suddenly

>rge

upon

an

exquisite

scene.

;

hours,

when

the

air

is

clear

fields.

On

every

hand and

fringe the valley, are

squares

es.

And

in

the

center,

shim-iere

may

be

sights

more

sooth-eful

than

this,

but

if

there

be,

ers

who

have

looked

upon

the

amouni and

other

famed

pas-lames

them

all.

Frame

this

mountains

that

rise

abruptly

gh,

and you

have

a

picture as

)n

the

walls of

the

world.

law

was

enacted.

The

real

awakening, however,

did

Utah

suffered state-wide

humiliation over her

defe;

the

fruit

contest

held

by

the

National

Irrigation

Con

about

five

years

ago.

Then

the

people

became

con

wasted

opportunities

and went

to

work

to

make

f:

profitable industry.

The

State

Horticultural

Sociei

and

tree

planting

became

almost a

craze.

Result

:

I

tically

all

the prizes

and

sweep-stakes

for the

size

an

fruit at

the Irrigation

Congress

contests since

held

and

Albuquerque,

and

the Salt

Lake Commercial

Cli

exhibition,

silver

trophies

then

awarded,

valued

$5,000.

Orchardists

are

seeking

locations

all

over

the

great

plateaus

lying

along

the

Green,

Grand,

and

Sa

ers,

are

now

the scenes

of a scramble

for

land

and

'

panies

and

individuals

who

are

convinced

by

the

phei

(7)

ning,

however,

did not

come

until

don

over her defeat

by

Idaho

in

>nal

Irrigation

Congress

at

Ogden

people

became

conscious

of

their

3

work

to

make

fruit

growing

a

lorticultural

Society

was

formed

l

craze.

Result

:

Utah

took

prac-ikes

for the

size

and

flavor

of her

Dntests

since

held

at

Sacramento

ike

Commercial Club

now

has

on

awarded,

valued

at

more

than

•cations

all

over

the

state,

and

the

:en,

Grand,

and San

Rafael

Riv-lble

for

land

and

water

by

com-lvinced

by

the

phenomenal

(8)
(9)

Nelsons'

Pictorial

GuiDE-tiC'"

Indexed

J^B,

,,:

:L13

^

SALT

LAKE

CITY.

A

SKETCH OF

THE ROUTE

OF

THE UNION AND CENTRAL

PACIFIC

RAILROADS,

FROM

OMAHA

TO SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND

FROM QGDEN

TO

^SAN^FRANCISyCp.

-

f^s-Xl

rw

i i

GENEALO'.^IC

L

bULit

I

T

-

%

l$[>

OF.THECI

r

JESUS

CHRIST

1

'[

' a,

OF

LA

! I

ER-DAY SAINTS

C

\fi

WITH

TWELVE

ILLUSTRATIONS

FROM PHOTOGRAPHS

BY

C.R. SAVAGE.

^%r

52648

T.

NELSON

AND

SONS,

42

BLEECKER

STREET,

NEW

YORK.

C. R.

SAVAGE,

\VAGE,

SALT

SALT

-LAKE

I

CITY.

(10)

CONTENTS

Across

the Continent

"

BearRiver Bridge, .. 12 The

Union

PacificRailroad, . 3

Utah

Central Railroad, . .. 13 Chicago, . 3 Salt

Lake

City

Omaha, . 5 ItsExtent andSituation, .. 14

The WesternPrairies, . 5 The Temple, .. 15 The CountryTraversed,.

.

. 6 TheTabernacle, .. .. 16

Fort Bridger, 8

The

Theatre, .. 16 Echo Canyon, . 8 TheCity Hall, .. 17

Down

Weber

Canyon, 9 TheBench, .. 17

The

Weber

BridgeatOgden, . 12 PresidentYoung's House, .. 18

Places to Visit

Great Salt Lake, .

.

EnsignPeak,

Warm

and

Hot

Springs CottonwoodLake,

Utah

ValleyandLake, SweetWaterRiver, SnakeorLewisRiver,

From Ogdhn

to

Sam

Fran

Utah

Territory, ..

STATISTICS:

UTAH,

AND

SALT

LAKE

CITY.

[Thecensus returnsfrom

Utah

for1S70showthepopulation

ofthe Territorytobe86,786. GreatSalt Lake County

con-tains 18,337inhabitants. PiuteCountyisreturnedashaving

nopopulation, its inhabitantshaving been driven out by Indians.

Utah

County has a population of 12,243. Salt

LakeCity, inGreatSaltLake County, has a populationof

17,282, those born in the United Statesnumbering 10,214,

andinother countries706S. ThepopulationofMontana is

20,594. This

number may

beslightly increased bywhites

livingonIndianreservations.]

(11)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

I.-"

ACROSS THE

CONTINEN

T." [Vid theUnion andCentralPacificRailroads.]

The

journey

"Across

the Continent"isverydifferent,

now

that the various divisions of the PacificRailroadare completed, to

what

it

was

a few years ago.

Then

the

"trip"

occupied from ten to thirty days between the Missouri River andSalt

Lake

City,accordingtothe

sea-sonof the year, or the successful assiduity of theIndians onthe plains inburning "stations,"carryingoffhorses and mules,imperilling thelivesof travellers,

and

other-wise

making

themselves unpleasantly notorious.

Now

the distanceisaccomplishedbyrailinaboutfiftyhours

insaloon carriages luxuriouslyfitted up,provided with refreshmentbars,

and

withelegantberthsforthe accom-modationoftourists.

Yet

the old route

was

notaltogether an unpleasantone,especially tothose

who

likeadashof excitementin theirpleasure;and it

had

theadvautage

(41)

of affordingtimetothe traveller forthecontemplationof the beautiful scenerywhich he encountered on theroute.

But

nous avons changetout cela.

Everybody

now-a-days goes by rail;

and

the steam-car, with wonderful

regularity, dashes across the

immense

expanse ofthe continent,conveying curious visitors or busymerchants ordaringadventurerstothe strongholdof

Mormonism

in

theone direction, or the

"

Golden Gate"

and

splendid shore of thePacific.

The

traveller,coming

from

the Northern States, will

probablyselectChicagoas his starting-point.

Chicagoisundoubtedly oneofthe most extraordinary instances ofthe rapidity of

American

development. It isthe principalcityofIllinois,andsituated atthe south-western extremityof

Lake

Michigan,

and

at the

mouth

(12)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

of the Chicago River, in lat. 41° 52' N.,

and

long. 87° 35'

W.

Of

Indian origin, and pronounc.ed Shu-kaw-go, it is first mentioned by Perrot, a

Frenchman,

who

visitedthe spotin1671.

A

small military station,

calledDearborn,

was

erected herein1803,but destroyed by the Indians in 1812. It

was

afterwards rebuilt in

1816.

It

was

sixteen years later before

American

enterprise appreciatedtheadvantagesofthe position; andin1832, withtheexceptionoftheofficersandsoldiers,itdid not containabove a dozenfamilies. Inthe following year a

town was

organizedbythe election ofa

Board

of

Trus-tees.

On

the26thofSeptemberfollowing,the

surround-ing territory

was

purchasedofthe Pottawattomies, seven thousandof

whom

were transported westofthe Missis-sippiRiver.

The

cityobtainedits firstcharterin1837.

At

thatdateitspopulation

was

about 2000; butits

faci-lities forbecoming a vast graindepdt were so obvious

that settlers flocked to the

new

cityfromallparts of the UnitedStates,

and

itsgrowth

became

so rapidasto sur-passany previous instance inthehistory ofthe world.

A

populationof2000 hasincreasedinthirty-fiveyears

asingle generation

to170,000. Itisthe

emporium

of the navigation ofthegreat lakes; theimports

and

ex-ports

amounting

toabout 470,000tons,

whose

value pro-bablyexceeds $5,820,000. Nearly 6000miles ofrailway centreinthisextraordinarycapital ofWestern commerce.

Ithasitsuniversities, medical colleges,theological, lite-(41)

rary, and scientificinstitutes,churches, chapels, public schools,private schools

and

seminaries,andall the

ad-denda

of a great city.

One drawback

is, that its

surroundingsceneryis

tame

and

uninteresting, the

town

beingsituatedon alevel, ornearlya level,which never varies

more

than from five to twenty-four feet above the lake.

But

the traveller need not start from Chicago unless

he likes.

He

may

commence

hisgreatWestern tour at

St. Louis, the terminus of the Ohio

and

Mississippi Railway; or at Springfield, the junction-point of the Toledo,

Wabash, and

Western,with the Chicago,Alton, and St. Louis.

But

whatever route he takes, he will find himselfeventually deposited at

Omaha,

onthe Mis-souri

River—

the focus ofan

amazing network

of

rail-ways, and the actual point ofdeparture of the

Union

PacificRailroad.

The

principal lineswhich convergeto this flourishing

town

are

:—

1.

The

Dubuque

and SiouxCity.

2.

The

Chicagoand North- Western.

3.

The

Chicago,

Rock

Island,and Pacific. 4.

The

BurlingtonandMissouri.

5.

The

St. Joseph ar.d Council Bluffs, which unites the HannibalandSt. Joseph,the Missouri

and

Pacific,

and

the

Kansas

and Pacific

the latter a

main

line of railway, whichisintendedtobe carried as far asDenver,

(13)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAT

THITHER.

andthere unitewith a branchtoCheyenne, onthe

Union

Pacific.

Of

Omaha

it is enough to say that it is destined to

expand

into very considerable proportions. It is

connected by railway with the principal towns of

Illi-nois,Kentucky,Colorado,and

Kansas

; hasa large river

trade; and is an importantprairie depot. It is

situ-atedonthe right

bank

ofthe Missouri, oppositeCouncil

Bluffs, and twenty miles northwardof the

mouth

ofthe

River Nebraska.

On

leaving

Omaha,

ourcourse,as far asMacpherson,

liesonthenorthern

bank

ofthe Platte River,

which we

ascendtoitspoint of confluence atCheyenne,

where

the

North

Platte unitesinonebroad channel withthesmaller streamoftheSouth Platte:theformerrising far

away

inthehighlandsof

Wyoming

; thelatterinColorado,to

thesouthofDenver.

The

principal stations

we

pass areFremont,

Columbus,

Grand

Island,Kearney,

Brady

Island,and

North

Platte.

Above

this point

we

continue ourroutetoCheyenne,by

way

of Julesburg, Sidney,

and

Pine Bluffs.

None

of these placeshave attained as yettoa degreeof import-ancewhichjustifies description.

Many

consist only of acollection of log huts; which, indeed, are scattered

here

and

there along the line wherever the

game

is

abundant

orthe soiloffersa favourable opportunityfor

tillage.

The

reallyremarkablefeature of this part ofour jour-neyisthe prairie scenery,

which

unfolds far

and

wide on either hand.

Yet

the prairies are not

what

English people are so aptto think

them

immense

level

and

monotonous

plains,thicklycoveredwithgrassand buffa-loes; butvast rollinguplands,

which

risefrom the

Kan-sasRivertothe

Rocky Mountains

inaseriesofascending billows,alwaysofagentle ascent,andoften ofan

enor-mous

sweep.

The

creeks

and

inletsbranchingfrom the rivers are fringed with walnut, oak,

and

hickory: the

hollowsarebrightwith marigolds,shamrocks,

and

sun-flowers, which clothe the ground with a

warm

golden splendour.

The

airis

warm, and

interpenetrated with fragrance; thesky a deepsoftblue,occasionally relieved by patchesofsnow-whitecloud.

For

leagues

and

leagues thepicture isas rich in colour asitismajestic in out-line; and were notthe traveller occasionallyaroused by

the terrors ofaprairie storm, he

might

beginto think himselfinan enchantedland,which

Nature had

dowered withallherrichestgifts.

But

as

we

recedefurther

and

yetfurtherfromthe Mis-souri,as

we

strikedeeperintothe solitudes ofthegreat continent, the landscape loses its brilliancy:

wooded

knolls

and

flowery ridges give place to vast breadths of rollinguplands,

where

thewolfcreepsalongitsinsidious track, and the rattlesnakelies coiled

among

the thick herbage,

and

the pioneer's path, ashestrollsalong,gun and axeinhand,is

marked

outbefore

him

bythebleached

(14)

6

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAT

TIIITITER. skeletons ofdead animals.

The

scene

would

be almost

wearisome butforitsfrequentatmosphericchanges,

and

for the occasionalappearanceofagroupofantelopes ora herdof buffaloes.

One

ofthe plaguesofthe prairies is

thedryfierce

wind

;another,thesudden inrusbofclouds

of grasshoppers,which, like thelocusts ofEgypt,

con-sume

everygreen thing before them.

No

one

who

has not travelled on the prairie, says Lieutenant

Warren,

canappreciatethe

magnitude

of theswarms. Frequently they fill the air for

many

miles of extent, so that an inexperienced eye can scarcelydistinguish their appear-ancefromthat ofaheavy showerof rain orthe shifting

smoke

ofaprairie fire. Theirflight isfrequently at an elevationof from 1400to1500feet abovethe surface of the earth; but they descend towithin a fewinches,

and

settle on the vegetation of the plain like auniversal

blight.

To

a person standinginoneofthese

swarms

as they whirloverand around him, theairbecomes percep-tiblydarkened,and the sound produced bytheirwings resemblesthat of thepassageofatrain of carson arailroad

when you

areabouttwoor three

hundred

yardsfromthe track. This plague seems to be the

main impediment

inthe

way

ofmau'scolonizing

and

tillingthe prairies.

Leaving

Cheyenne

-oneofthe

most

importantstations on the

Union

Pacific

we

soon

come

in sight ofFort Russell,onthe

Grow

Creek. It isthe largest fort inthe West.

la]

The

distance from

Cheyenne

to

Laramie

isonly

fifty-seven miles; but the ascent is not less than 1082feet,

Laramie being 7123 feet above the sea-level.

Up

this toilsome acclivity the locomotive cannot travel at

any

considerablespeed;but theslowerrate ofprogressdoes

butaffordthe traveller

more

timeforthecontemplation ofthegrand

and

unusual features of thesceneryaround him.

To

the north-west rolls the range ofthe Black

Hills, with sharp-pointed peaks rising

some

2000 feet

above the general level.

To

the south is visible the

massy

chainofthe

Rocky

Mountains, thegreat barrier whichseparatestheprairieregionfromthe Pacific litto-ral. Looking eastward, alongthe tract

we

havepassed,

we

seeitstretching far

away

tothe

dim

horizonas one vast plain: even the hills ofa thousand feetinheight

seem

but a speckinthe distance.

SirWalterScotttellsusofthe beautifulruinsof Mel-roseAbbey,thattosee

them

arighttheyshould be seen by the

"pale

moonlight;" and thispartof therailway journeyacrossthe continentshouldalsobe accomplished

when

thescene is lit

up

by the radianceof the moon.

Thus

arecent traveller writes:

"

The

moon

is shining brightly as

we

climb these everlasting hills.

Her

mellowlight givesa softnessto the view; theairis pure

and

invigorating;

aud

with

hearts swelling with grandeurat the sight of those en-during

monuments

of God's greatness;

we

drink in the prospectin silent, heartfeltrapture. In view of these

(15)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

letus be

dumb

; for silenceis

most

becomingto us,the creatures ofaday, in the presenceofthese rocky crea-tures,

which

willcontinuetolifttheir tall heads tothe sky

when we and

all like us are mouldering in the dust.

"

At

Sherman

we

reach the summit-level of the railway

the highest point which

we

cross in the

Rocky Mountains

anelevationabove the oceanof8242

feet.

Then

we

begin ourdescent towards thePacific,every mileexhibiting to us

some

novel feature ina

panorama

ofinexhaustibleinterest.

"

Here,toourright, rises far abovehisfellowsabald-headedmountainofrock;to the

left,mountainsofrock heaped

upon

mountainsofrock

meet

the eyeeverywhere; and all around are rugged,

craggy, precipitous rocks

barren of grass, or leaf, or tree

and

deep-yawning chasms, through

which

the flashingstreamleapsonitsmerry way.

We

strikeacross bridges ofsuch a height that it turns one dizzy tolook

down

intotheawful depth below."

Now

we come

toa plateauon

whose

grassy

summit

the redrocks rise,intower, spire,

and

pyramid,toaheight ofthree

and

four

hundred

feet.

Everywhere

there is

something to arrest the eye,to strike the imagination,

and

toremind oneofthe

wisdom

and infinite

power

of theArchitect

who

built

up

the mountain-crests

and

rent their sideswith profoundest chasms.

[41}

On

a mountain-sheltered plain is situated Laramie, the largest

town

in

Wyoming

Territory. FortSandersis

threemiles distant: ithas a

mud

fort

and

several block houses.

To

the

westward

the mountainsattainan

ele-vation of13,000feet.

Passing Medicine

Bow,

on oneofthe small branches of the

North

Platte,

we

descendtoRawlings;thence to

Black Buttesand

Rocky

Point; afterwhich,leavingthe

Salt Wellson ourright,

we

cross the Green River

a winding, rapid stream, affording capital sport tothe angler, ifanysolitary disciple of Izaak

Walton

should

wander

intoitsvalley.

At Bryan we

strikeBlack Fork, a branchof the

Green

River,which

we

follow for seve-ral miles; with the whiteplains,whitened byalkaline incrustations,only sparsely relieved by sage-bushes

and

stuntedwillows.

Towards

the south rise the Uintah Mountains, with the River Uintah attheir base. Thispoint is nearly

midway

between

Green

River

Town

and

the junction of

the

Green

River withthe Colorado.

We

now

skirtthe

banks

of theBig

Muddy

fornearly

fifty miles, crossing

and

recrossing itaccording tothe

devices oftherailwayengineers. Its valleyseems

every-where

coveredwith sage-brush

and

grease-wood,

and

its

onlyinhabitantsareaninnumerable colonyof squirrels.

At

886milesfrom

Omaha—

the great easternterminus of theUnionPacific

andat888milesfrom Sacramento,

we

arrive at

Church Buttes—

so calledfromthe

(16)

red-sand-SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAT

THITUEU.

stonemasses onthe

summit

of the mountains, which at

a littledistance present theappearance ofhundredsof

churches,withtallpointedspires.

Next we

pass Fort Bridger, surrounded

by

many-coloured rocks. It

was

here that three regimentsof UnitedStatessoldiers,under

command

ofAlbertSidney Johnson,

who

had been despatchedin1857tochastisethe

Mormons,

endured such severe sufferings. Imprisoned bythedeep winter snowsinthe heart of themountains, their

commissary

train captured by the

Mormons,

they were compelledto killand eat their mules,

and

even to boil

and

eat the mules' skins.

Hundreds

perished of cold

and

hunger;

and

even

when

the

summer

loosened theirchains,noprovisionsfromthe Statesreached

them

untilthe followingSeptember.

We

have notyetgot clear ofthespurs

and

buttresses ofthe

Rocky

Mountains.

To

avoid heavy cuttings

and

abruptgradients,

we

arecontinuallywinding round the baseofgrassyhills. In thefront asinthe rearstill rise

the

snowy

peaks.

The

cuttings arecoveredwith aheavy roof oftimber,toprevent

them

from beingfilled

up

with the

snow

in the midst of winter.

On

the acclivities

around us Indians are constantly

making

their appear-ance; sometimes singly,sometimesinpairsand groups

;

sometimes standingor reclining,sometimes urging their horses tofullgallop.

Crossing the Bear River

itaboundsin troutandother

fish,and rises sixtymiles

away

tothesouthinthe

Uin-(41)

tahand

Wahsatch Mountains

we

reach Bear City. It

issituatedasromantically asapoetcould wish,

inthe sweet

bosom

ofavalley,

whose

richverdurebrightly con-trasts with the gray,naked, barren,

and

rugged

moun-tains.

The charm and

beautyof contrastisvery

strik-inglyfelt.

In

some

placesof this valley

letus note asa fact

thegrasshoppersare so

numerous

thatit isimpossible to placethepoint ofapinonthe ground without touching them.

"An

eastward-bound train," says a traveller,

"

which hasjust

come

in toWahsatch,isprovided with evergreen brooms,covering thecowcatcher

and

brushing the track, tosweepoffthegrasshoppers.

The

engineer ofourtraininformsme,that attimes theyare so

numer-ousonthetrack astobecrushedtodeathby thousands:

hence they

make

thedriving-wheels

and

track so greasy that trains are often two orthree hours behind their time."

We

statethis fact on the authorityofa corre-spondentofthe

New

JerseyJournal.

We

now

hurry through

Echo

Canyon

(or Canon), one ofthe sublimest,

and

yet, too,oneoftheloveliest,scenes

we

Americans

have to boast of. Picture to yourself, reader, a deep rocky ravine,

some

seven miles in length,and,atitshead,fromone-halfto three-quarters ofamile in width.

On

theright

hand

it isflanked by bold,precipitous, buttressed cliffs, fromthree

hundred

(17)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHEF.

thestorms whichrage against

them

duringthesoutherly

gales. Theirstratalieinclinedat anangle of45°,from

N.E.

toS.W.

The

oppositeside,shelteredfromfurious winds anddrivingtempestsof rain,is formed

by

a suc-cessionofswellingverdurous hillsor sloping masses of rock, profusely clothedwith grass and mosses. In the hollowbetween

them

rolls abrighttransparent stream. Incessantly atwork, it has excavatedfor its waters a channel

some

twentyfeetbelow thesurface.

At

certain parts a rockyledge or apileofboulders vexes itinto madness, until, gathering itself

up

like an athlete, it

clearsthe obstacleinoneswiftand sudden bound.

About

half-waydown,the ravinenarrowstoa meredefile,where thestreamgrowswilder,andthebanksare steeper, and thevegetation flourishes

more

thickly.

The

lofty cliffs

onthe right areherebroken

up

intoavariety of fantastic outlines: pyramids and pinnacles, spires and towers,

battlementedfortresses

and

ruinedcathedrals

thewhole resembling a fairy vision,

embodied

in stone,

which

mightfurnish the imagination of poet or artistwith

in-exhaustiblematerial.

Near

the endof

Echo

Canyon,and on the

summit

of rockyheights a thousand feet above thevalley,are the remainsofthe fortifications prepared

by

the

Mormons

against the expedition threatened by the

Government

severalyears ago.

A

suddenaccessofanti-Mor

monism

hadseized

upon

theeast,

and

topacifyit,saysLudlow,

itwas suggestedthat troopsshould besent tobreak

up

(41)

the

Mormon

settlements.

But

this

was

not done,

the

Mormons

were not once attacked,

onlya bodyofour regulars,termed an

army

ofobservation, posted them-selvesat

Camp

Floyd, thirty-nine miles from Salt

Lake

City,and thei-e remained,

much

to the mortification of the

more

eager

Mormons.

The

feeling betweentroops andsaintswas,however,ofa moderatelycordialcharacter, and every day

was

the occasion for

some

interchange of courtesies. Still, thefortifications were an established

fact,

and

itisnoticeablethattheplace selected for their

erectionisreallya dangerous localityforwarlike

opera-tions.

The

defileisvery narrow,thebarered wallsrise

perpendicularly; and had

Brigham

Young

been ableto

fulfilhisintention ofshowering

down upon

our

men

grape

andshrapnellfrom guns

hung

slanting over theedgeofthe precipice,sweeping

them

withsimilar missilesfrom each

endofthedefile,an

army

ofthesizeofJohnson's

would

have been crushed with wonderfuleaseandcelerity.

We

calculate that neitherGrant nor

Sherman

wouldbe likely

to lettheir

men

intosuch a

murderous

trap.

Passingthe celebrated Pulpit Rock,

we

enter, eight milesbelow Echo, the

Weber

Canyon, which almost sur-passes the

Echo

initssublimityof character. Allalong the valley flows the

Weber

or

Webber

River, exquisitely clear and cold. It rises near the source of the Bear River,andafteracuriouslywindingnorth-westerly career,

fallsintothe GreatSalt Lake, a fewmiles southofits

(18)

10

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

THE

PULPIT ROCK.

Two

miles

down

the

Canyon

are the Witches'Rocks, weird

and

wild-looking, and wearing a fanciful resem-blance to thosedreadedand

much-abused

"powers"

ofa dark ageofignorance

and

superstition.

Some

six miles further,

and

atthe point called the

"Narrows,"

may

be seenalonepine tree on the river

(«)

THE WITCHES

ROCKS, IN

THE WEBER

CANYON". bank.

The

travellercan hardlyfail to noticeit, forno kindredtreesarenearit,aboveit,belowit,or on either side;

and

this

memorial

ofa remoteantiquity

was

found

the fact, though strange, istrue

to be exactlyone

thousandmiles from the Missouri River

by

the Pacific Railroad. It bearsaboard, withthe inscription,

" One

(19)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND

THE

WAY

THITHER.

11

Thousand

MileTree,"tellingthe traveller

how

farhe has journeyed onhis

way

to the"

Dead

Sea ofthe Western

World,"orthe

"

Golden Gateofthe Pacific."

Below

this, on the left ofthe river,

and

stretching

down

the mountain-side, is alarge slate rock, grooved

down

the centre likean

arm

ofacentrifugalrailway,and

known

untoall

men

bythe

name

ofthe"Devil's Slide." Assuredly noindividualbut heafter

whom

itisentitled couldaccomplishthe descent.

The

mountains here

seem

to overlap eachother, the river

making

sharp abrupt turns roundthe projecting angles.

Through

these areexcavatedthe third

and

fourth tunnels of the PacificRailroad

Within

threemiles of the

mouth

ofWeber's Canyon, Devil'sGate,andthe stationso-called,are passed.•

The

river strikes

away

onthe rightfromthe railroad track, andis soon lost to theview of the passengers,

whose

train sweeps through a deep and narrow gorge inthe massive rock,which, on oneside, rises perpendicularly

some

eighty orninetyfeet; onthe othertowersaloft,in

mountainous grandeur, with grim

shadows

seeking to

shut outthe sunlight.

Passing through

Ogden

Canyon,

and

by 0»den, asmall butrising township,

we

reach the borders of the Salt Lake.

A

smallbranch-lineconducts us from

Ogden

to

Salt

Lake

City.

But,first,letus takea viewof the great basin of this

Dead

Seaofthe

New

World. Ul)

At

the foot of the

snowy

summits

ofthe

Wahsatch

range, stretching far

away

into

dim

regions of mist and shadow,lies

what

has,in picturesque phraseology, beencalledthe

Happy

Valley. In thefullsplendourof atropicalsun,itcertainlylooks irradiant; forthe fields

glow withthe gold of the yellowsunflowers, the ridges arepurplewith moss,and afierylustreliesonthe

lake-lets,streams,andpools; the cultivated land, a narrow

strip,

waves

with crops of grain;

and westward

shines

theexpanseofthe SaltLake,enclosedby aline of

dim

blue mountains,calledin Indian languagethe Oquirrh.

The

lake itself, about 120 milesin length,

and

45 in

breadth, sleeps indeep purple shadows, broken and

ir-regular,whicharethemselvesthereflectionofthebroken irregularsummit-lineof the sierras of

Utah

and

Nevada

;

anditbearsonits

bosom

a fewislesandislets,towhich,

it isprobable,distancelendsanenchantmentthatis not

fairly theirs.

The

airissoft

and

genial inthe

summer

and

autumn

seasons,

and

is so transparent that objects afar seem broughtstartlinglynearus. AntelopeIsland,whichlies

twentymilestothe west,you

would

think but an hour's journey.

The

undulating plain, or valley, dips in the centre

"

likethesection ofa tunnel,"andriseson eitherhand into

"benches"

or terraces, which

mark

thegradual fall

ofthelake-watersinlong distantages. In

some

partsthe valleyretainsitsoldverdantcharacter; inothers,

when

(20)

12

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

TV

AT

THITHER.

thesunstrikesfulluponit,it

warms

intoa

tawny

red,

likethe sandsofArabia, but relieved by leafy clumps, and brightened bythe

wave

of theJordan, as itflows throughthepastures

and

corn-fields painfully cultivated bythehandofman.

The

traveller,comingeitherfromtheEastorthe

West

to Salt

Lake

City,leaves the cars ofthePacificRailroad atOgden,totake those of the

Utah

Central, thirty-six milesfromSalt

Lake

City.

The

terminus ofthe

Utah

Centralissituatedonthe east side of the

Weber

River, acrosswhich asubstantial railwaybridge has been con-structed.

A

few dayscanbe profitablyand pleasantlypassed in

thislocality.

Ogden

itself,towhich

we

havealready

re-ferred, is the junction-point of the

Union

Pacific and Central Railroads, contains between 6000 and 7000

in-habitants,andissituatedbetweenthe

Ogden

and

Weber

Rivers, the

town

being built partly on the"

bench"

and partly on the

"bottom

level" beneath. Likeall

Mor-mon,or

semi-Mormon

towns,

Ogden

contains a consider-able proportionofEasterners

itsstreetsare wide,with streams of water,required forirrigating purposes, car-riedalong the side-walks.

The

housesaremostlysmall, built ofadobe,and

embowered

inorchards.

The Wahsatch

range, at whose western base

Ogden

is situated, stretches

away

to the north

and

south, its

graypeaksrisinginsolemngrandeurover the valleyand

141)

lake. Eight miles northof

Ogden

lie

some

of the hot

springs so

numerous

in this Territory; and five miles

further,there are distinct indications ofavolcanicagency which cannot have beenlong extinct.

Tbirty-twomiles north ofOgden, onthe roadto

Mon-tana,istheBear RiverBridge.

Largeflocks of wild geese, ducks, and teal,especially

in

autumn,

ontheriver,and an abundance oftrout and otherfish within it; rambles over the mountains, and bracing rides across thebroadprairieofthe

Lower Malad

Valley,renderitanagreeablesojournforthose

who

seek healthandsportwith

gun

andline.

About

four miles from the Bridge

may

beseena

re-markableinstance of

"

hydraulicforce."

The

mountain gorgessoapproacheachother thatthe wateriscompletely

jammed

in,androarsandbrawls,and leapsand dashes againsthuge massesofrock,whichare

known

as"devil's

gates"inthe

Rocky

Mountainregion. Thereisanother suchintheValley of the Sweet Water, a fewmileswest ofIndependence

Rock

; another, asalreadypointed out,

in

Weber

Canyon,crossedbythe Pacific Railroad;and the one

we

are

now

describing on Bear River. This, perhaps, isthe

most

romantic,

a narrow neck ofthe riverjutting across thepathway,andforcingitto

make

a sharp curvature

where

themountaindips into the water on oneside,andtherocksriseperpendicularlyfor eighty orninetyfeetonthe other. Standingonthe3e rocksand looking

up

theriver,themountain-sidesslope,clothedin

(21)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAT

THITHER.

13

wood

to itsverymargin; whilethegradual narrowingof

thegorge,

and

the vastmassesofrockinthe river-bed, impel it with the rush ofa host of

maddened

steeds, broken frombit

and

rein,

and

dashingwildlytowardsan imaginarygoal.

But we must

returnto Ogden,

and

take our seats in

acaronthe

Utah

Central Railroad, for Salt

Lake

City, thirty-six miles.

For

about twelve miles the line runs over

what

is

known

asthe

" Sand

Ridge," along sandy swell,

where

sage-brush, rabbit-brush, sunflowers,

and

similar vegetation, with occasionalpatches ofsucculent grass,reignundisturbedby ploughorwater-ditch,

much

ofitbeingtoo elevated for theordinary

means

of irriga-tion.

A

fineviewof theGreatSaltLake, with Antelope, Fre-mont, Stansbury,Carrington,Dolphin,and

Hat

Islands,is

hereobtained;aspanof horizon of overa

hundred

milesin

extentfrom north tosouth,beingopened

up

to the gaze of traveller

and

tourist,withscenerywhich combinesthe chiefelementsoflovelinessand sublimity

loveliness

in-ferior, but akin to that of the

Bay

ofNaples, with a

magnificencenot

unworthy

oftheSwissAlps.

Sunset

upon

the lakeis,duringthe

summer

months,

one of the

most

brilliant spectacles theeyecould ever

hope to see, sogorgeouslyrich isthecolouring,

when

peak

and

canyon are bathed in

"the

dying halo of de-partingday."

(41)

Twenty-two

miles of the line from Kaysville South crossesthe mostfertile portion of the valley,the gener-oussoil yielding profitablecrops ofeveryproduct

grown

inthis latitude; while cereals

and

root-crops are very

large,the fruit

including apples, peaches, plums,

apri-cots, grapes, and smaller kinds,with melons,squashes,

pumpkins, and

similar

products—

beingespeciallyfine.

The

lake, sleeping in the

shadow

ofitsmountainous islands, or reflectingthe glory ofa cloudless

and

sunlit sky, stretches

away

tothe right; dreamy-lookingvalleys, buriedinpurplehaze, and crowned

by

towering ranges ofmountains,

whose

peaks, snow-capped even in

mid-summer,

soar above the clouds; whileto the left lie

well-cultivatedand fertilefarminglauds, with orchards and gardens encircling the settlements of Kaysville, Farmington, Centreville, and Bountiful,

and

running alone the base of the

Wahsatch

range.

Within aboutfivemiles of Salt

Lake

City,the railroad reaches the

Hot

Spring Lake, fed

by

the celebrated Springs. It forms a beautiful littlesheet of water, nearly three miles longand

upwards

ofa mile broad,

whose

calm surfaceis scarcely rippled bythe flocks of wild clucksandgeese floatingso lazily

upon

it.

A

small

inletor creek of this lakeistraversedbytherailway; and

thecars, speedingthroughthepasture-land northofthe

city,

and

pastthe

Warm

Spring Baths, soon reach the

terminusin

what

has poeticallybeen called the

"Jeru-salemoftheWest."

(22)

14

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAi

THITHER.

II.

-SALT

LAKE

CITY.

All travellersagree to recognize theadmirable skill

withwhich the

Mormon

leaders have selectedthe site

and developed the plan of their city. According to President

Brigham

Young,itssituation

was

indicatedto

him

inavision byan angel,who, standing on aconical

hill, pointed to the locality where the

new

Temple

must

bebuilt;

and when

he firstentered the Salt

Lake

basin, he looked for the angel-haunted cone, and

dis-coveringafreshstream rippling atitsbase,he

straight-way named

itCityCreek.

Some

say the angel

was

the

spirit of his predecessor Joseph

Smith

the apostle of

Mormonism

; others, that as early a>. 1842the latter

was

favouredwith

dreams

of these valleysand mountains, lakes

and

rivers,andrevealed

them

tohis favourite

dis-ciples.

At

all events, on the exodus of the

Mormons

from Nauvoo, they crossed the

Rocky Mountains and

descendedinto this basin,toplant their

new home

ina scene of themost picturesque and unusualbeauty.

The

cityisfinelysituatedinanangle of the

Wahsatch

Mountains,andstretches

up

closetothe foot of thehills

which

lienorth ofit; while the mountains on the east

arebetween

two

andthreemiles distant. Lookingatthe Illustration,the

snowy

peaksofthe

Wahsatch

rangeare inthe distance,on theleft

hand

side, from twelveto

(41)

twenty-eight miles from the city.

The

highest

moun-tainsreachanelevationofover7000feetabovethelevel

ofthevalley,and between 11,000

and

12,000feet above

thesea-level.

East

Temple

Street inthe centre of the Illustration,

isthe principal businessstreetinthecity. Likeallthe

rest,it is132 feetwide,with streams of waterflowing

down

eitherside,keeping the shade-trees in lovelygreen foliageduringthe scorching

summer

months.

The

shape ofthecityissomething likean L,the longer portion of

theletterstretching eastandwest, theshorternorthand

south. Itsappearanceisunique,and peculiar toitself.

The numerous

orchards which

abound

through it,and the thriftygrowthofshade-treeswhich line thestreets,

give it the air ofan

immense

number

of villas, small cottages,

and

residences of every imaginable style of architecture,buriedina

mass

ofluxuriantfoliage.

Laid outin square blocksof ten acres each, thewide streets run at rightangles to each other,followingthe cardinal points ofthecompass.

The

citycoversaspace ofabout nine square miles,and contains nearly25,000 inhabitants. Ithas three hotels

the Salt

Lake

House,

Townsend

House,and Revere House, with a

number

of boarding-houses

and

restaurants.

(23)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

13

The

streets are

named

inreferencetotheir situationto

the

Temple

Block. Thus,

Main

Street,strictlyspeaking,

isEast

Temple

Street; in its rearis First East Street (State Road); then Second East Street;

and

so forth.

To Temple

Blocklatitudeandlongitude also are generally referred. Itliesin lat40° 45' 44" N.,and long. 112°

&

34"W.,atanelevation of4300feetabove thesea-level.

In the city

and

contiguous toitarea

number

of

fac-tories forthemanufactureofwoollengoods,

wooden

ware,

and

furniture, with steam

wood-working

factories, a paper-mill, largeadobe-yards, brick-yards,

&c,

&c.

Therearetwodaily,onesemi-weekly, andthreeweekly newspaperspublished.

The

dailies are the Dcseret

News,

Geo. Q. Cannon, editor;

and

the Salt

Lake

Telegraph,

M.

A. Fuller, proprietor

and

editor.

The

formeristhe

official organ ofthe

Mormon

Church. Mr.

Cannon

is

alsothe proprietorandeditorofa very popularillustrated juvenile semi-monthly paper, the Juvenile Instructor;

and

Messrs. Harrison

and

Grodbe publish weekly the

Mormon

Tribune.

Of

public buildings, thefirsttoattractthe attention of travellersis

THE

TEMPLE.

It isnotyetcompleted;

and

isthe centre of thehopes

of the

many

thousanddevotees

who

clingtothe

Mormon

faiththroughoutthe world.

The

Temple

isnot designed, as

many

suppose, for

(41J

public

worship—

thisistheofficeoftheTabernacle

but

itwillbe devotedtol-ites

and

ceremonies whichare

now

performedinotherand temporaryplaces; such as

bap-tisms,washings,anointings, and other rites requiredto prepare the neophyte.

The

building

now

in course of erection in

Temple

Blockis 186gfeet fromeasttowest, including towers,

and

99feet from northtosouth.

The

foundation islaid16feetfromthe surface oftheearth, andthe walls resting

upon

them

are 8feetthick. Three towerswillstandateachendofthe building,the centre ones, east andwest, rising higherthan the others,

and

toanaltitude of225 feet; while a circularstairwayin each will

wind

around a

column

4feetindiameter,with landings at the various sections of the building, from which

most

excellentviews of the cityand surrounding scenery

the valley, lake,

and

mountains

will be ob-tained.

The

basement story willcontain a room, 57feetlong by 35wide,tobe usedforbaptismalpurposes,whichwill

be flankedby

two rooms

on each side, 19 by 12 feet.

These,with

two

more rooms

on either end, 38^ by 28

feet,

and

severalwidepassages,occupythestory.

Four

flights ofstone steps,9^ feetwide, will lead

up

tothe

second story, the

main room

of which will be120feet

long by 80 wide, with the ceiling an elliptical arch. Eightotherrooms areonthis story,14feetby14.

The

third story willhave asimilararrangementof divisions.

The

buildingwill bedecorated

wth

allegoricaland

(24)

mys-16

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

tical devices,

making

itastructure entirelyunique. It

isbeing built ofalight-coloured granite,obtainedin

Cot-tonwood

Canyon,sixteenmiles south-east of thecity.

THE

TABERNACLE

iserected insidethe

Temple

Block.

The

southwall of this ten acreenclosureisseenthroughthe shade-treesin

the foreground.

The

building itself,with its peculiar-shaped dome-like roof,

surmounted

by

a flag-staff, is

perhaps thelargest hall inthe worldofa singlespan

roof, unsupported

by

pillarorcolumn, usedforpurposes

of public meetings. Itis 250 feetinside fromeast to west, with a width of 150 feet from north to south. Forty-six parallelogrampillarsofred sand-stone,9feet

deepby 3feetwide,form thebasefortheroof,whichis

astrong lattice-work of timbersfirmlybolted together and self-supporting.

The

ceiling is 62 feet from the

floor,

and

isperforatedwithholes neatlystuccoedround,

which serve the double purpose of ventilation,

and

a

means

bywhichscaffoldingcanbe slung

up

torepair or whiten

when

necessity arises fordoingeither.

The

west endisoccupied by a rostrum, or

"

stand," anelevated platform,withthree seats inthecentreinfront elevated one alittle over theother, for the

Church

dignitaries.

The

spaceoneither side of these seatsisdevotedtoother

members

ofthe priesthood,suchas bishops,highpriests,

seventies. HI)

Behindthe seats of the authoritiesisthe

Grand

Organ, builtby

Mormon

artificers,of material,except the metal pipes,obtainedinthe Territory. Thisisthe third largest organin theUnited States,

and

the largest yet builtin

the

Union

; theothertwo

oneinBoston,and oneinthe

large

Plymouth

Church,Brooklyn

having been brought from Europe.

The

Mormon

organ has

two

manuals, the great

and

swell,bothheavilyfilled.

The

pipes

number

about

two

thousand.

The

followingareitsstopsandpipes:

Great Organ.

Principal, fifteenth, open diapason, stoppeddiapason, mixture-three ranks,fluteharmonic,hohl

flute,fluteacheminee,dulciana,twelfth,trumpet,bourdon.

SivellOrgan.

Claribella, principal,clariflute,stopped

flute, cremorne, hautboy, open diapason, stopped

dia-pason,mixture-tworanks, bassoon, bourdon,piccolo.

Pedal

Organ.

Open

bass,16feet; dulc bass,16feet

;

principal bass,8feet; stoppedbass,16feet; greatopen

bass,32feet.

Mechanical

Stops.

Great

and

swell,pedal

and

great, pedalandswell,tremblant,bellows,signal.

The

builder

was

Mr. Joseph Ridges, a

Mormon

arti-ficerofEnglishbirth.

THE

THEATRE,

onthe corner of First South

and

First EastStreets,isa fine building, something in theDoricstyleof

(25)

architec-SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

17

ture. Infront area coupleof fluted columns,withthe treasurer's office on the west sideofthe portico.

The

structure,

which

has agranitefinish, is172feetinlength, with a widthof80feet,

and

isinside40 feetfromfloor

toceiling.

The

stageis 62 feet deep, withproscenium

openingof32 feet atthecurtain. Ithas aparquette, dresscircle, secondcircle,

and

gallery,

and

iscapableof seatingabout 1600 persons.

The

interiorisfinishedin

white

and

gold,

and

presents a verytasteful, cheerful appearance. Its arrangements

and

appointments in

dressing-rooms, atelier, stage machinists' department, property rooms, orchestra room,

&c,

are considered superior to those of

any

other theatreonthe continent.

THE

CITY

HALL,

situatedonFirstSouthStreet,betweenFirst

and

Second East,isa very

handsome

building forthewestern

coun-try,and

was

erected ofcut red sandstone ata cost of $70,000. It is 60 feet square,and

surmounted

with a clock-tower.

The

doors, windows, and panels, are finished in oak-graining.

The

buildingcontains offices

for the

Mayor,

Recorder,and City Treasurer; a

Court-Room

where the Alderman's

and

Justices' Courts are held; the City Attorney'soffice,theTerritorial Library, Council

Chamber,

Officeof theAdjutant-Generalofthe Territorial Militia,

and chambers

in

which

the

Terri-torialLegislature meets.

(41)

The

CityPrisonisin the rear, strongly built of sand-stone,atacostof $30,000.

The

Old Tabernacle, southofthelargeone, inwhich publicworshipis heldduring thewinter,

and

which has aseatingcapacity for2500 persons; theCouncil House,

occupied bytheUniversity of Deseret, on thecorner of South and East

Temple

Streets; the Court House,

cornerofSecond

West and

Second

South

Streets,alarge

handsome

building, in

which

the

Supreme

Court,

and

the UnitedStates

and

Territorial Courts fortheThird Judicial Districtareheld;the SocialHallandSeventies'

Hall,onFirst East Street; the

immense

edificeofthe General Tithing Store, north-eastcorner ofSouth

and

East

Temple

Streets,seen asthe

"

DeseretStore;"with

the

Assembly

Rooms

oftheThirteenth and Fourteenth

Wards,

arethe other principal public buildingsinthecity.

Every

ward

hasitshall forpublicpurposes,whichis,ina

number

ofcases,alsousedasa school-room;while,inother wards,thereisapublicschool-house beside thehalls,

and

private schools.

THE

BENCH.

Our

Illustration ofthe Bench,orelevated partof Salt

Lake

City, givesabeautifulviewof themountainstothe north-east ofthecity,andlyingcontiguoustoit. Inthe foreground, to the right hand,is the gableend ofthe residence of

Mayor

D.

H.

Wells, second counsellor to President Young.

One

endof theverandah, which runs

(26)

18

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

along thefrontofthe house, facingSouth

Temple

Street,

isseen; andthestreet,withitswell-grown locusttrees,

combining beautyand shadeinthehot

summer

months, runseasttowards the mountains.

PRESIDENT

YOUNG'S HOUSE.

The

Lion House,so

named

from a carved figure ofa

lion in front,withitstriangular

windows and

full-length

verandah facingthe west,is seen to theleft; forming, withtheBeehive House,also

named

from a carved

bee-hivein front,the residence ofPresidentYoung.

The

two

areconnectedtogetherwith the owner'sbusinessoffices,

the General, or Tithing Office, being tothe westof the PrivateOffice.

Eastof his residence,and reached through the Eagle Gate, ofwhich anillustration is presented,isPresident Young'sprivate school,thetowerofwhichisseeninthe wood-cut to the right of the eagle with "outspread wings;" andstillfurther eastisthe

White

House, Presi-dentYoung's formerresidence.

Tlie gardens are laidout with great taste,

and

very carefully cultivated.

On

the neighbouring hill-side a vineyard has been planted,and thrivesveryvigorously. Three kindsofgrapesare

grown

: theCalifornia grape,

whichissupposedtobethe

Madeira

introducedintothe

New

World

bythe

Roman

Catholic

monks

;theCatawba,

so calledfrom ariver of thatname,celebrated by

Long-(41)

THE EAGLE

GATE.

fellow;

and

theIsabella,whichisanative variety.

The

principal vegetables cultivated are the Irish and sweet potato, squashes, pease, cabbages, beets, cauliflowers, lettuce, broccoli, rhubarb,

and

celery;the chieffruits,

apples,walnuts,quinces, apricots, cherries, plums, cur-rants,raspberries,andgooseberries.

(27)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

iy

v,uter-markclose to the base of the mountains, has all

the evidences of erosionfromthewatersof theseawhich

must

have formerlyfilledtheGreatBasin. Close

up

to

the mountains' base, the ground has been surveyed, blocks

and

streets

marked

off,

and

buildingisgoing on as rapidly as the increasing population of the city

re-quires increased habitations.

From

this

Bench

a

beauti-fulviewisobtainedofthe valley stretching

away

tothe south,the

Wahsatck

rangetotheeast,

and

the Oquirrh rangetothe west, with the entranceof theJordan River

from

Utah

Valley,

where

the" spurs"ofthe tworanges seeminglyalmostmeet.

No

visitor toSaltLake,

who

has timetospare,should

leave without driving

up

totheliench,andenjoying the splendid

panorama

of

mountain

and valleywhich it

re-veals. If he ascendtoEnsign Peak, northofthe

Arse-nal,astill

more

extensive viewwill beobtained,

reach-ing south to

Mount

Nebo,atthesouthern endof

Utah

Valley,and northto

Promontory

Point, at the northern endofGreatSaltLake.

Ill.-PLACES

TO

VISIT.

The

visitor to Salt

Lake

City can spend a few days

most

pleasantlyand agreeablyinvisiting placesof

inter-est intheneighbourhood,orwithin areasonable distance.

First in order, asfirstin place, is

GREAT

SALT

LAKE,

the

"Dead

Seaof the

West;"

for, without avisit to,

and

a bathe inits saline waters, no traveller or tourist can say he has

"done"

Utah,

and

visited oneof the greatestnatural wondersof the globe;forit isa wonder,

this

remnant

ofavast inlandsea,withthe ancient

water-(41)

marks

stilldistinctly visiblealongthebaseofthe

moun-tains,

where

the erosion has

made

as well-defined aline

ofshoreas the

most

enthusiastic geologistcoulddesire.

This

Mare Mortuum,

slumberingpeacefullyinthe

shadow

ofthe vast mountain ranges on either side; itsislands

towering almosttothesnow-line; its waters containing

from fifteen totwenty-six per cent, of saline matter,

accordingastheyaretakenfrom near therivers'

mouths

orthe middle of the lake; its shores, covered in

some

placeswithsaltso plentifully, thatitcan beshovelled

up

like sand; its only inhabitants,a speciesofmarine

(28)

20

SALT

LAKE

CITY,xVND

THE

WAY

THITHER.

sceneryunlikeanyotheron the continent

perhapson the globe;

this lake,which

was

the

wonder

oftrappers andhunters,

and

the terror ofthe wildIndiantribesof the Great Basin for

many

years beforecivilization

was

planted onits shores, can-not be passed without a

visit. Itcanbe

most

easily

reached fromSalt

Lake

City bythe

Utah

Central Rail-road, leavingthetrain at Bountiful; this station

being within probably a couple of miles of a nice beach for bathing.

The

lake is approached nearer

than this a littlefurther

north, by the

same

line; but the beach is not so

nice, nor the facilities for

bathingso good.

As

the excellence of this part of the shoreisonly beginning to be recognized, there is

littledoubtthat in a very

(41)

shorttime boatingfacilities willbe offeredtotourists for short excursions on the water.

The

once favourite resort of visitorstoSalt

Lake

was

Black Rock, asolitaryand massive heap of flint con-glomerate, of which an en-gravingis given, situated about 20miles from Salt

Lake

City. All through the

summer

months

joyous partiesinprivate carriages, hired conveyances,waggons, omnibuses, buggies,

and

other vehicles,would every

week

visitBlack Rock, have

picnics, bathe inthe lake,

row

over the waters,

and

enjoy the scene

and

the scenery with an exuberance of pleasurewhichthepurity and rarity of the atmo-sphere tendedtoheighten. Thesepartiesstillcontinue, though theyarenot

now

so

numerous

asformerly; and

THE

iiLAtK EOCK.

(29)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

21

the traveller

who

hasleisurewill be well repaid for the

trip, as,

among

other attractions,it will take

him

past

a

number

ofthose ancient" Indian

mounds,"

concerning

which

speculationhas beenbusy.

Ingeologicagesitisevidentthataninland seaoccupied the vastbasinbetweenthe easternrangeofthe Sierra

Madre

and

the western ridges of Goose Creek

and Humboldt

River. It

may

be

computed

at500milesfrom northto

south,andat350to500fromeasttowest,withatotalarea of 150,000 squaremiles.

Owing

tothegradualelevation of the land thewaters have sunk,atsuccessive stages, into the lowestparts ofthe basin. In

many

places thirteen of these stages,

"

benches,"or terraces

may

bedistinctlytraced.

Returning to thecity,next the "big toe ofthe

Wah-satch," or

ENSIGN PEAK,

can be climbed. Itlies north ofEast

Temple

Street, and is probably a coupleofmiles to the

summit

from

Temple

Block; but once on it, the viewis magnificent.

Away

to the north is spread a

panorama

ofmountain, lake,andvalley,stretching nearlya

hundred

miles.

To

"the west, the towering peaks which risebetween

Utah

and Nevada.

To

thesouth, the valleysouthofthecity,

hemmed

in and

bounded

bythe

Wahsatch

and Oquirrh ranges;the canyons, gloomy-lookingintherich flood of

sunlight, looking like deep gashesin the

bosom

of the giant mountains.

At

thesouthernendofthevalley the

(41)

approachingheightsshut out aclearviewof

Utah

Valley

and

its lovely lake; but thegray head of

Mount

Nebo

rises boldly

and

distinctly outlined over 80 miles from

wherethegazer stands.

At

hisfeetisthecity,buriedin

greenfoliage,cozydwellings peeping outfrom orchards

and

shade-trees, with a wealthof floral loveliness shed-dingitsfragranceontheambient atmosphere.

Descending from "jEnsign

Peak"

tothecity,andtaking the Territorial

Road

north,thevisitorsoon reachesthe

WARM

AND HOT

SPRINGS,

the former supplying comfortable bath-houses, private and plunge;

and

thelatter,gushing outofa rockatthe

baseofthemountain.

The.

Hot

Springs are

some two

miles north of the

Warm

Springs, and in their narrow basin throw offa heavyand sulphurous odour, farfrompleasantto

some

sensitiveolfactories; yetvarious medicinal virtues are ascribedto theirwaters.

Among

others, theyare said tobea wonderful restorative forand preventiveagainst baldness.

Here

we

may

introduce an anecdote,

illus-trativeofthe hotnessof the springs,whichistoogood tobe passed over. Inthe earlydaysof

Mormonism

in

Utah,

and

soon afterthe "gold-fever"inCaliforniahad

commenced

to

draw

thousands across thecontinent, a train of waggons, destined for the golden land, had arrived at Salt

Lake

City,and

camped

there to restand

(30)

re-22

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

emit.

One

of the teamsters,

who

hadfaithinthe virtue of occasional ablutions,having heardofthe

Warm

Spring inwhichit

was

allegedthe

Mormons

bathed,expectingits

waterstopreserve

them

in perennial youth,determined

to enjoy the luxury.

By

mistake, he reachedthe

Hot

Springs instead,

and

feeling the water, found ithotter than lie

had

expected.

However,

nothing daunted, he "pealedoff,"and plungedintothebubbling basin,witli

anassertionthathecouldbathewhere any

Mormon

could.

The

plunge

was

followedby ayell shrillasaninitiatory

war-whoop, and

the over-venturesome teamster dashed outofthewater, in colour likeaboiled lobster,

and

with hisepidermisinacondition foreasyflaying.

An

analysis ofthesprings

was

made

in 1849 byDr. CharlesT.JacksonofBoston; hisreportisas follows

:

"

Threefluidounces ofthe water,on evaporation to

entiredrynessin aplatina capsule,gave 8.25grainsof

solid,drysalinematter.

Carbonateof

Lime

and Magnesia 0.240

1280 PeroxideofIron 0.040

0208

Lime

0.545

2.907 Chlorine 3.454—18.421 Soda 2.877—15.344 Magnesia 0.370

2.073 SulphuricAcid 0.703

3.748 8.229 43.981

"

Itisslightlycharged with hydrosulphuricacid gas,

and

with carbolic acid gas,

and

is a pleasant,saline,

mineral water,having valuable properties belonging to

salinesulphursprings."

The

temperatureofthe

Warm

Springsis laid

down

at 102F.,that ofthe

Hot

Springsisconsiderably higher.

Though

these are notyet so popularas the Spasof

Germany

orthe

Waters

of England,

we

may

reasonably expectthatin the course ofa fewyearstheywillbethe resort ofthousandsof health-seekers.

Turning

south of the city,

and

driving in a south-easterly direction,13 miles bring the visitor to

Cotton-wood

Canyon,

and

14miles

up

this gorgeinthe

Wahsatch

will

fmd

him

atthe lovelylittle

COTTONWOOD

LAKE,

asheet ofwaternestling

among

the great peaks,

whose

summits

arecovered with "eternalsnow,"

and

lying at an altitude of about 10,000 feet.

The

scenery

up

the canyon, andthataroundthe littlelake,isgrand and im-posing,

and

attractively beautiful. Luxuriantvegetation crowns the canyonsides,except

where

theabrupt rocks

show

their baldsides.

The

windingsofthecanyon; the whirringof the

saw-mills, ripping the huge logs cut from the mountains'

sides intomarketable

lumber;

the wild

and

picturesque appearanceofpeak,

and

swell,and mountaingully; the

(31)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAT

THITHEE.

23

little lake itself, with the mountains dipping to the

water's edge,

and

theborderofgreensward surrounding

it,cannotfitlybedescribed inwords.

The

lake referred to is the principaloneofaseries of lakeletswhich

re-poseinthese

mountain

fastnesses,

and

are fedfrom the melting snows; as

many

as thirteenhaving been observed

from the highest peaks

embosomed

inthe surrounding scenery.

An

exploration of

THE

CANYONS

in the

Wahsatch and

Oquirrh ranges,with their clear

and

sparklingstreams,which

abound

introut,

and

afford excellent angling, will well repay thetrouble, and give healthandgratification to the tourist.

South

of Salt

Lake

Valleylies

UTAH VALLEY AND

LAKE,

the latter asheet of fresh water, 30 miles inextreme lengthby 15inbreadth.

A

number

oftowns

and

settle-ments border on the lake,each built on a

mountain

stream,whichgiveswaterforirrigation.

The most

importantplace in this valleyisProvo, the county town, builtonthe Provo,or

Timpanogos

River, whichflows

down

a canyon bearingitsname.

About

six miles

up

thecanyonisabeautiful cataract,

known

asthe

(41)

" Cascades;

"

and

all the streams afford a plentiful supplyof

most

delicious trout.

SWEET

WATER

RIVER.

The

Sweet

Water

Riveris atributary of the Platte, whichflowsthrough avalleyof the

most

romantic

char-acter. Its

name

isa translation fromthe Indian

Pina

Pa, and

ina metaphoricalsenseispeculiarly applicable, the scenery in

many

parts being as soft

and

sylvan as anythat everenriched apoet's Arcadia. Initscalmer course,saysCaptain Burton, the

Sweet Water

isa

per-fect

Naiad

ofthemountains; but afterwards it becomes an Undine, hurried bythat terrible Destiny, to

which

Jove himself

must

bend his omniscient head, into the grislymarital embraceofthegloomyold Platte. Passing pleasantisthe

merry

prattlewith

which

sheanswersthe whisperingsofthosefickleflatterers,the.Winds,before thatwedding-day

when

silence shall

become

her doom. Thereisa somethingintheSweet

Water

which appeals to the feelings of rugged

men

; even thedrivers

and

station-keepers speak of

"her"

with a bearish affec-tion.

The

grandestfeature ofthevalleyisthe Devil's Gate, a breach in the barrier of the

Rocky

Mountains, which mightwellserve asthe portal to

some

enchantedregion.

The

height of thehuge dark perpendicularcliffsoneither

hand

variesfrom 400to500feet;the spacebetween

them

(32)

24

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

is

nowhere

more

than 105

feet, in

many

is scarcely40

feet wide; the total length

of thegapis650to700feet.

The

walls consistofa gray granite traversed by trap dykes:andtherockin

which

the river has excavated her

sti'angeanddifficultchannel

runs right throughthe ex-treme southern shoulder of aridgeappropriatelyenough

named

the

"

Rattlesnake Hills."

Through

theprofound

fis-suresweepsand plunges and splashes the swift stream, eddying roundrockypoints, and tumbling over

massy

boulders,

wakening

up

the neighbouring echoes with her unceasingsong,whichvaries

from

sounds like those of

merry

laughtertoadirge as sadand solemn as

was

ever breathedoverahero'sgrave.

The

spectacle is ever fresh and ever new,

and

would

delight the artist and the poet.

SNAKE OR

LEWIS RIVER.

The

Snake

River Valley

liestothenorthoftheGreat Salt Lake, and mostly out of the track of travellers.

There are pictures on its

banksandin its neighbour-hood,however,whichmight inspirea great artist with immortalideas.

One

of the brightest of these is pre-sented at the point

where

the

Unknown

River, as it is

mysteriouslycalled,suddenly leaps into the light ofday from therockywalls

which

enclose the waters of the

Snake

River, pouring

down

thecraggydescentina double cascade, which sparkles in the sun with rainbow hues

and

fills the air with the

echoes of its tumultuous course. This, assuredly, is

(33)

SALT

LAKE

CITY,

AND THE

WAY

THITHER.

25

one of the greatest naturalcuriosities in the

Western

World

;

and

thewholescene,withitsloftybattlemented

mountains

and

itsfoamingwaters,itswreathingclouds of mist,

and

its richgarniture ofmoss,

and

ferns,

and

grasses,iswell calculated toimpresstheimagination

and

findalastingplace

among

thetreasuresof

memory.

Snake

River, also called Lewis' Fork, forms the

southern branchof theColumbia,andis

named

afterthe Indian tribe

whose

ancient territoryit traverses. Its courseisbroken

up

by

numerous

falls

and

rapids,

which

have been described by

Fremont

with

much

graphic

force. It joins thenorthern branchof the

Columbia

in

lat. 46° 5' N.,

and

long. 118° 55'

W., and

thence the unitedstreamflows

onward

tothe PacificOcean.

(41)

Figure

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References

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