i.WahsatchMountains. ?. PresidentBrighamYoung's School-house. 3.CityMall. 4.Sir
OjU iDeseretNewsOffice. 8..EastTempleStreet. 9-FoundationofTemple. 10.
fringe the valley, are
humiliation over her
of a scramble
over her defeat
THE UNION AND CENTRAL
BearRiver Bridge, .. 12 The
UnionPacificRailroad, . 3
UtahCentral Railroad, . .. 13 Chicago, . 3 Salt
Omaha, . 5 ItsExtent andSituation, .. 14
The WesternPrairies, . 5 The Temple, .. 15 The CountryTraversed,.
. 6 TheTabernacle, .. .. 16
Fort Bridger, 8
TheTheatre, .. 16 Echo Canyon, . 8 TheCity Hall, .. 17
WeberCanyon, 9 TheBench, .. 17
WeberBridgeatOgden, . 12 PresidentYoung's House, .. 18
Places to Visit
—Great Salt Lake, .
UtahValleyandLake, SweetWaterRiver, SnakeorLewisRiver,
ofthe Territorytobe86,786. GreatSalt Lake County
con-tains 18,337inhabitants. PiuteCountyisreturnedashaving
nopopulation, its inhabitantshaving been driven out by Indians.
UtahCounty has a population of 12,243. Salt
LakeCity, inGreatSaltLake County, has a populationof
17,282, those born in the United Statesnumbering 10,214,
andinother countries706S. ThepopulationofMontana is
number maybeslightly increased bywhites
CONTINENT." [Vid theUnion andCentralPacificRailroads.]
nowthat the various divisions of the PacificRailroadare completed, to
wasa few years ago.
"trip"occupied from ten to thirty days between the Missouri River andSalt
sea-sonof the year, or the successful assiduity of theIndians onthe plains inburning "stations,"carryingoffhorses and mules,imperilling thelivesof travellers,
makingthemselves unpleasantly notorious.
insaloon carriages luxuriouslyfitted up,provided with refreshmentbars,
Yetthe old route
wasnotaltogether an unpleasantone,especially tothose
wholikeadashof excitementin theirpleasure;and it
of affordingtimetothe traveller forthecontemplationof the beautiful scenerywhich he encountered on theroute.
Butnous avons changetout cela.
Everybodynow-a-days goes by rail;
andthe steam-car, with wonderful
regularity, dashes across the
immenseexpanse ofthe continent,conveying curious visitors or busymerchants ordaringadventurerstothe strongholdof
theone direction, or the
andsplendid shore of thePacific.
fromthe Northern States, will
probablyselectChicagoas his starting-point.
Chicagoisundoubtedly oneofthe most extraordinary instances ofthe rapidity of
Americandevelopment. It isthe principalcityofIllinois,andsituated atthe south-western extremityof
of the Chicago River, in lat. 41° 52' N.,
andlong. 87° 35'
OfIndian origin, and pronounc.ed Shu-kaw-go, it is first mentioned by Perrot, a
Asmall military station,
waserected herein1803,but destroyed by the Indians in 1812. It
wasafterwards rebuilt in
wassixteen years later before
Americanenterprise appreciatedtheadvantagesofthe position; andin1832, withtheexceptionoftheofficersandsoldiers,itdid not containabove a dozenfamilies. Inthe following year a
town wasorganizedbythe election ofa
waspurchasedofthe Pottawattomies, seven thousandof
whomwere transported westofthe Missis-sippiRiver.
wasabout 2000; butits
faci-lities forbecoming a vast graindepdt were so obvious
that settlers flocked to the
newcityfromallparts of the UnitedStates,
becameso rapidasto sur-passany previous instance inthehistory ofthe world.
emporiumof the navigation ofthegreat lakes; theimports
whosevalue pro-bablyexceeds $5,820,000. Nearly 6000miles ofrailway centreinthisextraordinarycapital ofWestern commerce.
Ithasitsuniversities, medical colleges,theological, lite-(41)
rary, and scientificinstitutes,churches, chapels, public schools,private schools
ad-dendaof a great city.
One drawbackis, that its
townbeingsituatedon alevel, ornearlya level,which never varies
morethan from five to twenty-four feet above the lake.
Butthe traveller need not start from Chicago unless
commencehisgreatWestern tour at
St. Louis, the terminus of the Ohio
andMississippi Railway; or at Springfield, the junction-point of the Toledo,
Wabash, andWestern,with the Chicago,Alton, and St. Louis.
Butwhatever route he takes, he will find himselfeventually deposited at
River—the focus ofan
rail-ways, and the actual point ofdeparture of the
Theprincipal lineswhich convergeto this flourishing
TheChicagoand North- Western.
RockIsland,and Pacific. 4.
TheSt. Joseph ar.d Council Bluffs, which unites the HannibalandSt. Joseph,the Missouri
—the latter a
mainline of railway, whichisintendedtobe carried as far asDenver,
andthere unitewith a branchtoCheyenne, onthe
Omahait is enough to say that it is destined to
expandinto very considerable proportions. It is
connected by railway with the principal towns of
Kansas; hasa large river
trade; and is an importantprairie depot. It is
bankofthe Missouri, oppositeCouncil
Bluffs, and twenty miles northwardof the
Omaha,ourcourse,as far asMacpherson,
bankofthe Platte River,
which weascendtoitspoint of confluence atCheyenne,
NorthPlatte unitesinonebroad channel withthesmaller streamoftheSouth Platte:theformerrising far
wayof Julesburg, Sidney,
Noneof these placeshave attained as yettoa degreeof import-ancewhichjustifies description.
Manyconsist only of acollection of log huts; which, indeed, are scattered
andthere along the line wherever the
abundantorthe soiloffersa favourable opportunityfor
Thereallyremarkablefeature of this part ofour jour-neyisthe prairie scenery,
andwide on either hand.
Yetthe prairies are not
whatEnglish people are so aptto think
monotonousplains,thicklycoveredwithgrassand buffa-loes; butvast rollinguplands,
whichrisefrom the Kan-sasRivertothe
Rocky Mountainsinaseriesofascending billows,alwaysofagentle ascent,andoften ofan
andinletsbranchingfrom the rivers are fringed with walnut, oak,
andsun-flowers, which clothe the ground with a
warm, andinterpenetrated with fragrance; thesky a deepsoftblue,occasionally relieved by patchesofsnow-whitecloud.
andleagues thepicture isas rich in colour asitismajestic in out-line; and were notthe traveller occasionallyaroused by
the terrors ofaprairie storm, he
mightbeginto think himselfinan enchantedland,which
Nature haddowered withallherrichestgifts.
westrikedeeperintothe solitudes ofthegreat continent, the landscape loses its brilliancy:
andflowery ridges give place to vast breadths of rollinguplands,
wherethewolfcreepsalongitsinsidious track, and the rattlesnakelies coiled
amongthe thick herbage,
andthe pioneer's path, ashestrollsalong,gun and axeinhand,is
WATTIIITITER. skeletons ofdead animals.
andfor the occasionalappearanceofagroupofantelopes ora herdof buffaloes.
Oneofthe plaguesofthe prairies is
of grasshoppers,which, like thelocusts ofEgypt,
con-sumeeverygreen thing before them.
whohas not travelled on the prairie, says Lieutenant
magnitudeof theswarms. Frequently they fill the air for
manymiles of extent, so that an inexperienced eye can scarcelydistinguish their appear-ancefromthat ofaheavy showerof rain orthe shifting
smokeofaprairie fire. Theirflight isfrequently at an elevationof from 1400to1500feet abovethe surface of the earth; but they descend towithin a fewinches,
settle on the vegetation of the plain like auniversal
Toa person standinginoneofthese
swarmsas they whirloverand around him, theairbecomes percep-tiblydarkened,and the sound produced bytheirwings resemblesthat of thepassageofatrain of carson arailroad
when youareabouttwoor three
hundredyardsfromthe track. This plague seems to be the
mostimportantstations on the
comein sight ofFort Russell,onthe
GrowCreek. It isthe largest fort inthe West.
fifty-seven miles; but the ascent is not less than 1082feet,
Laramie being 7123 feet above the sea-level.
Upthis toilsome acclivity the locomotive cannot travel at
anyconsiderablespeed;but theslowerrate ofprogressdoes
andunusual features of thesceneryaround him.
Tothe north-west rolls the range ofthe Black
Hills, with sharp-pointed peaks rising
above the general level.
Tothe south is visible the
RockyMountains, thegreat barrier whichseparatestheprairieregionfromthe Pacific litto-ral. Looking eastward, alongthe tract
dimhorizonas one vast plain: even the hills ofa thousand feetinheight
seembut a speckinthe distance.
SirWalterScotttellsusofthe beautifulruinsof Mel-roseAbbey,thattosee
themarighttheyshould be seen by the
"palemoonlight;" and thispartof therailway journeyacrossthe continentshouldalsobe accomplished
whenthescene is lit
upby the radianceof the moon.
Thusarecent traveller writes:
moonis shining brightly as
weclimb these everlasting hills.
Hermellowlight givesa softnessto the view; theairis pure
hearts swelling with grandeurat the sight of those en-during
monumentsof God's greatness;
wedrink in the prospectin silent, heartfeltrapture. In view of these
dumb; for silenceis
mostbecomingto us,the creatures ofaday, in the presenceofthese rocky crea-tures,
whichwillcontinuetolifttheir tall heads tothe sky
when we andall like us are mouldering in the dust.
wereach the summit-level of the railway
—the highest point which
wecross in the
—anelevationabove the oceanof8242
webegin ourdescent towards thePacific,every mileexhibiting to us
somenovel feature ina
"Here,toourright, rises far abovehisfellowsabald-headedmountainofrock;to the
meetthe eyeeverywhere; and all around are rugged,
craggy, precipitous rocks
—barren of grass, or leaf, or tree
anddeep-yawning chasms, through
whichthe flashingstreamleapsonitsmerry way.
Westrikeacross bridges ofsuch a height that it turns one dizzy tolook
downintotheawful depth below."
we cometoa plateauon
summitthe redrocks rise,intower, spire,
something to arrest the eye,to strike the imagination,
andrent their sideswith profoundest chasms.
Ona mountain-sheltered plain is situated Laramie, the largest
threemiles distant: ithas a
andseveral block houses.
Bow,on oneofthe small branches of the
Salt Wellson ourright,
wecross the Green River
—a winding, rapid stream, affording capital sport tothe angler, ifanysolitary disciple of Izaak
At Bryan westrikeBlack Fork, a branchof the
wefollow for seve-ral miles; with the whiteplains,whitened byalkaline incrustations,only sparsely relieved by sage-bushes
Towardsthe south rise the Uintah Mountains, with the River Uintah attheir base. Thispoint is nearly
andthe junction of
GreenRiver withthe Colorado.
fifty miles, crossing
andrecrossing itaccording tothe
devices oftherailwayengineers. Its valleyseems
onlyinhabitantsareaninnumerable colonyof squirrels.
Omaha—the great easternterminus of theUnionPacific
Church Buttes—so calledfromthe
summitof the mountains, which at
a littledistance present theappearance ofhundredsof
Next wepass Fort Bridger, surrounded
bymany-coloured rocks. It
washere that three regimentsof UnitedStatessoldiers,under
whohad been despatchedin1857tochastisethe
Mormons,endured such severe sufferings. Imprisoned bythedeep winter snowsinthe heart of themountains, their
commissarytrain captured by the
Mormons,they were compelledto killand eat their mules,
andeven to boil
andeat the mules' skins.
Hundredsperished of cold
summerloosened theirchains,noprovisionsfromthe Statesreached
Wehave notyetgot clear ofthespurs
Toavoid heavy cuttings
wearecontinuallywinding round the baseofgrassyhills. In thefront asinthe rearstill rise
Thecuttings arecoveredwith aheavy roof oftimber,toprevent
snowin the midst of winter.
around us Indians are constantly
makingtheir appear-ance; sometimes singly,sometimesinpairsand groups
sometimes standingor reclining,sometimes urging their horses tofullgallop.
Crossing the Bear River
fish,and rises sixtymiles
wereach Bear City. It
issituatedasromantically asapoetcould wish,
whoserichverdurebrightly con-trasts with the gray,naked, barren,
The charm andbeautyof contrastisvery
someplacesof this valley
—letus note asa fact
numerousthatit isimpossible to placethepoint ofapinonthe ground without touching them.
"Aneastward-bound train," says a traveller,
comein toWahsatch,isprovided with evergreen brooms,covering thecowcatcher
andbrushing the track, tosweepoffthegrasshoppers.
Theengineer ofourtraininformsme,that attimes theyare so numer-ousonthetrack astobecrushedtodeathby thousands:
andtrack so greasy that trains are often two orthree hours behind their time."
Westatethis fact on the authorityofa corre-spondentofthe
Canyon(or Canon), one ofthe sublimest,
Americanshave to boast of. Picture to yourself, reader, a deep rocky ravine,
someseven miles in length,and,atitshead,fromone-halfto three-quarters ofamile in width.
handit isflanked by bold,precipitous, buttressed cliffs, fromthree
thestorms whichrage against
gales. Theirstratalieinclinedat anangle of45°,from
Theoppositeside,shelteredfromfurious winds anddrivingtempestsof rain,is formed
bya suc-cessionofswellingverdurous hillsor sloping masses of rock, profusely clothedwith grass and mosses. In the hollowbetween
themrolls abrighttransparent stream. Incessantly atwork, it has excavatedfor its waters a channel
Atcertain parts a rockyledge or apileofboulders vexes itinto madness, until, gathering itself
uplike an athlete, it
clearsthe obstacleinoneswiftand sudden bound.
Abouthalf-waydown,the ravinenarrowstoa meredefile,where thestreamgrowswilder,andthebanksare steeper, and thevegetation flourishes
onthe right areherebroken
upintoavariety of fantastic outlines: pyramids and pinnacles, spires and towers,
—thewhole resembling a fairy vision,
whichmightfurnish the imagination of poet or artistwith
EchoCanyon,and on the
summitof rockyheights a thousand feet above thevalley,are the remainsofthe fortifications prepared
against the expedition threatened by the
itwas suggestedthat troopsshould besent tobreak
Mormonswere not once attacked,
—onlya bodyofour regulars,termed an
armyofobservation, posted them-selvesat
CampFloyd, thirty-nine miles from Salt
LakeCity,and thei-e remained,
muchto the mortification of the
Thefeeling betweentroops andsaintswas,however,ofa moderatelycordialcharacter, and every day
wasthe occasion for
someinterchange of courtesies. Still, thefortifications were an established
anditisnoticeablethattheplace selected for their
erectionisreallya dangerous localityforwarlike
Thedefileisvery narrow,thebarered wallsrise
perpendicularly; and had
hungslanting over theedgeofthe precipice,sweeping
themwithsimilar missilesfrom each
have been crushed with wonderfuleaseandcelerity.
calculate that neitherGrant nor
Passingthe celebrated Pulpit Rock,
weenter, eight milesbelow Echo, the
WeberCanyon, which almost sur-passes the
Echoinitssublimityof character. Allalong the valley flows the
WebberRiver, exquisitely clear and cold. It rises near the source of the Bear River,andafteracuriouslywindingnorth-westerly career,
fallsintothe GreatSalt Lake, a fewmiles southofits
Canyonare the Witches'Rocks, weird
andwild-looking, and wearing a fanciful resem-blance to thosedreadedand
"powers"ofa dark ageofignorance
Somesix miles further,
andatthe point called the
maybe seenalonepine tree on the river
THE WITCHESROCKS, IN
THE WEBERCANYON". bank.
Thetravellercan hardlyfail to noticeit, forno kindredtreesarenearit,aboveit,belowit,or on either side;
—the fact, though strange, istrue
—to be exactlyone
thousandmiles from the Missouri River
bythe Pacific Railroad. It bearsaboard, withthe inscription,
howfarhe has journeyed onhis
DeadSea ofthe Western
"Golden Gateofthe Pacific."
Belowthis, on the left ofthe river,
downthe mountain-side, is alarge slate rock, grooved
downthe centre likean
nameofthe"Devil's Slide." Assuredly noindividualbut heafter
whomitisentitled couldaccomplishthe descent.
seemto overlap eachother, the river
makingsharp abrupt turns roundthe projecting angles.
Throughthese areexcavatedthe third
andfourth tunnels of the PacificRailroad
Withinthreemiles of the
mouthofWeber's Canyon, Devil'sGate,andthe stationso-called,are passed.•
awayonthe rightfromthe railroad track, andis soon lost to theview of the passengers,
whosetrain sweeps through a deep and narrow gorge inthe massive rock,which, on oneside, rises perpendicularly
someeighty orninetyfeet; onthe othertowersaloft,in
mountainous grandeur, with grim
shut outthe sunlight.
andby 0»den, asmall butrising township,
wereach the borders of the Salt Lake.
Asmallbranch-lineconducts us from
But,first,letus takea viewof the great basin of this
Atthe foot of the
Wahsatchrange, stretching far
dimregions of mist and shadow,lies
whathas,in picturesque phraseology, beencalledthe
HappyValley. In thefullsplendourof atropicalsun,itcertainlylooks irradiant; forthe fields
glow withthe gold of the yellowsunflowers, the ridges arepurplewith moss,and afierylustreliesonthe
lake-lets,streams,andpools; the cultivated land, a narrow
waveswith crops of grain;
theexpanseofthe SaltLake,enclosedby aline of
dimblue mountains,calledin Indian languagethe Oquirrh.
Thelake itself, about 120 milesin length,
breadth, sleeps indeep purple shadows, broken and
ir-regular,whicharethemselvesthereflectionofthebroken irregularsummit-lineof the sierras of
it isprobable,distancelendsanenchantmentthatis not
andis so transparent that objects afar seem broughtstartlinglynearus. AntelopeIsland,whichlies
wouldthink but an hour's journey.
Theundulating plain, or valley, dips in the centre
"likethesection ofa tunnel,"andriseson eitherhand into
"benches"or terraces, which
ofthelake-watersinlong distantages. In
somepartsthe valleyretainsitsoldverdantcharacter; inothers,
likethe sandsofArabia, but relieved by leafy clumps, and brightened bythe
waveof theJordan, as itflows throughthepastures
andcorn-fields painfully cultivated bythehandofman.
LakeCity,leaves the cars ofthePacificRailroad atOgden,totake those of the
UtahCentral, thirty-six milesfromSalt
UtahCentralissituatedonthe east side of the
WeberRiver, acrosswhich asubstantial railwaybridge has been con-structed.
Afew dayscanbe profitablyand pleasantlypassed in
re-ferred, is the junction-point of the
UnionPacific and Central Railroads, contains between 6000 and 7000
townbeing built partly on the"
bench"and partly on the
"bottomlevel" beneath. Likeall Mor-mon,or
Ogdencontains a consider-able proportionofEasterners
—itsstreetsare wide,with streams of water,required forirrigating purposes, car-riedalong the side-walks.
Thehousesaremostlysmall, built ofadobe,and
The Wahsatchrange, at whose western base
is situated, stretches
awayto the north
graypeaksrisinginsolemngrandeurover the valleyand
lake. Eight miles northof
someof the hot
numerousin this Territory; and five miles
further,there are distinct indications ofavolcanicagency which cannot have beenlong extinct.
Tbirty-twomiles north ofOgden, onthe roadtoMon-tana,istheBear RiverBridge.
Largeflocks of wild geese, ducks, and teal,especially
autumn,ontheriver,and an abundance oftrout and otherfish within it; rambles over the mountains, and bracing rides across thebroadprairieofthe
Aboutfour miles from the Bridge
Themountain gorgessoapproacheachother thatthe wateriscompletely
jammedin,androarsandbrawls,and leapsand dashes againsthuge massesofrock,whichare
RockyMountainregion. Thereisanother suchintheValley of the Sweet Water, a fewmileswest ofIndependence
Rock; another, asalreadypointed out,
WeberCanyon,crossedbythe Pacific Railroad;and the one
nowdescribing on Bear River. This, perhaps, isthe
—a narrow neck ofthe riverjutting across thepathway,andforcingitto
makea sharp curvature
wherethemountaindips into the water on oneside,andtherocksriseperpendicularlyfor eighty orninetyfeetonthe other. Standingonthe3e rocksand looking
woodto itsverymargin; whilethegradual narrowingof
andthe vastmassesofrockinthe river-bed, impel it with the rush ofa host of
maddenedsteeds, broken frombit
But we mustreturnto Ogden,
andtake our seats in
UtahCentral Railroad, for Salt
LakeCity, thirty-six miles.
Forabout twelve miles the line runs over
" SandRidge," along sandy swell,
wheresage-brush, rabbit-brush, sunflowers,
andsimilar vegetation, with occasionalpatches ofsucculent grass,reignundisturbedby ploughorwater-ditch,
ofitbeingtoo elevated for theordinary
Afineviewof theGreatSaltLake, with Antelope, Fre-mont, Stansbury,Carrington,Dolphin,and
hereobtained;aspanof horizon of overa
extentfrom north tosouth,beingopened
upto the gaze of traveller
andtourist,withscenerywhich combinesthe chiefelementsoflovelinessand sublimity
in-ferior, but akin to that of the
BayofNaples, with a
one of the
mostbrilliant spectacles theeyecould ever
hope to see, sogorgeouslyrich isthecolouring,
andcanyon are bathed in
"thedying halo of de-partingday."
Twenty-twomiles of the line from Kaysville South crossesthe mostfertile portion of the valley,the gener-oussoil yielding profitablecrops ofeveryproduct
growninthis latitude; while cereals
androot-crops are very
—including apples, peaches, plums,
apri-cots, grapes, and smaller kinds,with melons,squashes,
Thelake, sleeping in the
shadowofitsmountainous islands, or reflectingthe glory ofa cloudless
andsunlit sky, stretches
awaytothe right; dreamy-lookingvalleys, buriedinpurplehaze, and crowned
bytowering ranges ofmountains,
whosepeaks, snow-capped even in
mid-summer,soar above the clouds; whileto the left lie
well-cultivatedand fertilefarminglauds, with orchards and gardens encircling the settlements of Kaysville, Farmington, Centreville, and Bountiful,
andrunning alone the base of the
Within aboutfivemiles of Salt
LakeCity,the railroad reaches the
HotSpring Lake, fed
bythe celebrated Springs. It forms a beautiful littlesheet of water, nearly three miles longand
upwardsofa mile broad,
whosecalm surfaceis scarcely rippled bythe flocks of wild clucksandgeese floatingso lazily
inletor creek of this lakeistraversedbytherailway; and
thecars, speedingthroughthepasture-land northofthe
WarmSpring Baths, soon reach the
whathas poeticallybeen called the "Jeru-salemoftheWest."
CITY.All travellersagree to recognize theadmirable skill
Mormonleaders have selectedthe site
and developed the plan of their city. According to President
himinavision byan angel,who, standing on aconical
hill, pointed to the locality where the
and whenhe firstentered the Salt
Lakebasin, he looked for the angel-haunted cone, and
dis-coveringafreshstream rippling atitsbase,he
Somesay the angel
spirit of his predecessor Joseph
Smiththe apostle of
Mormonism; others, that as early a>. 1842the latter
dreamsof these valleysand mountains, lakes
Atall events, on the exodus of the
from Nauvoo, they crossed the
Rocky Mountains anddescendedinto this basin,toplant their
new homeina scene of themost picturesque and unusualbeauty.
Thecityisfinelysituatedinanangle of the
upclosetothe foot of thehills
whichlienorth ofit; while the mountains on the east
twoandthreemiles distant. Lookingatthe Illustration,the
Wahsatchrangeare inthe distance,on theleft
handside, from twelveto
twenty-eight miles from the city.
ofthevalley,and between 11,000
TempleStreet inthe centre of the Illustration,
isthe principal businessstreetinthecity. Likeallthe
rest,it is132 feetwide,with streams of waterflowing
downeitherside,keeping the shade-trees in lovelygreen foliageduringthe scorching
Theshape ofthecityissomething likean L,the longer portion of
theletterstretching eastandwest, theshorternorthand
south. Itsappearanceisunique,and peculiar toitself.
The numerousorchards which
aboundthrough it,and the thriftygrowthofshade-treeswhich line thestreets,
give it the air ofan
numberof villas, small cottages,
andresidences of every imaginable style of architecture,buriedina
Laid outin square blocksof ten acres each, thewide streets run at rightangles to each other,followingthe cardinal points ofthecompass.
Thecitycoversaspace ofabout nine square miles,and contains nearly25,000 inhabitants. Ithas three hotels
TownsendHouse,and Revere House, with a
TempleStreet; in its rearis First East Street (State Road); then Second East Street;
To TempleBlocklatitudeandlongitude also are generally referred. Itliesin lat40° 45' 44" N.,and long. 112°
34"W.,atanelevation of4300feetabove thesea-level.
In the city
andfurniture, with steam
wood-workingfactories, a paper-mill, largeadobe-yards, brick-yards,
Therearetwodaily,onesemi-weekly, andthreeweekly newspaperspublished.
Thedailies are the Dcseret
News,Geo. Q. Cannon, editor;
M.A. Fuller, proprietor
official organ ofthe
alsothe proprietorandeditorofa very popularillustrated juvenile semi-monthly paper, the Juvenile Instructor;
andGrodbe publish weekly the
Ofpublic buildings, thefirsttoattractthe attention of travellersis
andisthe centre of thehopes
Templeisnot designed, as
performedinotherand temporaryplaces; such as
bap-tisms,washings,anointings, and other rites requiredto prepare the neophyte.
nowin course of erection in
TempleBlockis 186gfeet fromeasttowest, including towers,
and99feet from northtosouth.
Thefoundation islaid16feetfromthe surface oftheearth, andthe walls resting
themare 8feetthick. Three towerswillstandateachendofthe building,the centre ones, east andwest, rising higherthan the others,
andtoanaltitude of225 feet; while a circularstairwayin each will
column4feetindiameter,with landings at the various sections of the building, from which
mostexcellentviews of the cityand surrounding scenery
—the valley, lake,
—will be ob-tained.
Thebasement story willcontain a room, 57feetlong by 35wide,tobe usedforbaptismalpurposes,whichwill
two roomson each side, 19 by 12 feet.
more roomson either end, 38^ by 28
flights ofstone steps,9^ feetwide, will lead
second story, the
main roomof which will be120feet
long by 80 wide, with the ceiling an elliptical arch. Eightotherrooms areonthis story,14feetby14.
Thethird story willhave asimilararrangementof divisions.
makingitastructure entirelyunique. It
isbeing built ofalight-coloured granite,obtainedin
Cot-tonwoodCanyon,sixteenmiles south-east of thecity.
Thesouthwall of this ten acreenclosureisseenthroughthe shade-treesin
Thebuilding itself,with its peculiar-shaped dome-like roof,
bya flag-staff, is
perhaps thelargest hall inthe worldofa singlespan
of public meetings. Itis 250 feetinside fromeast to west, with a width of 150 feet from north to south. Forty-six parallelogrampillarsofred sand-stone,9feet
deepby 3feetwide,form thebasefortheroof,whichis
astrong lattice-work of timbersfirmlybolted together and self-supporting.
Theceiling is 62 feet from the
which serve the double purpose of ventilation,
uptorepair or whiten
whennecessity arises fordoingeither.
Thewest endisoccupied by a rostrum, or
"stand," anelevated platform,withthree seats inthecentreinfront elevated one alittle over theother, for the
Thespaceoneither side of these seatsisdevotedtoother
membersofthe priesthood,suchas bishops,highpriests,
Behindthe seats of the authoritiesisthe
Mormonartificers,of material,except the metal pipes,obtainedinthe Territory. Thisisthe third largest organin theUnited States,
andthe largest yet builtin
—having been brought from Europe.
twomanuals, the great
—Principal, fifteenth, open diapason, stoppeddiapason, mixture-three ranks,fluteharmonic,hohl
flute, cremorne, hautboy, open diapason, stopped
dia-pason,mixture-tworanks, bassoon, bourdon,piccolo.
Openbass,16feet; dulc bass,16feet
principal bass,8feet; stoppedbass,16feet; greatopen
wasMr. Joseph Ridges, a
onthe corner of First South
andFirst EastStreets,isa fine building, something in theDoricstyleof
ture. Infront area coupleof fluted columns,withthe treasurer's office on the west sideofthe portico.
whichhas agranitefinish, is172feetinlength, with a widthof80feet,
Thestageis 62 feet deep, withproscenium
openingof32 feet atthecurtain. Ithas aparquette, dresscircle, secondcircle,
andiscapableof seatingabout 1600 persons.
andpresents a verytasteful, cheerful appearance. Its arrangements
dressing-rooms, atelier, stage machinists' department, property rooms, orchestra room,
&c,are considered superior to those of
anyother theatreonthe continent.
andSecond East,isa very
waserected ofcut red sandstone ata cost of $70,000. It is 60 feet square,and
surmountedwith a clock-tower.
Thedoors, windows, and panels, are finished in oak-graining.
Mayor,Recorder,and City Treasurer; a
Court-Roomwhere the Alderman's
andJustices' Courts are held; the City Attorney'soffice,theTerritorial Library, Council
Chamber,Officeof theAdjutant-Generalofthe Territorial Militia,
TheCityPrisonisin the rear, strongly built of sand-stone,atacostof $30,000.
TheOld Tabernacle, southofthelargeone, inwhich publicworshipis heldduring thewinter,
andwhich has aseatingcapacity for2500 persons; theCouncil House,
occupied bytheUniversity of Deseret, on thecorner of South and East
TempleStreets; the Court House,
andTerritorial Courts fortheThird Judicial Districtareheld;the SocialHallandSeventies'
Hall,onFirst East Street; the
immenseedificeofthe General Tithing Store, north-eastcorner ofSouth
RoomsoftheThirteenth and Fourteenth
Wards,arethe other principal public buildingsinthecity.
numberofcases,alsousedasa school-room;while,inother wards,thereisapublicschool-house beside thehalls,
OurIllustration ofthe Bench,orelevated partof Salt
LakeCity, givesabeautifulviewof themountainstothe north-east ofthecity,andlyingcontiguoustoit. Inthe foreground, to the right hand,is the gableend ofthe residence of
H.Wells, second counsellor to President Young.
Oneendof theverandah, which runs
along thefrontofthe house, facingSouth
isseen; andthestreet,withitswell-grown locusttrees,
combining beautyand shadeinthehot
summermonths, runseasttowards the mountains.
namedfrom a carved figure ofa
lion in front,withitstriangular
verandah facingthe west,is seen to theleft; forming, withtheBeehive House,also
namedfrom a carved
bee-hivein front,the residence ofPresidentYoung.
areconnectedtogetherwith the owner'sbusinessoffices,
the General, or Tithing Office, being tothe westof the PrivateOffice.
Eastof his residence,and reached through the Eagle Gate, ofwhich anillustration is presented,isPresident Young'sprivate school,thetowerofwhichisseeninthe wood-cut to the right of the eagle with "outspread wings;" andstillfurther eastisthe
WhiteHouse, Presi-dentYoung's formerresidence.
Tlie gardens are laidout with great taste,
andvery carefully cultivated.
Onthe neighbouring hill-side a vineyard has been planted,and thrivesveryvigorously. Three kindsofgrapesare
grown: theCalifornia grape,
so calledfrom ariver of thatname,celebrated by
Theprincipal vegetables cultivated are the Irish and sweet potato, squashes, pease, cabbages, beets, cauliflowers, lettuce, broccoli, rhubarb,
apples,walnuts,quinces, apricots, cherries, plums, cur-rants,raspberries,andgooseberries.
v,uter-markclose to the base of the mountains, has all
the evidences of erosionfromthewatersof theseawhich
musthave formerlyfilledtheGreatBasin. Close
the mountains' base, the ground has been surveyed, blocks
andbuildingisgoing on as rapidly as the increasing population of the city
re-quires increased habitations.
beauti-fulviewisobtainedofthe valley stretching
andthe Oquirrh rangetothe west, with the entranceof theJordan River
wherethe" spurs"ofthe tworanges seeminglyalmostmeet.
leave without driving
uptotheliench,andenjoying the splendid
mountainand valleywhich it
re-veals. If he ascendtoEnsign Peak, northofthe
moreextensive viewwill beobtained,
reach-ing south to
PromontoryPoint, at the northern endofGreatSaltLake.
Thevisitor to Salt
LakeCity can spend a few days
mostpleasantlyand agreeablyinvisiting placesof
inter-est intheneighbourhood,orwithin areasonable distance.
First in order, asfirstin place, is
West;"for, without avisit to,
anda bathe inits saline waters, no traveller or tourist can say he has
andvisited oneof the greatestnatural wondersof the globe;forit isa wonder,
remnantofavast inlandsea,withthe ancient
marksstilldistinctly visiblealongthebaseofthe moun-tains,
wherethe erosion has
madeas well-defined aline
shadowofthe vast mountain ranges on either side; itsislands
towering almosttothesnow-line; its waters containing
from fifteen totwenty-six per cent, of saline matter,
accordingastheyaretakenfrom near therivers'
mouthsorthe middle of the lake; its shores, covered in
placeswithsaltso plentifully, thatitcan beshovelled
uplike sand; its only inhabitants,a speciesofmarine
sceneryunlikeanyotheron the continent
—perhapson the globe;
andthe terror ofthe wildIndiantribesof the Great Basin for
wasplanted onits shores, can-not be passed without a
UtahCentral Rail-road, leavingthetrain at Bountiful; this station
being within probably a couple of miles of a nice beach for bathing.
Thelake is approached nearer
than this a littlefurther
north, by the
sameline; but the beach is not so
nice, nor the facilities for
Asthe excellence of this part of the shoreisonly beginning to be recognized, there is
littledoubtthat in a very
shorttime boatingfacilities willbe offeredtotourists for short excursions on the water.
Theonce favourite resort of visitorstoSalt
wasBlack Rock, asolitaryand massive heap of flint con-glomerate, of which an en-gravingis given, situated about 20miles from Salt
LakeCity. All through the
monthsjoyous partiesinprivate carriages, hired conveyances,waggons, omnibuses, buggies,
andother vehicles,would every
weekvisitBlack Rock, have
picnics, bathe inthe lake,
rowover the waters,
andenjoy the scene
andthe scenery with an exuberance of pleasurewhichthepurity and rarity of the atmo-sphere tendedtoheighten. Thesepartiesstillcontinue, though theyarenot
whohasleisurewill be well repaid for the
amongother attractions,it will take
numberofthose ancient" Indian
Ingeologicagesitisevidentthataninland seaoccupied the vastbasinbetweenthe easternrangeofthe Sierra
andthe western ridges of Goose Creek
and HumboldtRiver. It
south,andat350to500fromeasttowest,withatotalarea of 150,000 squaremiles.
Owingtothegradualelevation of the land thewaters have sunk,atsuccessive stages, into the lowestparts ofthe basin. In
manyplaces thirteen of these stages,
Returning to thecity,next the "big toe ofthe
can be climbed. Itlies north ofEast
TempleStreet, and is probably a coupleofmiles to the
TempleBlock; but once on it, the viewis magnificent.
Awayto the north is spread a
panoramaofmountain, lake,andvalley,stretching nearlya
To"the west, the towering peaks which risebetween
Tothesouth, the valleysouthofthecity,
Wahsatchand Oquirrh ranges;the canyons, gloomy-lookingintherich flood of
sunlight, looking like deep gashesin the
bosomof the giant mountains.
approachingheightsshut out aclearviewof
andits lovely lake; but thegray head of
anddistinctly outlined over 80 miles from
greenfoliage,cozydwellings peeping outfrom orchards
andshade-trees, with a wealthof floral loveliness shed-dingitsfragranceontheambient atmosphere.
Descending from "jEnsign
Peak"tothecity,andtaking the Territorial
the former supplying comfortable bath-houses, private and plunge;
andthelatter,gushing outofa rockatthe
some twomiles north of the
WarmSprings, and in their narrow basin throw offa heavyand sulphurous odour, farfrompleasantto
somesensitiveolfactories; yetvarious medicinal virtues are ascribedto theirwaters.
Amongothers, theyare said tobea wonderful restorative forand preventiveagainst baldness.
mayintroduce an anecdote,
illus-trativeofthe hotnessof the springs,whichistoogood tobe passed over. Inthe earlydaysof
andsoon afterthe "gold-fever"inCaliforniahad
drawthousands across thecontinent, a train of waggons, destined for the golden land, had arrived at Salt
campedthere to restand
Oneof the teamsters,
whohadfaithinthe virtue of occasional ablutions,having heardofthe
themin perennial youth,determined
to enjoy the luxury.
Bymistake, he reachedthe
andfeeling the water, found ithotter than lie
However,nothing daunted, he "pealedoff,"and plungedintothebubbling basin,witli
wasfollowedby ayell shrillasaninitiatory
war-whoop, andthe over-venturesome teamster dashed outofthewater, in colour likeaboiled lobster,
andwith hisepidermisinacondition foreasyflaying.
madein 1849 byDr. CharlesT.JacksonofBoston; hisreportisas follows
"Threefluidounces ofthe water,on evaporation to
entiredrynessin aplatina capsule,gave 8.25grainsof
Limeand Magnesia 0.240
—1280 PeroxideofIron 0.040
—2.907 Chlorine 3.454—18.421 Soda 2.877—15.344 Magnesia 0.370
—2.073 SulphuricAcid 0.703
—3.748 8.229 43.981
"Itisslightlycharged with hydrosulphuricacid gas,
andwith carbolic acid gas,
andis a pleasant,saline,
mineral water,having valuable properties belonging to
downat 102F.,that ofthe
Thoughthese are notyet so popularas the Spasof
mayreasonably expectthatin the course ofa fewyearstheywillbethe resort ofthousandsof health-seekers.
Turningsouth of the city,
anddriving in a south-easterly direction,13 miles bring the visitor to
amongthe great peaks,
summitsarecovered with "eternalsnow,"
andlying at an altitude of about 10,000 feet.
upthe canyon, andthataroundthe littlelake,isgrand and im-posing,
andattractively beautiful. Luxuriantvegetation crowns the canyonsides,except
Thewindingsofthecanyon; the whirringof the
saw-mills, ripping the huge logs cut from the mountains'
andswell,and mountaingully; the
little lake itself, with the mountains dipping to the
Thelake referred to is the principaloneofaseries of lakeletswhich
andare fedfrom the melting snows; as
manyas thirteenhaving been observed
from the highest peaks
embosomedinthe surrounding scenery.
Wahsatch andOquirrh ranges,with their clear
andafford excellent angling, will well repay thetrouble, and give healthandgratification to the tourist.
UTAH VALLEY AND
the latter asheet of fresh water, 30 miles inextreme lengthby 15inbreadth.
settle-ments border on the lake,each built on a
The mostimportantplace in this valleyisProvo, the county town, builtonthe Provo,or
downa canyon bearingitsname.
andall the streams afford a plentiful supplyof
WaterRiveris atributary of the Platte, whichflowsthrough avalleyof the
nameisa translation fromthe Indian
Pa, andina metaphoricalsenseispeculiarly applicable, the scenery in
manyparts being as soft
andsylvan as anythat everenriched apoet's Arcadia. Initscalmer course,saysCaptain Burton, the
Naiadofthemountains; but afterwards it becomes an Undine, hurried bythat terrible Destiny, to
mustbend his omniscient head, into the grislymarital embraceofthegloomyold Platte. Passing pleasantisthe
whichsheanswersthe whisperingsofthosefickleflatterers,the.Winds,before thatwedding-day
becomeher doom. Thereisa somethingintheSweet
Waterwhich appeals to the feelings of rugged
men; even thedrivers
station-keepers speak of
"her"with a bearish affec-tion.
Thegrandestfeature ofthevalleyisthe Devil's Gate, a breach in the barrier of the
RockyMountains, which mightwellserve asthe portal to
Theheight of thehuge dark perpendicularcliffsoneither
handvariesfrom 400to500feet;the spacebetween
feet wide; the total length
Thewalls consistofa gray granite traversed by trap dykes:andtherockin
the river has excavated her
runs right throughthe ex-treme southern shoulder of aridgeappropriatelyenough
fis-suresweepsand plunges and splashes the swift stream, eddying roundrockypoints, and tumbling over
upthe neighbouring echoes with her unceasingsong,whichvaries
fromsounds like those of
merrylaughtertoadirge as sadand solemn as
Thespectacle is ever fresh and ever new,
delight the artist and the poet.
liestothenorthoftheGreat Salt Lake, and mostly out of the track of travellers.
There are pictures on its
banksandin its neighbour-hood,however,whichmight inspirea great artist with immortalideas.
Oneof the brightest of these is pre-sented at the point
UnknownRiver, as it is
mysteriouslycalled,suddenly leaps into the light ofday from therockywalls
whichenclose the waters of the
thecraggydescentina double cascade, which sparkles in the sun with rainbow hues
andfills the air with the
echoes of its tumultuous course. This, assuredly, is
one of the greatest naturalcuriosities in the
anditsfoamingwaters,itswreathingclouds of mist,
andits richgarniture ofmoss,
andgrasses,iswell calculated toimpresstheimagination
SnakeRiver, also called Lewis' Fork, forms the
southern branchof theColumbia,andis
namedafterthe Indian tribe
whoseancient territoryit traverses. Its courseisbroken
whichhave been described by
force. It joins thenorthern branchof the
lat. 46° 5' N.,
andlong. 118° 55'
W., andthence the unitedstreamflows