Bernardo E. Lechner1
Jorge E. Wright
PRHIDEB-CONICET, Departamento de Ciencias Biolo´gicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (1428), Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Instituto Fitote´cnico de Santa Catalina, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Llavallol, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnolo´gicas IIB-INTECH (CONICET-UNSAM), C. C. 164, (7130) Chascomu´s, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Abstract: Macro- and micromorphological charac-ters of specimens of the genus Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Kumm. in Argentina obtained in the field and from different national herbaria were analyzed. Cultivation techniques were used to obtain basidiomata, allowing for a macro- and micromorphological study of fresh developing fruit bodies. We concluded that in Argen-tina there are, so far, six species, namelyP. albidus, P. cystidiosus, P. ostreatus, P. pulmonarius, P. rickiiand P. djamor,the latter with three varieties: var. djamor, var.cyathiformis and var.roseus.
Key words: cultivation, Pleurotaceae, South Amer-ica, taxonomy
The systematic position ofPleurotus(Fr.) P. Kummer has been much debated. Singer (1951) transferred several species ofPleurotus sensu latoto Hohenbuehe-lia and placed the former in Polyporaceae, tribus Lentineae and the latter in the Tricholomataceae, tri-bus Resupinateae. Ku¨ hner and Romagnesi (1953) placed several pleurotoid genera, includedPleurotus, within the family Pleurotaceae, irrespective of spore-print color and other micromorphological charac-ters. Ku¨ hner (1980) placed Pleurotusand Hohenbue-heliaS. Schulz. in the family Pleurotaceae, with Pleu-rotus in the tribus Lentineae and Resupinatus S. F. Gray in Resupinateae. Corner (1981) based the seg-regation of Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Kummer, Lentinus Fr. Accepted for publication January 21, 2004.
1Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
and Panus Fr. on the hyphal system and included several species of Singer9sPleurotusinLentinus. Phy-logenetic studies by Hibbett and Vilgalys (1993) and Hibbett and Donoghue (1995) have indicated that there are at least four distinct genera:Pleurotus, Len-tinus, Panus Fr. and Neolentinus Redhead & Ginns. Within the genus Neolentinus there are several spe-cies that produce brown rot and were included by Pegler (1983) in Lentinuswhich, like Pleurotus, pro-duces a white rot (Redhead and Ginns 1985). Thorn et al (2000) clarified the systematic position of Pleu-rotus through phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences from nuclear 25S rDNA that indicated a monophyletic Pleurotaceae with the monophyletic genera Pleurotusand Hohenbuehelia.The capacity of both genera to attack and consume nematodes (Bar-ron and Dierkes 1977, Thorn and Bar(Bar-ron 1984, 1986, Barron and Thorn 1987, Hibbett and Thorn 1994) supports the monophyly of this family.
The knowledge of the genusPleurotusin Argentina is scant; Spegazzini (1880–1881, 1887, 1898, 1926), Singer and Digilio (1951), Singer (1956, 1960, 1961a), Raithelhuber (1974, 1977, 1987, 1991) and Spinedi (1995) recorded 21 species and only four currently are accepted withinPleurotus(TABLE I).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Macro- and micromorphology.—Specimens were described macroscopically. The description of species combines cul-tures and herbarium specimens. Color names are in accor-dance with Munsell Color Co. (1954). Citation of authors of taxa is according to Kirk and Ansell (1992). Herbarium abbreviations follow Holmgren et al (1990). Specimens are deposited in the BAFC Mycological Herbarium. Microscop-ic examination of tissues mounted in 5% KOH and 1% aqueous phloxine was undertaken.
Culture characters.—Cultures were inoculated in 90 mm Pe-tri dishes using Nobles’ (1948) medium and incubated in the dark at 25 C. Aspect, color, growth rate, odor and mi-croscopic structures of both the aerial and the submerged mycelium were observed weekly for 6 wk according to No-bles (1965).
Basidiome production.—To obtain fresh basidiomata to com-plement the study of the macro- and micromorphology, tra-ditional methods for fruiting species ofPleurotuswere used (Zadrazil 1974, Stamets 1993). A mixture of sawdust (77%), wheat meal (15%), oatmeal (5%) and CaCO3(3%) was
in-TABLEI. Species of the genusPleurotus,their first citation in Argentina and the present name
Species First citation Present name
P. applicatus(Batsch. : Fr.) Que´l. Spegazzini (1887) Resupinatus applicatus(Batsch. : Fr.) S. F. Gray P. araucariicolaSing.
P. aulaxinus(Mont.) Sacc. P. calix(Speg.) Sing.
Raithelhuber (1991) Spegazzini (1880–1881) Singer (1956)
Pleurotus pulmonarius(Fr. : Fr.) Que´l. Favolaschia aulaxina(Mont.) Sing. Lentinus patulusLe´v.
P. eryngii(DC : Fr.) Que´l. Singer & Digilio (1951) According to Singer & Digilio (1951), this species is represented in Argentina by the holotype of Agar-icus tucalaSpeg., but this collection is not extant. P. heteropusSpeg. P. hirneolusSpeg. P. hirtus(Fr.) Sing. P. laciniatocrenatusSpeg. Spegazzini (1880–1881) Spegazzini (1898) Singer (1956) Spegazzini (1880–1881) No holotype extant. No holotype extant. Lentinus scleropus(Pers.) Fr. Pleurotus albidus(Berk.) Pegler.
P. lindquistii Singer (1960) Lentinus tigrinusBull. : Fr. fide Grand et al (2002). P. minusculus(Speg.) Sacc.
Spegazzini (1887) Singer (1961)
Panellus longinquus(Berk.) Sing. Pleurotus djamorvar.roseusCorner.
P. perpusillusFr. Spegazzini (1880–1881) Pleurotus septicusFr. fide Pila´t 1935 (see underP. septicus).
Singer (1952) namedP. perpusillus(Speg.) Sacc., but we were unable to find this species cited by Spegazzini.
P. portegnusvar.microsporusSepg. P. pulmonarius(Fr. : Fr.) Que´l. P. pusillimusSpeg. P. rickiiBres. P. septicusFr. Spegazzini (1926) Spegazzini (1880–1881) Spegazzini (1898) Spegazzini (1898) Singer & Digilio (1951) Spegazzini (1880–1881)
Lentinellus perstrictifolius(Speg.) Sing. Hohenbuehelia grisea(Peck.) Sing. Pleurotus pulmonarius(Fr. : Fr.) Que´l. Clitopilus argentinusSing.
Pleurotus rickiiBres. Probably aCrepitotus. P. smithiiGuzman
Singer & Digilio (1951)
Panellus longinquus(Berk.) Singer.
troduced in 40325 cm polypropylene bags and autoclaved at 120 C for 2 h. After cooling they were inoculated with spawn of different strains and incubated in the dark at 25 C. After 15 d, bags were kept at 18–20 C with 9 h light/15 h dark photoperiod to induce basidiome formation. Strains used.—P. albidus: ARGENTINA, BUENOS AIRES, La Lucila, in canker ofSalix humboldtiana,5-V-1996, BAFC 2787; La Plata, on stump, III-1996,coll. J. Deschamps,BAFC 809; Pergamino, on Salix sp., 6-IV-1996, coll. E. Alberto´, BAFC 695; Tigre, onPopulussp., 10-III-1997, coll. C. La´z-zari, BAFC 136; CAPITAL FEDERAL, onCordylinesp., 10-VI-1989,coll. A. Martinez,BAFC 2545; CO´ RDOBA, La Pun-illa, onPopulussp., 25-II-2001,coll. N. Manero & B.J. Lech-ner, BAFC 190; MISIONES, Pto. Libertad, on dead tree of Araucaria angustifolia,10-IV-1985,coll. J. Deschamps,BAFC 215.P. cystidiosus: ARGENTINA, CAPITAL FEDERAL, Bar-rio La Paternal, on dead zone ofPlatanussp.,coll. S. Fra-chia,18-IV-2000; BAFC 188.P. djamor var. djamor: ARGEN-TINA, MISIONES, El Palmital del cruce, 28-V-2001,coll. E. Alberto´,BAFC 821.P. djamor var. roseus: ARGENTINA, MI-SIONES, El Palmital del cruce, 28-V-2001,coll. E. Alberto´, BAFC 815; BRAZIL, (asP. ostreatoroseus), on leaf of Agava-ceae, MUCL 35.018. P. ostreatus: ARGENTINA, CAPITAL FEDERAL, 18-IV-1994,coll. P. Pica,BAFC 2034; NEUQUEN, Moquehue, on trunk ofAraucaria araucana,III-1993, coll. J. del Vas, BAFC 120; ITALY, (as P. columbinus), isolated from commercial fruit body, isolated and determined by
T.H. Quimio, MUCL 38.069.P. pulmonarius: ARGENTINA, BUENOS AIRES, Ezeiza, on living declining tree ofPopulus sp., 25-VII-1987,coll. J. Deschamps,BAFC 1003; MISIONES, San Pedro, on branches of Araucaria angustifolia, 27-V-2001, coll. E. Alberto´ & O. Popoff, BAFC 76; San Pedro, 268329S, 548049W, on branches ofA. angustifolia,27-V-2001, coll. D. Krueger,BAFC 213; same location, same host, same date,coll. E. Alberto´,BAFC 263.
Pleurotus(Fr.) P. Kummer (1871)
Champignons du Jura & Vosges p. 62. 1872 em., no-men conservandum.
Spec. Typ.: Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq. et Fr.) P. Kum-mer.
Agaricustrib.PleurotusFr., Syst. Mycol. 1:178. 1821. Crepidotus Nees ex S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 1:616. 1821.
PleurotusP. Kummer, Fu¨hr. Pilzk. p. 24. 1871. PleurotusQue´l., Enchir., p. 147. 1886.
DendrosarcusPaulet ex Kunze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2:462. 1889 nom. nud.
AntromycopsisPat. & Trabut, Bull. Soc. Myc. Fr. 13: 215. 1897 (imperfect form of sect.Coremiopleurotus(cfr. Pollack & Miller, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 28:174–178. 1976).
LentodiopsisBuba´k, Hedwigia 43:169. 1904 (typeL. albida Buba´k,l. c.).
Lentodiellum Murr., Mycologia 7:216. 1915 (type Panus concavusBerk.).
NothopanusSing., Mycologia 36:364. 1944.
Pterophyllus Le´v., Ann. Sc. Nat. III 2:178. 1844 (type P. boveiLe´v.).
Basidiomes usually large, fleshy, solitary to imbri-cate, flabellate to dimidiate, glabrous to tomentose, white, cream, gray, pink, brown, more rarely blue, yellow or lilac. Stem short, solid, eccentric to lateral, rarely subcentral. Lamellae decurrent, sometimes anastomosing to the stem, light-colored, thin to broad, margin entire. Veil present or absent at mar-gin of pileus or forming an annular zone on the stem. Spore print white, cream, pinkish or lilac.
Spores cylindrical to subcylindrical, thin-walled, hy-aline, not amyloid or dextrinoid, without germ pore. Cheilocystidia absent or poorly developed, disappear-ing early, thin-walled, clavate or mucronate. Subhy-menium well developed, hymenophoral trama irreg-ular. Pileipellis frequently poorly developed, with par-allel radial hyphae, sometimes pigmented. Hyphal system monomitic or dimitic, gelatinous ‘‘tissue’’ usu-ally absent; clamps present. Lignicolous.
Observations. The genus Pleurotus does not have clear distinctive characters as occurs with other gen-era.
The hyphal system may be monomitic or dimitic, without binding hyphae. This character might con-fuse the boundaries with other related genera, such asLentinus(Stankovicˇova´, 1973). There exists a clear delimitation inPleurotusbetween species with a mon-omitic hyphal system, thin- or thick-walled generative hyphae, such as P. ostreatus, P. pulmonarius, P. albi-dus, P. cystidiosus,and dimitic ones, such asP. djamor andP. rickii.
All Pleurotusspecies have thin-walled, smooth, cy-lindrical to subcycy-lindrical spores. They may be small (,8mm long) such asP. auriovillosus(Corner 1981), medium (8–12mm) such asP. albidusand large (.13
mm long) such asP. cystidiosus.
The pileipellis is generally a cutis. In P. cystidiosus andP. djamor,there may be pileocystidia. It is impor-tant to stress the significance of the broad pileipellis to differentiate P. ostreatusfrom P. pulmonarius, the latter much thinner than the former.
One of the distinctive characters of the genus is an irregular hymenophoral trama combined with a well developed subhymenium that, according to Singer (1986), is always more than 7mm thick.
Pleurotusdoes not exhibit chemical reactions. Olei-ferous hyphae can be distinguished in different ‘‘tis-sues’’ of the basidiocarp that turn yellow with 5%
KOH. Spores of all known species of Pleurotus are negative in Melzer’s solution.
Mycologists who studied this taxon (Singer 1986, Ku¨ hner 1980, Pila´t 1935, Hilber 1982, Moser 1986, Watling and Gregory 1989) have subdivided it differ-ently.
In this paper, we adopt the subdivision proposed by Hilber (1982), who divided the genusPleurotusin three subgenera, to which we add Subgenus tuberre-gium.Singer (1961b, 1986) considers this a subgenus ofPleurotusand Pegler (1975, 1983) a species of Len-tinus.Thorn et al (2000) have demonstrated that its mycelium has microdroplets. We have not found this species in Argentina.
SubgenusTuberregiumSing.: Pileus white to brown, veil not well developed, Stipe eccentric to subcentral; without coremia; Hyphal system dimitic. A conspicu-ous sclerotium is produced.
SubgenusPleurotus: Hyphal system in mature spec-imens monomitic or dimitic, with a distinct stipe; nei-ther coremia nor veil present. Spore print white, cream, lilac or pinkish.
i) Species with a monomitic hyphal system: P. ostrea-tus( Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kummer (with var.ostreatusand var. columbinus Que´l. apud Bres.), P. pulmonarius (Fr.) Que´l. andP. albidus(Berk.) Pegler.
ii) Species with a dimitic hyphal system: P. djamor (Fr.) Boedijn, with three varieties, according to Cor-ner (1981): var. djamor, var. roseus Corner and var. cyathiformisCorner.
Subgenus Coremiopleurotus O. Hilber: coremia present on lamellae, base of stipe or mycelia or on the substrate; pileocystidia present and well devel-oped; with or without veil; stipe eccentric or lateral. Hyphal system monomitic; spore print white, cream, never livid or pinkish.
P. cystidiosusO.K. Miller
Subgenus Lentodiopsis (Buba´k) O. Hilber: Basidi-ocarps with conspicuous veil; distinct stipe; hyphal system dimitic, without coremia.
KEY TO SPECIES OFPLEUROTUSIN ARGENTINA 1. Hyphal system dimitic . . . 2 19. Hyphal system monomitic . . . 5
2. Basidiome with a conspicuous veil; stipe well de-veloped . . . P. rickii 29. Basidiome without a veil . . . 3 3. Pileus cyathiform, spores 6.2–7.332.6–3.1mm . . .
. . . P. djamorvar.cyathiformis 39. Pileus not cyathiform . . . 4
4. Pileus white, stipe lateral or absent, spores 6.0– 7.832.6–3.1mm . . . P. djamorvar.djamor 49. Pileus pinkish, spores 6.7–1032.6–3.6mm . . .
FIG. 1. Pleurotus albidus,macromorphology. A. collected basidiocarps (BAFC 50.944); B. young basidiocarps ob-tained from strain BAFC 136 and C. mature; D. mature bas-idiocarps obtained from strain BAFC 695; E. Idem D. Scale bar55 cm for A and C; 4 cm for B, D and E.
5. Coremia present on the substrate, pileocystidia pres-ent, well developed, stipe eccentric or lateral . . . . .
. . . P. cystidiosus 59. Coremia not present . . . 6
6. Pileus white to cream, margin often lacerate-cre-nate . . . P. albidus 69. Pileus grayish to grayish brown, margin entire,
rarely lacerate-crenate . . . 7 7. Pileipellis larger than 100 mm thick. Fruiting from
autumn to winter, odor pleasant, not anise-like . . . . . . P. ostreatus 79. Pileipellis not larger than 60 mm broad, fruiting in
summer to autumn, odor often anise-like . . . . . . . P. pulmonarius
Pleurotus albidus(Berk.) Pegler Kew Bull., Addit. ser. 10:219, 1983.
Lentinus albidusBerkeley. 1843. Hooker J. Bot. 2:633. Lentinus calvescensBerkeley & Curtis. 1856. Hook. J. Bot. 8:143.
Pleurotus jacksoniiBerkeley & Cooke. 1877. J. Linn. Soc. London 15:363.
Panus laciniato-crenatusSpegazzini. 1880. An. Soc. Cient. Arg. 9:164.
Pleurotus laciniato-crenatus(Speg.) Spegazzini. 1919. Bol. Acad. Nac. Cienc. Co´rdoba 23:381–382.
Basidiocarp cornucopioid, clitocybioid, omphal-loid to lentinoid (i.e.,L. crinitus), usually gregarious in troops of 2–30 basidiomata. Pileus circular, infun-dibuliform (FIGS. 1, 11A, B),27–225 mm broad330– 170 mm long, glabrous, hygrophanous, white to cream (C2Pl9, Maerz and Paul 1930), sometimes with brown color next to the attachment of the stipe, mar-gin entire to laciniate-crenate, thin, usually incurved (especially when dr y), frequently lemon yellow through drying. Lamellae deeply decurrent, becom-ing anastomosbecom-ing ridges on the stipe, subdistant to crowded, 6–8 mm broad, white. Stipe 35–80 mm long
3 5–33 mm diam, upward fluted through lamellar bases, tapering downward, usually curved-ascendant, dull white, felty, occasionally with hairs at the base. Spore print white to cream. Odor fungal. Usually on fallen trunks, rarely living trees ofSalixsp.,Ulmussp. andPlatanussp.
Basidiospores (5.2–)8–9.5(–11.4)32.6–3.2mm; Q
53.15 long, very variable in length, oblong, smooth, hyaline, thin-walled, IKI- (FIG. 2A). Basidia 18.5–243 4.5–5.2 mm subcylindrical to clavate, hyaline, 4-spored, numerous, fusiform to mucronate, nonemer-gent basidioles measuring like the basidia (FIG. 2C).
Cheilocystidia absent. Hyphae of pileus context gen-erative, hyaline, frequently branched, 4.0–12.5 mm diam (FIG. 2B). Hyphae of hymenophoral trama 4.5– 6.5 mm diam, irregular to subparallel, close, occa-sionally oleiferous hyphae present, conspicuously yel-low in KOH (FIG. 2C). Subhymenium not well
devel-oped, 13–17mm thick, with pseudoparenchymatous, isodiametric, hyaline hyphae (FIG. 2C). Hyphae of
stipe 4.5–18.5 mm diam, hyaline, generative, thin-walled and thick-thin-walled (more than 0.4 mm thick), branched (FIG. 2D); on the surface, hairs formed by
hyaline, generative, branched, thick-walled (0.3–0.7
mm thick) hyphae 2.5–5.5mm diam Hyphae of pilei-pellis 2.5–4.5mm diam, hyaline, thin- to thick-walled; pileocystidia not observed.
Culture characters. Mycelium hyaline, with thick strands that give a feathery aspect, whitish, cottony zones near inoculum. Colony growth radial, loose and felty. Margin irregular, festooned, to regular ac-cording to the strain studied. Odor like almonds. My-celial mat covering Petri plates in 3–4 wk. Occasion-ally, orange exudate droplets produced principally in the center and near the inoculum when all Petri plates were fully grown.
Advancing mycelium with hyaline, thin-walled, clamped hyphae 2–4.6mm diam. At the center of the colony generative, clamped, broader and less branched hyphae 1.5–4.7mm diam. The number of
FIG. 2. Pleurotus albidus, micromorphology. A. Spores; B. Hyphae of the pileus; C. Hymenophoral trama; D. Hy-phae of stem. Scale bar520mm.
hyphal branches increases when the colony becomes old, near the inoculum 2.0–4.7mm diam. Microdrop-lets 2.0–5.0mm diam.
Geographic distribution. Northeastern and central Argentina.
Material studied. ARGENTINA, BUENOS AIRES, San Clemente del Tuyu, Parque Municipal, on fallen trunk of Salixsp., 13-VI-1999,leg. E. Alberto´,BAFC 50.261; Costa del Este, at the base of trunk of livingPlatanussp., 17-III-2002, leg. B.E. Lechner, BEL 79,(BAFC 51.136); Monte Grande, onPopulussp., 25-V-1997,leg. M. Vallejo,BAFC 34.533; Lla-vallol, Sta. Catalina forest, on fallen trunk, 26-III-1998,leg. E. Alberto´, BAFC 50.047; same location, same substrate, 6-V-1999, leg. Alberto´ & Pire, BEL 10(BAFC 50.413); same location, 15-VI-1999,leg. Alberto´ & Pire,BAFC 50.268; same location, 1-V-2000,leg B. Lechner, BEL 40 (BAFC 50.919); same location, 8-V-2000, leg. B. Lechner, BEL 39 (BAFC 50.920); Punta Lara, Boca Cerrada, 20-VII-1971,leg. Gomez & Del Busto,BAFC 50.874; same location, on fallen trunk ofSalix humboldtiana,1-VI-1949,leg. Lindquist & Singer, S 60; Parque Pereyra, on trunk ofUlmus sp., 4-VI-1999,leg.
Alberto´, Pereyra & Analı´a,BAFC 50.267; Escobar, in canker ofPopulus sp., 18-VI-2000,leg. B. Lechner, BEL 80(BAFC 50.642); same location, 23-VI-2002, BAFC 51.135; Bella Vis-ta, 13-III-1996,leg. P. Pica,BAFC 50.695; Llavallol, fruit bod-ies obtained from strain BAFC 2787, 13-VI-2000 and 14-VI-01, leg. B. Lechner, BAFC 51.045; basidiocarps obtained from strain BAFC 136, XII-99 and 13-VI-2000,leg. B. Lech-ner, BAFC 50.917; fruit bodies obtained from strain BAFC 809, leg. B. Lechner, 13-X-2000, BAFC 50.905, 31-II-2000, BAFC 50.872 and V-1999, BAFC 51.102; fruit bodies ob-tained from strain BAFC 695, 28-VI-1999,leg. B.E. Lechner, BAFC 50.322; fruit bodies obtained from strain BAFC 190, 19-VI-2001,leg. B.E. Lechner,BAFC 51.046; fruit bodies ob-tained from strain BAFC 215, leg. B. Lechner, 4-VIII-2000, BAFC 50.873, 31-XI-2000 (BAFC 50.872), 6-VI-2000 (BAFC 50.927); Castelar, INTA,leg. E. Alberto´,BAFC 51.168; CAP-ITAL FEDERAL, 15-III-1996, leg. J. Deschamps, BAFC 51.100; CO´ RDOBA, Villa Giardino, La Punilla, onPopulus sp., 17-VII-2000, leg. B. Lechner, BEL 55 (BAFC 50.726); same location, 25-II-2001,leg. N. Manero & B. J. Lechner, BEL 70 (BAFC 50.944); TUCUMA´ N, Sierra San Javier, Parque de Aconquija, ad truncum vetustum (Phoebe por-phyria), 10-VII-1949,leg. R. Singer, T 599; Departamento de Tafı´, Rı´o de los Sosas, on rotten trunk, 26-II-1952,leg. R. Singer, T 1879(LIL).
Remarks. The hyphal system of these basidiocarps is monomitic, similar to severalPleurotusspecies such asP. ostreatus, P. pulmonarius, P. populinusHilber & Miller andP. abieticola Petersen & Hughes (Alberto´ et al 2002). P. albidus is characterized by its fragile nature, white to cream color and its remarkable la-ciniate-crenate margin. Several specimens exhibited great morphological variability, observed not only in collections from nature but also in fruit bodies ob-tained in culture. It seems as if certain species form basidiocarps similar to P. cornucopiae, characterized by their anastomosed lamellae on the stipe, such as BAFC 809; whereas others form more plane and shorter basidiocarps, without such characteristics, as BAFC 136 (see FIGS. 1, 11A, B).P. albidusis the
spe-cies of major distribution in the Argentina, with sev-eral collections and strains obtained from diverse spe-cies of living trees to stumps and fallen trunks.
Pleurotus cystidiosusO.K. Miller Mycologia 61:889. 1969.
Nomen anamorphosis: Antromycopsis macrocarpa (Ellis & Everh) Stalpers, Seifert & Samson.
Basidiome solitary to imbricate (FIGS. 3A, 11C).
Pi-leus 13–173 8.5–9.5 cm, pleurotoid, surface brown to grayish brown (Munsell, 7.5YR, 5/4–10YR, 5/2) with numerous punctiform squamules formed by sur-face cracking, more numerous toward the margin; margin entire, slightly to much festooned, hardly in-volute. Stipe brown (Munsell, 10YR, 3/3) to grayish (Munsell, 10YR, 5/1–6/1) almost lateral 3.6–532.2–
FIG. 3. Pleurotus cystidiosus. A. Basidiocarp; B. Spores; C. Basidia; D. Microscopic characters of anamorph. Scale bar 1530mm for B–D; Scale bar 2510 cm for A.
FIG. 4. Pleurotus cystidiosus.A. Hyphae of hymenophor-al trama; B. Hyphae of context; C. Hyphae of stem; D. Pi-leocystidia. Scale bar530mm.
3.5 cm, tapered to the base. Context white 15–28 mm broad, fleshy when fresh, compact, corky when dry. Lamellae white when fresh, yellow (Munsell, 2.5YR, 8/8) when dry, 4–10 mm broad, thinner toward the stipe, decurrent, and forming a pseudoreticulum. Odor agreeable, fungal. Edibility: good.
Spores hyaline, cylindrical-oblong, thin-walled, smooth, (11.0–)12–16(–18.0) 3 4.0–6.0 mm Q 5 3.01 (FIG. 3B). Basidia 2-, 3- and 4-spored, 37–44 3 5.2–9 mm (FIG. 3C). Subhymenium narrow,
incon-spicuous, ca 5mm thick. Cheilocystidia absent. Pleu-rocystidia (?) with granular contents, clavate, 5037– 7.8 mm. Pileipellis 80–100 mm broad, formed by clamped, brown, parallel, scanty branched, 3–5 mm diam hyphae; among them brown, thick-walled, cys-tidiform hyphae, 3.6–5.2mm diam (FIG. 4D). Context
monomitic, formed by clamped, thin-walled, hyaline hyphae, 3.8–9.4mm diam (FIG. 4B). Hyphae of stipe similar to those of context, with cystidiform ends 3.9– 4.7 3 3.6–6 mm, and thick-walled, 3–7.8 mm diam (FIG. 4C). Hymenophoral trama formed by
genera-tive, thin-walled, clamped 5.2–10 mm diam hyphae, and thick-walled 3.6–4.2mm diam (FIG. 4A).
Anamorph. Coremia black, caespitose, formed by a globose head, 0.4–0.9 mm diam, and a stem 0.6– 1.25 mm long and 0.1–0.2 mm diam (FIG. 11D),
formed by thin-walled clamped hyphae, which slowly
disarticulate at the ends into fuliginous, cylindrical conidia 5.2–6.23 14.5–17mm (FIG. 3D).
Culture characters. Mycelium hyaline, filamentous, dense, whitish near the inoculum, growth radial, well adhered to the substrate. At first, a large amount of hyaline, aerial mycelium was observed, more whitish later; coremia appearing on the inoculum, but in strain BAFC 188, they later appeared away from it. Different densities in the mycelium of the colonies originate folds. At the fourth week, discontinued growth. Odor disagreeable, putrid. Mycelium not cov-ering the Petri plates in 6 wk.
Advancing mycelium with hyaline, clamped, thin-walled, regularly branched hyphae 1.5–4.2mm diam. At the middle zone of the colony hyaline, clamped, regular to very branched, contorted hyphae 2.0–4.2
mm diam. Hyphae near inoculum less branched, with granular content 2.6–4.2 mm diam. Microdroplets 1.0–2.0mm diam.
Geographic distribution. East central Argentina. Material studied. ARGENTINA, BUENOS AIRES, Llaval-lol, fruit bodies obtained from strain BAFC 188, leg. B.E. Lechner, 24-VII-2001 (BAFC 51.092), 9-X-2001 (BAFC 51.093) and III-2002 (BAFC 51.134); La Plata, Plaza San Martı´n, XII-27-1994,leg. H. Spinedi,LPS No. 45.441; CAP-ITAL FEDERAL, barrio de La Paternal, on dead zone of Platanus sp., IV-18-2000, leg. S. Fracchia, BAFC: 51.103; SANTA FE, Rosario, Fisherton, III-2000, leg. M. Dimarco,
FIG. 5. Pleurotus djamor var. djamor.A. Basidiocarp; B.
Hyphae of the hymenophoral trama; C. Hyphae of the pi-leus; D. Hyphae of the stem. Scale bar 155 cm for A; scale bar 2530mm for B–D.
BAFC 51.101; UNITED STATES, INDIANA, Brown Country, Hoosier National Forest, fruit bodies obtained from culture of a white, stringy trunk rot of a living Acer rubrum;leg. O.K. Miller, OKM 7122,HOLOTY PE.
Remarks. P. cystidiosus is characterized by a squa-mulose pileus surface with pileocystidia and the pres-ence in culture of an anamorph phase with coremia. The study of collections ofP. smithiifrom LPS shows that the pileus had pileocystidia and its macro- and micromorphological characters point toP. cystidiosus. The basidiocarps were collected in warm seasons (summer and early autumn) and on living, not au-tochthonous trees. This could explain the difficulties to produce fruit bodies artificially.
Pleurotus djamor(Fr.) Boedijn
in De Wit, H.C.D., Ed., Rumphius Memorial Vol., p. 292, 1959.
Agaricus djamor Rumphius apud Fries. 1821. Syst. Mycol. 1:185.
Agaricus arboreus secundus Rumphius. 1750. Fl. Amboin. 11:125.
Agaricus caryophyllusBerkeley. 1872. J. Linn. Soc. 13:157.
Agaricus emericiBerkeley. 1880. Gard. Chron. 21(2):240. Agaricus e¨ousBerkeley. 1850. Hooker, J. Bot. 2:83. Pleurotus e¨ous(Berk.) Saccardo. 1887. Syll. Fung. 5:361. Agaricus flabellatusBerkeley & Curtis. 1871. J. Linn. Soc. 11:528.
Agaricus griseo-roseus Montagne. 1851. Syll. Gen. Spec. Cryptog., p. 114.
Pleurotus griseo-roseus(Mont.) Saccardo. 1887. Syll. Fung. 5:386.
Agaricus luteoalbusBeeli. 1928. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belge 60:163.
Agaricus leptogrammeBerkeley & Broome. 1871. J. Linn. Soc. 11:529.
Agaricus moseleiBerkeley. 1878. Challenger. No. 37. Agaricus ninguidusBerkeley. 1850. Hooker’s J. Bot. 2:84. Pleurotus ninguidus(Berk.) Saccardo. 1887. Syll. Fung. 5: 361.
Pleurotus ostreatoroseus Singer. 1961. Publ. Inst. Mic., Univ. Recife 304:10.
Agaricus pacificusBerkeley. 1842. London J. Bot. 1:451. Agaricus placentodes Berkeley. 1852. Hooker’s J. Bot. 4: 104.
Agaricus prometheusBerkeley & Curtis. 1858. Amer. Acad. Arts & Sci. 4: No. 30.
Pleurotus salmoneostramineusVasil’eva. 1973. Agar. & Bol. Primorsk Reg., p. 85.
Pleurotus scabellusSaccardo. 1887. Syll. Fung. 5:374. Agaricus scabriusculusBerkeley. 1873. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 13:157.
Pleurotus scabriusculus (Berkeley) Saccardo. 1887. Syll. Fung. 5: 374.
Pleurotus djamor(Fr.) Boedijn var. djamor
in De Wit, H.C.D., Ed., Rumphius Memorial Vol., p. 292, 1959.
Pileus white 25–40323–40 mm, spathulate to fla-belliform (FIGS. 5A, 11E), brown when dry; glabrous,
smooth to touch; margin entire, frequently lobate and imbricate in old specimens. Context 0.5–6 mm thick, always less than 1 mm when dry. Lamellae white 2–4 mm broad, 1.5–1.75 mm in dry state, de-current, crowded, smooth, margin entire. Stipe 5–6 mm long 3 3–4 mm diam, lateral, smooth, rarely absent. Spore print white. Odor not distinct. Good edibility.
Spores (6.0–)6.7–7.2(–7.80)32.60–3.12mm Q 5 2.44, cylindrical-oblong, hyaline, not dextrinoid or amyloid, thin-walled. Basidia club-shaped 26–2834– 5.2mm. Cheilocystidia mucronate 26–3137–7.8mm. Hymenophoral trama dimitic, with sharp-pointed skeletal hyphae 3–4.4 mm and clamped generative hyphae 3.1–6.24mm diam (FIG. 5B). Pileipellis 100–
160mm broad with hyphae arranged parallel to the pileus but somewhat irregularly entangled. Context with generative hyphae 3.6–5.2 mm diam and skele-tals 3–5.2mm (FIG. 5C). Stem context with narrower
generatives, 2.6–3.1 mm diam and skeletals 3.1–5.2
mm diam (FIG. 5D).
Culture characters. Mycelium hyaline, filamentous, radial growth, well adhered to substrate. Margin
ir-FIG. 6. P. djamorvar.roseus.A. Basidiocarps; B. Spores; C. Cheilocystidia; D. Hymenophoral trama and hymenium; E. Hyphae of the pileus; F. Hyphae of the stem. Scale bar 155 cm for A; scale bar 2530mm for B–F.
regular, undulate. Against the light, an unequal re-fraction was observed, causing a relief aspect. Odor not distinct. The mycelium did not cover the Petri plates in 6 wk. Pinkish zones were observed in some strains.
Advancing mycelium with hyaline, thin-walled, clamped, scantly branched 1.5–2.6mm diam hyphae. In the middle of the colony with some contorted hy-phae 1.5–4.2mm diam. Near the inoculum with reg-ularly branched hyphae 1.6–4.2 mm diam. Micro-droplets 2.5–5.2mm diam not observed in dikaryotic mycelia, but present in monokaryotic mycelia.
Geographic distribution. Northeastern Argentina. Material studied. ARGENTINA, MISIONES, Iguazu´ Na-tional Park, San Martin Island, 3-VI-1998, leg. E. Alberto´, BAFC 50.585; El Palmital del Cruce, 28-V-2001,leg. E. Al-berto´, BAFC 51.126; BOLIVIA, Guayaramerı´n, Prov. Vaca Diez, Dpto. Beni, 16-III-1956,leg. R. Singer, B 2028(BAFC 34.234; BAFC 34.235).
Remarks. P. djamorvar. djamor is a white pantrop-ical species characterized microscoppantrop-ically by having a dimitic hyphal system.
Pleurotus djamorvar. roseus Corner Beih. Nova Hedw. 69, p. 123. 1981.
Pileus 16–50 3 10–25 mm, spathulate to flabelli-form (FIGS. 6A, 11F), pinkish when fresh, whitish or yellowish upon aging, clear brown when dry. Surface smooth, glabrous. Context 1–6 mm thick, less than 1 mm when dry. Lamellae decurrent, close to crowded, whitish, smooth, margin entire. Stipe 3–7 mm long
3 3–6 mm diam, whitish when fresh, cream when dry, eccentric, almost lateral. Surface irregular. Spore print white.
Spores (6.7–)8.3–8.5(–9.9) 3 2.60–3.64 mm Q 5 2.8, cylindrical-oblong, hyaline, smooth, neither dex-trinoid nor amyloid, thin-walled (FIG. 6B). Basidia club-shaped 26–28 3 5–6 mm, 4-spored. Numerous basidioles or pleurocystidia. Cheilocystidia 23–32 3 6–8mm, lageniform to mucronate (FIG. 6C). Hymen-ophoral trama completely irregular, dimitic, with clamped hyphae 3.6–5 mm diam and skeletals 3–6
mm diam, unbranched (FIG. 6D). Subhymenium 16– 20 mm thick, well developed, formed by irregularly shaped cells (FIG. 6D). Pileipellis with repent hyphae densely arranged toward the surface. Context dimi-tic, with skeletal, sharp-ended, 670–800mm long hy-phae, 2.6–5.8mm diam, and thin-walled hyphae, gen-erative, 3.6–6.2 mm diam (FIG. 6E). Context of stem formed by generative hyphae 2–4mm diam and ske-letals 2.6–4mm (FIG. 6F).
Geographic distribution. Northeastern Argentina. Material studied. ARGENTINA, BUENOS AIRES, Llaval-lol, Sta. Catalina, fruit bodies obtained from strain BAFC 815, 25-IX-2001,leg. B.E. Lechner,BAFC 51.094; fruit bodies
obtained from strain MUCL 35.018, 20-X-2000, leg. B.E. Lechner, BAFC 50.909; MISIONES, Iguazu´ National Park, San Martin Island, 3-VI-1998,leg. E. Alberto´,BAFC 50.317; El Palmital del Cruce, 28-V-2001, leg. E. Alberto´, BAFC 51.127.
Remarks. The basidiocarps of this variety are pink-ish or salmon-pink when young, discoloring to pale pink, whitish to yellowish with age. Distinction of var. djamor from var. roseus probably has been confused often.
Pleurotus djamorvar. cyathiformis Corner Beih Nova Hedw 69, p. 124. 1981
Pileus white 24–37 3 13–30 mm, cyathiform, sur-face smooth (FIGS. 7A, 11G), with brown stains that
disappear when dry. Context white 1–5 mm broad, less than 1 mm when dry. Lamellae decurrent, close to crowded, smooth, margin entire. Stipe 13–35 mm long3 2–4 mm diam, eccentric. Spore print white.
Spores (6.2–)6.5–6.8(–7.3) 3 2.60–3.12 mm Q 5 2.58, cylindrical-oblong, hyaline, neither dextrinoid nor amyloid, thin-walled (FIG. 7B). Basidia 26–27.53
4.2–5 mm, club-shaped, 4-spored (FIG. 7C).
Numer-ous basidioles or pleurocystidia present (FIG. 7C).
FIG. 7. P. djamor var. cyathiformis. A. Basidiocarps; B. Spores; C. Portion of hymenia, subhymenia and hymeno-phoral trama; D. Hyphae of the stem; E. Hyphae of the hymenophoral trama; F. Hyphae of the pileus flesh. Scale bar 153 cm for A; scale bar 2530mm for B–F.
FIG. 8. Pleurotus ostreatus.A. Basidiocarp; B. Spores; C. Basidia; D. Hyphae of the trama; E. Hyphae of the stem; F. Hyphae of the pileus. Scale bar 1510 cm for A; scale bar 2520mm for B–F.
completely irregular, monomitic, with thin-walled generative hyphae 2.6–5.2mm diam, some with slight-ly thickened walls (FIGS. 7C and E); subhymenium 11–16 mm thick, well differentiated, with hyphae more spherical than in other varieties (FIG. 7C). Pi-leipellis 30–60 mm, with repent hyphae arranged in parallel, although sometimes somewhat entangled. Context dimitic, with generative hyphae 3.64–10.4
mm diam and skeletals 4–5.2 mm diam (FIG. 7F). Stem also dimitic, with generative hyphae 6.2–11.4
mm diam and skeletals 3.6–6.2 mm diam (FIG. 7D). Geographic distribution. Northeastern Argentina. Material studied. ARGENTINA, MISIONES, Palo Rosa forest (El Palmital), on route 101, 4-VI-1998,leg. E. Alberto´, BAFC 50.699.
Pleurotus ostreatus( Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kummer Fu¨ hrer der Pilzkunde: 105. 1871.
Agaricus ostreatusJacq. 1775. Fl. Austr. 3: pl. 288. Agaricus ostreatusJacq.: Fr. 1821. Syst. Mycol. 1:182. Agaricus salignusPers. 1801. Syn. Meth. Fung: 479. Agaricus salignusPers.: Fr. 1821. Syst. Mycol 1:183.
Pleurotus salignus (Pers.: Fr.) P. Kummer. 1871. Fu¨hr Pilzk: 105.
Pleurotus columbinusQuel. 1881. in Bres., Fungi triden-tini 1:10.
Pleurotus floridanus.Singer. 1946. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. 32:134.
Pleurotus florida Eger. 1965. Arch. Mikrobiol. 50:343. nom. nud.
Pileus 65 3 80 mm when dry; caespitose, smooth (FIGS. 8A, 11H–J), margin involute at first, solid,
brownish yellow (Munsell, 10YR 6/6). Basidiomata obtained in culture with pileus 110 3130 mm, with similar characters to collections obtained in field but the basidiocarps developing more isolated. Lamellae decurrent, close, broad, ca 5 mm, not very thick, pale yellow (Munsell, 2,5Y 8/4), margin entire. Stipe 15– 20 3 11–15 mm, eccentric-lateral, short, surface smooth. Flesh white, thin, ca 2 mm thick, corky. Odor fungal. Spore print white to cream.
Spores (8–)8.3–10.7(–13) 3 3.1–3.6mm Q 5 2.4; cylindrical, hyaline, not amyloid, smooth (FIG. 8B).
Basidia 29–31 3 7–10 mm, club-shaped, 4-spored (FIG. 8C). Cheilocystidia not observed. Pleurocystidia
FIG. 9. Pleurotus pulmonarius.A. Basidiocarp; B. Spores; C. Hyphae of the pileus; D. Hymenium, subhymenium and hymenophoral trama; E. Hyphae of the stem. Scale bar 1
55 cm for A; scale bar 2520mm for B–E. absent or similar to basidioles. 23–3035–6mm.
Sub-hymenium 20–23 mm broad. Hymenophoral trama not completely irregular, with sclerified hyphae in some collections 4.7–10.4 mm diam, or thin-walled, 2.5–4.2 mm diam (FIG. 8D). Oleiferous hyphae not
observed. Hyphae of context branched 2.6–6.2 mm (FIG. 8F). Hyphae of stipe thin-walled 3.1–5.2 mm
diam, scantily branched and constant diameter to sclerified 5.2–7 mm diam (FIG. 8E). Pileipellis
vari-able, according to the collections, 40–110mm thick; generally larger than 100 mm thick. Monomitic.
Culture characters. Mycelium hyaline, growth feath-ery, with whitish arachnoid zones near the inoculum; increased aerial mycelium and more cottony at the second week. Margin irregular. Bleached zones at re-verse of agar. Odor not distinct. The mycelium cov-ered Petri plates between 1 and 2 wk. Primordia of fruit bodies were observed.
Advancing mycelium with generative, clamped, hy-aline, regularly branched hyphae 1.0–2.5 mm diam. In the middle of the colony hyphae are generative, clamped, thin-walled, regularly branched, 1.0–5.0
mm diam. Mycelium near inoculum with generative, thin-walled, regularly branched and variable diame-ter hyphae 1.5–5.2 mm diam. Microdroplets 1.5–2.0
Geographic distribution. East central and southwest-ern Argentina.
Material studied. ARGENTINA, BUENOS AIRES, Llaval-lol, Sta. Catalina, fruit bodies obtained from strain BAFC 120, leg. B. Lechner & E. Alberto´, IV-1999, BAFC 50.119, BAFC 50.563; fruit bodies obtained from strain BAFC 2034, 20-III-1999, leg. B. Lechner, BAFC 50.918; fruit bodies ob-tained from strain MUCL 38.069 (P. columbinus), leg. B. Lechner & E. Alberto´,IV-2000,BEL 64; fruit bodies obtained from strain BAFC 2473 (CBS 29.147),leg. B.E. Lechner, X-2000, BAFC 50.907 and 50.908; fruit bodies obtained from strain BAFC 2478 (CBS 14.522), leg. B.E. Lechner, 13-X-2000, BAFC 50.903, and 27-VI-2000 (BAFC 50.910); Ezeiza, 12-III-1972, leg. J. Deschamps, BAFC 1.625; La Plata, ob-tained from culture,leg. H. Spinedi, 24-VII-1992, LPS No. 45.080; Parque Pereyra, on trunk ofPopulussp.,leg. Singer-Horak-Wright,20-VI-1962, BAFC 51.137; CATAMARCA, San-ta Marı´a, on living and dead trunk of Salix sp., T 3.754 (LIL); NEUQUE´ N, Alumine´, Moquehue, on trunk of Ar-aucaria araucana, leg. Jorge del Vas,III-1993 CIEFAP 10.813 (BAFC 50.119); Lanı´n National Park, growing onA. arau-cana, leg. M. Rajchenberg,20-V-1999, CIEFAP 11.940; ibid., growing onA. araucana, leg. M. Rajchenberg,VI-1999, CIE-FAP 11.941; TUCUMA´ N, Estancia Las Pavas, 19-VI-49,leg. Cei, T 573(LIL); Tapia, on dry trunk, 23-III-1948,leg. Gold-bach(LIL); tropical wood, on trunk, 27-I-1951,leg. R. Singer, T 1.116(LIL).
Remarks. Fruit bodies of different collections showed great variability, characterized by sclerified hyphae or thin-walled hyphae in the stem and hy-menophoral trama and by the pileipellis being of
var-iable thickness. This indicates the necessity to make further studies to separate Pleurotus ostreatus and P. pulmonarius, such as mating (Vilgalys et al 1993, Lechner et al 2002) or molecular studies (Thorn et al 2000, Gonzales and Labare`re 2000).
Pleurotus pulmonarius(Fr.) Que´l.
Champignons du Jura et des Vosges I; 113, pl. 4. FIG.
Agaricus pulmonariusFr. : Fr. 1821. Syst. Mycol. 1:187. P. pulmonarius(Fr. : Fr.) Que´l. 1872. Me´m. Soc. E´mull. Montbe´liard 2, se´r. 5:11.
P. ostreatusvar. pulmonarius (Fr. : Fr.) Pila´t. 1933. Bull. Trimest. Soc. Myc. Fr. 49:281.
P. araucariicolaSing. 1953. Lilloa 26:141.
Pileus 27–303 15–17 mm, flabelliform (FIGS. 9A,
11K, L), whitish to grayish (Munsell, HUE 7/1–7/2 5Y), very pale brown (Munsell, HUE 8/4 10YR) when dry, surface smooth, glabrous, shiny, gelatinous. La-mellae decurrent, crowded, 2–3 mm broad, cream,
FIG. 10. Pleurotus rickii. A. Basidiocarps; B. Spores; C.
Basidia; D. Hyphae of the hymenophoral trama; E. Hyphae of the pileus; F. Hyphae of the stem. Scale bar 15 4 cm for A; scale bar 2520mm for B–F.
yellow (Munsell, 10YR 8/6) when dry, margin entire. Stipe eccentric to lateral, smooth, 2–10 mm long 3 2–6 mm diam. Flesh 2–5 mm thick, less than 1 mm when dry, corky. Odor agreeable, aromatic, not anise-like.
Spores (6.8–)7.8–9.4(–10.9) 3 2.6–3.6 mm Q 5 2.8, cylindrical-oblong, hyaline, thin-walled, IKI- (FIG.
9B). Basidia 24–26 3 4.1–5.2 mm, club shaped, 4-spored (FIG. 9D). Cheilocystidia absent. Numerous basidioles or pleurocystidia, 23–30 3 5–6 mm (FIG.
9D). Hymenophoral trama completely irregular, with clamped, sclerified hyphae, 5.2–7.8 mm diam and thin-walled hyphae 3.5–10.4mm diam; oleiferous hy-phae not observed (FIG. 9D). Context of pileus with
generative hyphae 4.2–10.4mm diam, thin- and thick-walled (FIG. 9C). Hyphae of stem generative, thick-walled 3.6–6.3mm diam (FIG. 9E). Pileipellis a cutis,
20–40mm thick, not well differentiated, with hyphae parallel and radial arranged.
Culture characters. Mycelium hyaline, whitish and arachnoid near inoculum. Later more white, cottony, with increasing aerial mycelium. Radial growth was generally observed; sometimes feathery. Margin ir-regular. Reverse of agar unchanged. Odor of bitter almonds. Mycelium covered Petri plates within 1–2 wk.
Advancing mycelium with clamped, thin-walled hy-phae 1.5–6.2mm diam, more branched in the center of the colony, with hyphae 2.1–7.8mm diam and near inoculum 1.5–4.2 mm diam. Microdroplets 3.0–6.0
Geographic distribution. Northeastern and east cen-tral Argentina.
Material studied. ARGENTINA, BUENOS AIRES, Ezeiza, on live but diseased tree ofPopulus nigra,25-VII-1987,leg. J. Deschamps,BAFC 30.999; CAPITAL FEDERAL, Barrio Pa-lermo, onSalix humboldtiana,VI and VII-1881,leg. C. Spe-gazzini,LPS 17.084; MISIONES, San Pedro, on branches of Araucaria angustifolia,27-V-2001,leg. E. Alberto´ & O. Po-poff,BAFC 51.090; San Pedro, 268329S, 548049W, on branch-es of Araucaria angustifolia, 27-V-2001, leg. D. Krueger, BAFC 51.091; same location, same host, same date,leg. E. Alberto´, BAFC 51.089; BRAZIL, Serra, Taimbesino, 5-XI-1951,leg. R. Singer B 89(BAFC 51.061), HOLOTY PE ofP. araucariicolaSing.
Remarks. Differentiation between P. pulmonarius andP. ostreatusis difficult. As we pointed out above, mating and molecular studies are necessary to sepa-rate them, however, the pileipellis in P. pulmonarius is thinner (20–40mm), resulting in a more light-col-ored basidiocarp, whereas P. ostreatus has a thicker pileipellis (40–110mm) and darker color. According to Hilber (1982) they may be distinguished by an an-ise odor inP. pulmonarius,but we could not perceive this feature. Instead, we could distinguish a sweet
ar-omatic odor, different to the fungal one ofP. ostrea-tus.
Based on observations of fruit bodies obtained from culture, we conclude thatP. ostreatusspecimens were stouter, with a more eccentric stem, against a lateral, rarely eccentric and less developed stem of the culturedP. pulmonariusspecimens studied.
Regarding P. araucariicola, morphological studies of the holotype, as well as mating studies, revealed that it is clearly a synonym of P. pulmonarius (Lech-ner et al 2003).
Pleurotus rickiiBresadola Ann. Mycologici 18, p. 27. 1920.
Description of the collections in dry state. Pileus 20– 45 mm, brown to grayish brown, glabrous, smooth, rather infundibuliform (FIG. 10A). Lamellae clear
brown, 1.5–3.0 mm broad, deeply decurrent. Stipe cream, 25–55 mm long and 2–6 mm diam, slightly sulcate, solid, eccentric to subcentral, with dark strands formed by skeletal hyphae arranged along it. Spores (8.8–)9.3–11.4(–12.4)3 2.7–(3.3)–3.6mm,
FIG. 11. Basidiomata of different species ofPleurotusfrom Argentina. A.P. albidusfrom nature and B. from culture; C. P. cystidiosus; D. coremia fromP. cystidiosus; E–G.P. djamorfrom nature. E. var.djamor,F. var.roseus,G. var.cyathiformis; H– J.P. ostreatus,H. from nature, I and J. from culture; K–L.P. pulmonarius,K. from nature, L. from culture. Scale bar530 cm for A, 8 cm for B, 4 cm for C and E, 6 mm for D, 5.5 cm for F–G, 8 cm for H, 14 cm for I, 16 cm for J–L.
Q 5 3.18, cylindrical to cylindrical-oblong, hyaline, thin-walled, neither amyloid nor dextrinoid (FIG.
10B). Basidia 23–26 3 5.2–7.8 mm (FIG. 10C).
Hy-menophoral trama irregular, with generative hyphae 2–5.2mm diam (FIG. 10D). Pileus with generative
hy-phae, 2.6–7.2 mm diam, and skeletals 2.1–3.1 mm diam (FIG. 10E). Stem with generative hyphae,
thin-walled, 3.1–4.7 mm diam and pointed skeletals 400– 500mm long and 2.6–8.3mm diam, with a thick wall 0.3–1.5 mm thick (FIG. 10F). On the surface of the
stem, dark strands were observed formed by skeletals hyphae 7.8–11.4 mm diam, with a thick wall, up to 2.5mm thick (FIG. 10F).
Geographic distribution. Northwestern Argentina. Material studied. ARGENTINA, TUCUMA´ N, Parque Aconquija, on leafy trunk in tropical wood, 14-IV-1951,leg. R. Singer, T 1472(LIL); Tafı´, San Javier, 6-V-1945,leg. H. Descale, T 2221(LIL).
Remarks. Singer (1951) described the species in the fresh state. The pileus was recorded as brown (‘‘chukker brown’’, Maerz and Paul P15C8) mixed with pale tones with small close squamules (‘‘cow-boy’’, Maerz and Paul P15E11) and marginal, white, early disappearing veil; the rest smooth and glabrous; lamellae were described as white, yellow through dry-ing; stipe ‘‘soapstone’’ color (Maerz and Paul P15A7), with white veil, soft, very notable when young. Spore print ‘‘opal mauve’’ (Maerz and Paul P51A2).
It will be important to obtain cultures of this spe-cies, so far nonexistent, to observe the presence or absence of microdroplets to confirm its place in Pleu-rotus because the specimens, only morphologically studied, appear to be on the boundary between Pleu-rotusandLentinus.
This research was supported by PRHIDEB-CONICET/Ar-gentina. We wish to thank the curators of BAFC, LIL and LPS herbaria for making available collections of species of Pleurotusfor this study, as well as the curators of BAFC, CBS and MUCL culture collections for making available strains. We also thank Mario Rajchenberg (Esquel, Argentina), who provided the collection and strain ofP. ostreatusfrom Pa-tagonia, Argentina, and Dr R.H. Petersen (Knoxville, Ten-nessee) for supplying valuable information onPleurotus spe-cies. This is paper No. 158 of the PRHIDEB-CONICET se-ries.
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