CLUVA WORKSHOP SOCIAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT : CASE OF DOUALA

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SOCIAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT :

CASE OF DOUALA

CLUVA Workshop

UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th December 2011 – Roger TCHANGANG

COMMUNAUTE URBAINE DE DOUALA

VILLE DE DOUALA

B.P. : 43 Douala Téléphone 33 42 18 50

UNIVERSITE DE YAOUNDE I

CLUVA WORKSHOP

Urban Participatory Climate Change

Adaptation Appraisal Methodology, Social

Vulnerability, Institutions and Governance

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

SOMMAIRE

I. Presentation of Douala city

II. Main natural hazards and their major causes

in Douala area

I.

Floods

II.

Landslide, gullies and soil erosion

III. Some notable floods in Douala

IV. Drivers of social vulnerability in Douala

V. Overview of local governance

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

I. PRESENTATION OF DOUALA CITY

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 3

 Douala is the largest city in

Cameroon and the capital of Cameroon's Littoral Region

 The city is located on the banks of the Wouri River, at 30 km from the Atlantic Ocean. The two sides linked by Bonaberi Bridge.

 4000 mm yearly average rainfall

Yearly average rainy days : 180 days (heavy season : june-sept)

 Total area of about 300 km² with a flat relief in general

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE

DE DOUALA

II.

MAIN

NATURAL HAZARDS AND THEIR MAJOR

CAUSES IN DOUALA AREA

II.1.

Floods

 Bed overflow of streams in the lowlands and valleys with flat bottoms, related to the

anarchic occupation of urban space ;

 Difficulty of stormwater drainage due to clogging gutters in urbanized

perimeters and high rate of waterproof area.

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE

DE DOUALA

II. NATURAL HAZARDS AND THE MAJOR

CAUSES IN DOUALA AREA (2)

II.1.

Floods (2)

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 5

 Obsolescence of drainage works

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE

DE DOUALA

II. NATURAL HAZARDS AND THE MAJOR

CAUSES IN DOUALA AREA (3)

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 7

I

I.2.Landslides, Gullies and soil

erosions

Anthropogenic pressures,

 topography

 soil geological characteristics ,

 rainfall

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE

DE DOUALA

III. SOME NOTABLE FLOODS IN DOUALA

Month an year Districts of the main areas flooded

July1990 DOUALA II (Nkolmitag , PK 5)

August 1993

DOUALA II et III (Tergal, Nkolmitag, Brazzaville, New Bell, Dibom, Soboum, Bilongué, Madagascar)

June & July 1996 DOUALA II, III, IV et V August 1998 DOUALA II, III et V 2 et 3 August 2000 DOUALA I, II, III, IV et V 2002 DOUALA II, III, IV et V

09 August 2009 DOUALA I et V (Akwa, Bonapriso, Bonanjo, Bali, Cité des palmiers). 2010 22 july DOUALA II, III, IV et V

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 8

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE

DE DOUALA

III. SOME NOTABLE FLOODS IN DOUALA (2)

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 9

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE

DE DOUALA

IV. DRIVERS OF SOCIAL VULNERABILITY IN

DOUALA

IV.1

Demography

 2 400 000 inhbts,

 80% of the urban population of the littoral region live in Douala.

 Strong population growth (4.87% in 2005)

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IV.2 Urbanization

Development plan exceeded

• Extension of the urban area outside the administrative boundaries (300 km ²) ;

• uncontrolled occupation

• Occupation of risk areas

Densification of the population in non aedificandi areas whithin the most

exposed districts to natural hazards

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

HDI: 0.5 in 2007 (153rd / 182) ;

Poverty rate: 5.5% (among the lowest in Cameroon in 2007);

Rate decreasing since 1996

(Threshold: 269 443 FCFA / eq. Adult / year).

Decrease of the poverty rate in urban development VS development of low salaries jobs in the informal sector.

IV. DRIVERS OF SOCIAL VULNERABILITY IN

DOUALA (2)

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 12

 71% of the population of working age are active (80% M / 60% W).

 74% of jobs are provided by the informal sector;

 36% of formal jobs provided by the national private sector are based in Douala ;

 Unemployment is estimated at

16.2% for the 15-64 years (10.1% for men and 23.5% for women).

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

1800 km of road, only 470 paved (26%) of which 150 km represents the structuring network road.

 Weakly meshed network: deficient secondary and tertiary network roads ;

 Highways obsolete and severely damaged causing traffic jams ;

Limited financial resources of CUD and lack of maintenance strategy ;

 Limited ability to intervene in case of occurrence of a disaster.

IV. DRIVERS OF SOCIAL VULNERABILITY IN

DOUALA (2)

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 13

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

 34.4% of homes have one bedroom,

 46.5% of homes have 2 to 3 bedrooms ;

 19.1% have 4 bedrooms and more.).

IV. FACTEURS STRUCTURELS DE LA

VULNERABILITE SOCIALE (suite)

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 14

Most homes have walls and floors made ​​of concrete .

 29% of homes are made of wood “ Carabott” (wood

assembled horizontally) ;

 The majority of households have ‘improved” sanitation facilities (latrines equipped).

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE

DE DOUALA

ZONES A RISQUES

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

Decentralized public authority and a legal entity created by

the decree of September 24, 1987 N

°

87/1366, with a legal

personality and financial autonomy;

Under the authority of the Government Delegate

appointed by a presidential Decree,

Operates under the supervision of the State representative

, the council is in charge of local affairs for economic, social

and cultural development of its population ;

mainly concerned with the proper operation of all

community facilities of the city

V. LOCAL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM OVERVIEW

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 16

V.1. DOUAL CITY COUNCIL (CUD)

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

Each CA also has a municipal Council ;

 The elected Councillors represent their people,

 They defend their populations interests through the power of

validation they have on the adoption of the campaign plan and communal activities.

V. LOCAL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM OVERVIEW

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 17

CUD has a municipal council acting as the deliberative organ .

 Its members are drawn from the councils of the six CA ;

 They are involved in the decision making process regarding the

investments politics and the

campaign plan to be implemented by the government delegate

V.2. Operating mechanism

The CUD covers an area divided into six district municipalities (CA), which the sixth is insular

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

Implementation of a proximity policy through the participatory approach:

 Public consultation as part of various ongoing studies within the CUD ;

 Permanent sensitization of social actors, prior to any development work starts in the city in general and road maintenance, stream drainage in particular..

V. LOCAL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM OVERVIEW (2)

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 18

Improvement of local governance system: the

government delegate instituted a Platform for collaboration CUD-CA mayors ;

 The main target is to harmonize interventions in the city between the CUD and the CA and discuss permanently on some particular social issues

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

Almost six years ago, the CUD undertook a yearly campaign aiming at :

cleaning gutters and all the drains of Douala,

clearing off the

population located on the bed and

neighborhood of some drains, and gutters.

V. LOCAL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM OVERVIEW (2)

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 19

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

Many projects are currently underway, as every years,

for Rehabilitation and maintenance of roads,

Several studies are completed and other ongoing to

improve governance by providing the CUD moderns

urban planning tools : CDS PDU, PDU-POS, AGENDA 21,

SDA, etc. ..

V. LOCAL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM OVERVIEW (2)

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 20

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CLUVA Workshop UFZ, Leipzig 5th to 9th 2011 - Roger TCHANGANG 21

Communauté Urbaine de Douala, Plan de Directeur d’Urbanisme de Douala Programmation, nov 2009

Communauté Urbaine de Douala, Stratégie de développement de la ville de Douala (CDS), 2009

Communauté Urbaine de Douala, Plan de Déplacement Urbain - 2010

COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINEDE DOUALA, ETUDEDUSCHÉMADIRECTEUR D’ASSAINISSEMENTDELAVILLE DE DOUALAETMAÎTRISED’ŒUVRE D’UNE TRANCHEPRIORITAIREDES TRAVAUX (RAPPORT DÉFINITIFPHASE

1), NOVEMBRE 2011.

RGPH 3 (Recensement Général de la Population et de l’Habitat ) (2005) dont les résultats ont été publiés fin 2010, et RGPH1 (1976) et RGPH2 (1987)

ECAM (Enquête camerounaise auprès des Ménages)1,2 et 3 (2000-2007), EESI (Enquête sur l’Emploi et le Secteur Informel) (2005) et

CAVIE (Enquête sur le Cadre de Vie) (2002) menées par l’INS

Personnes consultées : Jean YANGO (CUD), Dr BAHA (UD) , OLINGA (UD), DOMBOR (UD), METEKE Aymard and Christine MOUDIKI (CUD).

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COMMUNAUTÉ URBAINE DE DOUALA

Thank you for your kind attention

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