A Real Time Prototype for Vehicle Tracking System

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A Real Time Prototype for Vehicle Tracking System

1 Pydala Bhasha, 2 P. Nageswara Rao , 3 D. Bulla Rao

1,2,3 Department of Computer Science and Engineering Swetha Institute of Technology & Science, Tirupati

Andhra paradesh, India

Abstract -A vehicle tracking system is an electronic device installed in a vehicle to enable the owner or a third party to track the vehicle's location. This paper proposed to design a vehicle tracking system that works using GPS and GSM technology, which would be the cheapest source of vehicle tracking and it would work as anti-theft system. For doing so an ARM7 microcontroller is interfaced serially to a GSM Modem and GPS Receiver. A GSM modem is used to send the position (Latitude and Longitude) of the vehicle from a remote place. The GPS modem will continuously give the data i.e. the latitude and longitude indicating position of the vehicle. When the request by user is sent to the number at the GSM modem, the system automatically sends a return reply to that mobile. Here piezo electric buzzer is used to detect the vibrations that are occurred in case of any accidents and it sends signal to microcontroller to send latitude and longitude information to the number stored in microcontroller. Also a SOS Button is used in case of any emergencies. When the button is pressed, the system automatically sends a message to the number stored in the microcontroller.

Keywords - GPS , GSM SIM300, Microcontroller ARM7.

1. Introduction

Nowadays Embedded Systems are plays a major role in our daily life to fulfill the daily needs of a human being with less effort even to do the complex and specific tasks instead off a human being. The embedded systems are well popular in all sectors utilizations like home appliances, mobile communication, office automation devices and so on. Each and every application will have a special purpose processor and special purpose hardware to satisfy the user specific requirements with the help of a embedded software called as ERTOS-Embedded Real Time Operating System to execute the user specific applications. The ERTOS is also referred as “firm ware”. The Embedded systems are designed to do a specific task that is defined by the user based on user requirements. The limitation of any Embedded System is they have not sufficient resources like memory and they don’t have CDROM memory. The Embedded systems are always counter to some deadlines in work. The basic characteristic of an Embedded System is, it has to complete a specific task with a specified given time

period. In Real Time Embedded Systems the targets are tough, if any system is failure to meet the requirements that may cause the smash the system like Air Traffic Control Management System. Another limitation of Embedded Systems Power, All the Embedded Systems are battery based systems, so the power consumption is low. The proposed VTS -Vehicle Tracking System model is used to describe the locality of a vehicle through GPS technology. The GPS is used to establish the communication path between satellites and ground stations and identify the exact location of a vehicle by using triangulation approaches. With the help of VTS now it is very easy to trace our high expensive vehicles with accurate location and time on the earth. The VTS also provides the details about vehicle accidents and sends the emergency alert message to our registered mobile Number. The VTS consists of transmitting unit at vehicle side and monitoring unit at user side.

The Vehicle Unit consists of a circuit which is designed with GPS and GSM modem hardware parts and is constructed with the primary functions of a modem that keep tracking the vehicle by getting the information through GPS receiver from GPS satellites. The GSM modem sends the vehicle location data to the base station. The microcontroller is the heart of this device. It is the interface between the GSM module and the GPS receiver. A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, data memory, A/D converter and programmable input/output peripherals. In this device the microcontroller is programmed in such a way that it stimulates the GSM modem in message forwarding when a request is send by the user. Microcontrollers contains a Piezo electric buzzer which detects vibrations when any accident occurs and to report occurrences of accident automatically via GSM communication platform using SMS messaging. This unit also contains a SOS Button which is useful in emergency situation.

Nowadays the major challenging issue for all users and researchers is how best they are providing the security for their Vehicles is considering the primary goal. The

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researchers develop one best model to provide security for the vehicle with the help of GPS systems. Now the user can closely monitor the vehicle locations from time to time and easy to track their vehicle locations. This model is well popular and referred as Vehicle Tracking System. The VTS device is embedded into the vehicle. It is very flexible for fitting in side of the vehicle and is not visible for outside persons. Now the VTS device continuously receiving the location information from satellite and sends the location data to the registered mobile device. If the vehicle is theft by someone, then the user can easily find out the location of a vehicle from time to time by receiving the signals from VTS device. The advantage by using the VTS device in a vehicle is the owner of a vehicle can monitor the vehicle locations at anytime and anywhere in the world. The main advantage of this model is we no need to maintain server system for database maintenance and the cost of implementation of this model is less. The VTS model is constructed by using the hardware components like GSM, GPS, Piezo Electric Buzzer and SoS Switch.

2. Related Work

The first Vehicle Tracking System (VTS) was developed through wireless technology with free of cost for maintenance but the system cost is little bit high, the setting cost of the VTS device is around 700$ to 800$ for construction of a system includes both software and hardware cost. This device is best suitable for individual usage but for the large sector companies the maintenance cost of the vehicles are very expensive to monitoring the status of the vehicle locations in case of theft and accident information. The VTS is introducing with wireless modem so that no need to store and maintain the tracking information by the user. The wireless passive tracking system is built with the help of wireless modem, so that it is able to collect the information at faster rate even though the vehicle is moving from one location to another location.

The vehicle tracking systems are broadly categorized into two types. They are Passive Devices and Active Devices. The Passive devices performs the operations like vehicle key on or Key off, door open or door closed, Determined the speed of a vehicle and store the location of a vehicle with the help of GPS satellite. The main features of passive devices are, 1) It has auto download of data to a computer from the device and perform evaluation of vehicle location information for future usage. 2) It can transfer the data through wireless medium. The Active devices are also perform the same kind of tasks like passive devices, but the transmission of the data to the computer for data assessment can be done with the help of mobile networks / satellite networks .

Nowadays all the vehicle tracking devices are manufactured using both active and passive devices features. By combining the features of both passive and active devices, the tracking devices are able to transfer the data to the server of the connected mobile network. If the mobile network is unavailable to track the information of a vehicle due to unavailable of mobile network then the vehicle information is stored to the internal memory of the device and that information is transferred to the server, whenever the mobile network is connected to the device. The vehicle tracking devices are battery based or supported with vehicle power.

All the companies are fix this device to their company vehicles and continuously they are monitoring the vehicle status and location from time to time. For that companies the tracking system is specially designed to make a call and send text messages through the mobile network. 2.1. Usage of Radios

At the preliminary era of the vehicle tracking is done with the help of only Radio communication to transfer the information from one vehicle to another vehicle through Radio only. Here the problem is the vehicle drivers are unable to communicate with their base station. The Navy and army people can detect the evolution from end to end with the help of their routes. The Radio equipment was not lacking of its boundaries and has a coverage of limited distance to provide the best connectivity between vehicle drive’s and the device operators at base station. For this concern it require huge man power to maintain the tracking devices for vehicles and purely depends on the driver of a vehicle.

The usage of radios is replaced with GPS technology to find the location of a vehicle status at any time anywhere in the world. By using GPS technology the man power can be reduced for operating the vehicles. The GPS is built in VTS device to track the vehicle and evaluate the information through Computers for maintaining the vehicle track information for future purpose. For processing the information the user has to authentication with VTS device for security issues. The cost of this device is flexible to all sorts of users like small and large sector companies.

The maintenance cost of a server is very high that is establishment of server infrastructure and monitoring the vehicle locations and sends the messages to the authorized users then the device has to establish GPRS connection. [R6]: Dr. Khalifa A. Salim, Ibrahim Mohammed Idrees, “Design and Implementation of Web-Based GPS-GPRS Vehicle Tracking System”, Khalifa A. Salim et al, IJCSET, December 2013,Vol 3, Issue 12, 443-448.

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Summary: In this paper the authors designed and established a vehicle tracking system through a network based GPS and GPRS. This model is best suitable for organizations to monitor the vehicle positions from time to time and they have maintained a server to store the information for future reference. The organization owners can determine the particular vehicle position for a particular time with the help of GPS device and based on the information provided by the GPS the owner can identify the accurate position through GPRS service. For maintaining the database of vehicles information at server side they are using HTTP protocol and store the information in terms of tables. This model was developed using JavaScript, Ajax, PHP, MySQL, and XML. Finally in this model to retrieve and show the vehicle tracking information through the Google Map.

Drawbacks:

Requires internet for knowing the location of the vehicle.

The cost maintains server is very high.

[R7]: B. Devi kiruba, ”Vehicle Speed Control System Using GSM/GPRS”, (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 4 (6), 2013, 983-987.

Summary: This paper also discussed on vehicle tracking system with GSM or GPRS technology to trace the vehicle positions, speed of the vehicle and the activities of a vehicle driver. For this concern they developed one real time model to attain these features. The basic advantage of GSM/GPRS technologies is continuously capturing the vehicle information and sends that info to the authorized users through the internet to access the server information. This model is a tele-monitoring system to establish the communication path between the server and the remote user. This model is best suitable for real time traffic investigation. This model was tested on the windows phone 8 and it can provide portability for the user to access the information from server and it is more flexible, so that the user can get the information from anywhere on the globe.

Drawbacks:

Requires windows phone OS(it is not compatible in all platforms).

The cost maintain server is very high.

3. The Construction of VTS System

To construction of this model, I am focusing on two modules. They are:

1. Hardware Module includes ARM7, GPS, GSM, SOS Button, Piezo Electric Buzzer.

2. Software Module.

In the VTS, the main modules are LPC2148 microcontroller, GSM Modem, GPS, SOS Button, Piezo electric buzzer as shown below in the fig: 3.1. MAX232 is used as interfacing between GSM, GPS with the ARM7 Microcontroller. MAX232 is used for the synchronization between GSM and ARM7 and also between GPS and ARM7. The GPS and GSM modems are interfacing with ARM7 microcontroller. The purpose of GPS modem is constantly gathering the latitude and longitude data that specifying the vehicle. The purpose of the GSM modem is to receive the information from a remote location that includes Latitude and Longitude information of the vehicle. The GSM is interfaced to the microcontroller using UART0 and the GPS is interfaced with UART1 of ARM7.

Fig: 3.1 Block diagram of VTS

3.1. User Request

Sending request to the VTS means sending password to the GSM SIM. The password that is used here is “1234”. Once the password is sent. Microcontroller gets the password and verifies it. If the password is not matched then it will consider it as an invalid message. Else GPS starts tracking and the microcontroller gets GPS frame which consists of time, date, latitude, longitude and satellite names etc. As only latitude and longitude are required. Microcontroller does the processing on the GPS frame and sent only latitude and longitude to the GSM. GSM sends reply to the requested user.

3.2. Piezo Electric Buzzer

When any accident occurs, buzzer detects the vibrations and sends the signal to the ARM7 Microcontroller. Then GPS starts tracking and the microcontroller gets GPS

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frame which consists of time, date, latitude, longitude and satellite names etc. As only latitude and longitude are required. Microcontroller does the processing on the GPS frame and sent only latitude and longitude to the GSM. GSM send location information to the mobile number that is stored in the ARM7 microcontroller.

3.3. SOS Button

When the switch is pressed the Signals are send to microcontroller and then GPS starts tracking and the microcontroller gets GPS frame which consists of time, date, latitude, longitude and satellite names etc. As only latitude and longitude are required. Microcontroller does the processing on the GPS frame and sent only latitude and longitude to the GSM. GSM send location information to the mobile number that is stored in the ARM7 microcontroller.

4. Implementation Model for VTS

GPS (Global Positioning System) technology is used to find the location of any object or vehicle to monitor a child continuously using satellite signals. Three satellite signals are necessary to locate the receiver in 3D space and fourth satellite is used for time accuracy. GPS will give the information of parameters like longitude, latitude and attitude. With the help of these parameters one can easily locate the position of any object. In this GPS technology, the communication takes place between GPS transceiver and GPS satellite. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally intended for military applications, but in the 1980s, the government made the system available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day. Fig 4.1 shows the basic function of GPS.

GPS satellites

Figure 4.1 Basic functions of GPS

The Global Positioning System (GPS) comprises three segments.

1. The space segment (all functional satellites). 2. The control segment (all ground stations involved

in the monitoring of the system: master control station, Monitor stations, and ground control stations)

3. The user segment (all civil and military GPS users)

4.1. Space Segment

The Space Segment consists of the constellation of spacecraft and the signals broadcast by them which allow users to determine position, velocity and time. The basic functions of the satellites are to:

• Receive and store data transmitted by the Control

Segment stations.

• Maintain accurate time by means of several

onboard atomic clocks.

• Transmit information and signals to users on two

L-band frequencies.

• Provide a stable platform and orbit for the L-band

transmitters. 4.2. Control Segment

The control segment (Operational Control System OCS) consists of a Master Control Station located in the state of Colorado, five monitor stations equipped with atomic clocks that are spread around the globe in the vicinity of the equator and three ground control stations that transmit information to the satellites.

The most important tasks of the control segment are:

• Observing the movement of the satellites and

computing orbital data (ephemeris).

• Monitoring the satellite clocks and predicting

their behavior Synchronizing on board satellite time.

• Relaying precise orbital data received from

satellites in communication.

• Relaying the approximate orbital data of all

satellites (almanac).

• Relaying further information, including satellite

health, clock errors.

The control segment also oversees the artificial distortion of signals (SA, Selective Availability), in order to degrade the system’s positional accuracy for civil use. System accuracy had been intentionally degraded up until May 2000 for political and tactical reasons by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD),the satellite operators. It

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Was shut down in May 2000, but it can be started up again, if necessary, either on a global or regional basis. 4.3. User Segment

This is the part of the GPS system with which it is most concerned with the space and control segments being largely transparent to the operations of the navigation function. The GPS user segment consists of GPS receiver. The receiver collects and process signals from the GPS satellites that are in view and then uses that information to determine and display your location, speed, time, and so forth. The GPS receiver does not transmit any information back to the satellites. Here are few users segment applications.

• Land, Sea and Air Navigation and Tracking,

including enrooted as well as precise navigation, collision avoidance, cargo monitoring, vehicle tracking, search and rescue operations, etc. While the accuracy requirement may be modest and the user hardware is generally comparatively low cost, the reliability, integrity and speed with which the results are needed is generally high. Surveying and Mapping, on land, at sea and from

the air. Includes geophysical and resource surveys, etc. The applications are of relatively high accuracy, for positioning in both the static and moving receiver mode, and generally require specialized hardware and data processing software.

Military Applications. Although these are largely mirrored by civilian applications, the military GPS systems are generally developed to "military specifications" and a greater emphasis is placed on system reliability.

Other specialized uses, such as time transfer, attitude determination, spacecraft operations, atmospheric studies, etc. Obviously such applications require specially developed, high cost.

4.4. Generating GPS Signal Transit Time

The signals require a further 3.33us for each excess kilometer of travel. If you wish to establish your position on land (or at sea or in the air), all you require is an accurate clock. By comparing the arrival time of the satellite signal with the on board clock time the moment the signal was emitted, it is possible to determine the transit time of that signal. The distance S to the satellite can be determined by using the known transit timeτ:

Distance=Travel time(τ)*Speed of light

Measuring signal transit time and knowing the distance to a satellite is still not enough to calculate one’s own position in 3-D space.

Figure 4.2. Determining the transit time

4.5. Determining the Position on a Plane

Each radius corresponds to the distance calculated to the satellite. All possible distances to the satellite are located on the circumference of the circle. If the position above the satellites is excluded, the location of the receiver is at the exact point where the two circles intersect beneath the satellites. Two satellites are sufficient to determine a position on the X/Y plane.

5. Procedure for Implementation

Figure. 4.3. The position of the receiver at the intersection

Step1: Click for KEIL µVISION4 Icon which appears after Installing KEIL µVISION4.

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Step2: Click on Project Menu, Then New µVison Project.

Step3: Create New Project Folder named as “Keil Test”.

Step 4: Select Target Device Vendor.

Step 5: Then select specific chip LPC2148.

Step 6: Then select specific chip i.e. LPC2148.

Step 7: Then you will see following window.

Step 8: Now you see Startup.s is already added which is necessary for running code for Keil. Startup’s is available in C:\Keil\ARM\Startup\Philips.

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The startup-code executes immediately upon reset of the target system and performs the following operations:

Defines interrupt and exception vectors.

Configures the CPU clock source (on some devices).

Initializes the external bus controller.

Copies the exception vectors from ROM to RAM for systems with memory remapping.

Initializes other low level peripherals, if necessary.

Reserves and initializes the stack for all modes. Reserves the heap.

Transfers control to the main C function.

Step 9: Now Click on File Menu and Click on New.

Step 10: Write Code for Blink LED in C and FileName.c Save.

Step 11: Now your Window will be like this in C Syntax.

Step 12: Now you add LED.c file by adding Source Group 1 Add files to Group ‘Source Group 1’.

Step 13: Add LED.C file.

Step 14: Now Click on Options for Target ‘Target 1’.

Step 15: Go to Options for Target ‘Target 1’. Click on Check Box Create HEX File.

Step 16: Then go to Linker. Click on Use Memory Layout for Target Dialog.

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Step 17: Then Click on Rebuild All Target Files.

Step 18: Now you see 0 Error(s), 0 Warning (s). Then Hex File will create in Specific Folder. Now to download it for you target hardware.

5.1. Flash Magic

Connect COM0 of LPC2148 with PC to burn the hex code into microcontroller. In Flash Utility, Select Correct COM port Number, BAUD RATE(9600) and XTAL Frequency(12MHz). COM Port can be identified in Device Manager (My Computer then click on Properties) in PC. Browse the hex file that is to be burnt in to the microcontroller. Port Id and Bootloader Id are identified automatically by pressing Reset and Program switches of ARM7 at a time.

Fig:5.1. Reset and Program Switches Finally click on start to start programming.

Fig: 4.15 Flash Magic

6. Results

6.1. VTS Board

Complete VTS Board consisting of ARM7, LCD, GPS, GSM, Piezo electric buzzer, SOS Button.

Fig: 6.1.VTS Board. Initialization

Fig: 6.2. Microcontroller initialization message. Case1: User Sending Request

User sending request to the GSM of VTS in the form of SMS and this SMS must contain a password. The password here we use is “1234”.

Fig: 6.3. User sending SMS to VTS.

Then microcontroller fetches the number from the obtained SMS and verifies this number whether it is valid number or not.

Program switch

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Fig: 6.4. Microcontroller fetches the mobile number.

Verification of the mobile number includes verification of the message obtained. If the message contains a valid password (1234) then access is granted for further operations.

Fig: 6.5. Verifying the password.

Then GPS starts working and gets a frame from the satellites. From this frame microcontroller gets only latitude and longitude.

Fig: 6.6. GPS Tracking.

This information are send to GSM and then GSM starts sending message to user.

Fig: 6.7. GSM Message sending.

Then user gets reply from VTS which contains latitude and longitude message as shown below.

Fig: 6.8. User gets reply from VTS.

Case2: In case of accidents: VTS detects the vibrations and once the vibrations are detected same procedures from case1 fig: 6.6 are repeated.

Fig: 6.9. Piezo electric buzzer detects vibrations.

GSM sends latitude and longitude information to the number that is already stored in the microcontroller and also indicates that the vibration is detected.

Fig: 6.10. User gets reply from VTS Case3: In case of emergencies

In case of emergency, driver can press the switch and the same procedure from fig: 6.6 are repeated. A message “SWITCH IS PRESSED” is shown on the LCD Screen. GSM sends latitude and longitude information to the number that is already stored in the microcontroller and also indicates that the switch is pressed.

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As the SMS obtained contains latitude and longitude pair. To know the address corresponding to that GPS pair, an User Interface is created. The home page of this interface is given below.

Fig: 6.12. Home page of GUI.

For example if the latitude value is 1338.4599 (DDMM.MMMM), in this 13(DD) indicated degrees and 38.4599 indicate minutes(MM.MMMM). Similarly for the longitude values. If the start button in the figure above is pressed then it will lead to the page shown below. Entering the values of DD MM.MMMM of latitude and longitude. Example values are latitude:13 38.4599 and longitude:79 26.0962

Fig: 6.13GPS Pair to Address Convertor page.

Then click on convert. Then these entered latitude and longitude pair is converted into address as shown in the figure below.

Fig: 6.14 Address is shown along with converted decimal degrees. If the entered values are correct then the address is displayed. Else a message “invalid address” is displayed. In this GUI, the GPS coordinate pair is converted to decimal degrees. Because the database contains decimal degrees and the address as shown in the table 4.4.

Table 4.4: latitude, longitude pair and their corresponding address

7. Conclusions

“A Cost Effective Model for Vehicle Tracking System” is an approach for vehicle tracking with the help of GPS receivers and GSM modem. Vehicle Tracking System resulted in improving overall productivity and reduces the cost with better fleet management that in turn offers better return on your investments. Better scheduling or route planning can enable you handle larger jobs loads within a particular time. Taking ARM as platform, and GPS and GSM as wireless data communication platform, Vehicle Positioning System is small, stable and reliable, with small delay, which can effectively overcome the past disadvantages of poor real time and high operating costs existed in the system.Vehicle tracking both in case of personal as well as business purpose improves safety and security, communication medium, performance monitoring and increases productivity. So in the coming year, it is going to play a major role in our day-to-day living.

References

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Bibliography

Mr. Pydala Bhasha received B.Tech degree in Information Technology from JNT University, Hyderabad in 2006. and pursuing M.Tech Degree in Computer Science and Engineering from Swetha Institute of Sciences, Tirupati..

Nageswara Rao P is working as Associate Professor & Head of CSE Department, Swetha institute of Technology & Science, Tirupati. He has vast experience in Teaching & Research and he guided many UG & PG projects. His research interests are Computer Networks (wireless Networks), HCI, Algorithms, Information security.

Bullarao Domathoti is working as assistant professor of CSE Department, Swetha institute of Technology & Science, Tirupati, Affiliated to JNT University. He received M.Tech in IT from JNTUK. Kakinada in 2012, India, His research interests are Computer Networks (wireless Networks), HCI, Algorithms, Information security, social networks, Data mining, web 2.0 etc.

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