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(1)

Evolving

 

Migration

 

of

 

Power

 

Distribution

 

Evolving

 

Migration

 

of

 

Power

 

Distribution

 

From

 

Under

 

From

 

Under

 ‐‐

floor

floor

 

 

to

 

Overhead

to

 

Overhead

David Skeans

Universal Electric

USA

(2)

Introduction

Introduction

Hello, Good (state time of day), My Name is (state name)

Having achieved the degrees of PhDPPT ;  I am now considered an expert in PowerPoint presentations 

so please rest assured that I will not be making the following amateurish mistakes: so please rest assured that I will not be making the following amateurish mistakes:

• Using words I cannot properly pronounce

• Putting everything word I intend to say on the slide which eliminates the need to memorize but 

makes the presentation crowded, wordy and boring and generally causes the speaker to lose the 

audience before completion of the first slide audience before completion of the first slide

• Keeping my back to the audience

• Falling to us spiel chuck

• Having my zipper down

– ExcessiveExcessive – Use  – of  – Bull Et – Et – Points

(3)

Critical

 

Power

 

Distribution

 

at

 

the

 

rack

 

l

l

level

 

This

 

discussion

 

addresses

 

only

 

the

 

addresses

 

only

 

the

 

distribution

 

system

 

from

 

the

 

PDU

 

to

 

the

 

racks.

racks.

This

 

part

 

of

 

the

 

power

 

delivery

y y

 

system

 

has

 

not

 

historically

 

been

 

a

 

strategic

 

focus

 

by

 

most

 

major

 

suppliers

 

(4)

Busway Types

Busway

  

Types

Common Name Basic Function Design Type Benefits Typical Application

Bus Bar Power 

Transmission

Air insulated, flat 

conductor

High current &  

momentary

Substation

Bus Tube Power 

Transmission

Air insulated 

tubular conductor

High current & 

momentary, high 

Substation y, g

mech strength

Sandwich Bus Bar Power 

Transmission

Multiple, 

individually 

insulated 

High current & 

momentary, 

compact

Building risers & 

service entrance

conductor

p Busway (bus bar 

trunking)

Power Distribution Insulated flat 

conductor in Al or 

steel housing

Compact, multiple 

fixed access points

Manufacturing, 

industrial, 

commercial g

Bus Track (Busway) Power Distribution Insulated profiled 

conductor in Al  housing Compact,  lightweight,  continuous access  distribution points Data Center,  Laboratories p

(5)

Data

 

Center

 

Power

 

Delivery

 

system

  Board STS PDU Caterpillar D t it Di l Russelectric Onan A Liebert Powerware MGE

ATS SystemUPS Battery ibut ion   Board Distribution   u tion   Board STS STS STS PDU PDU PDU Detroit Diesel Cummins Asco HiTec Piller •• • Mai n   Switchboard ATS UPS Distr i o n   Board Distrib u rib u tion   Board STS STS STS PDU PDU PDU Gen . Controls Cutler ‐Hammer Siemens GE Square‐D IEM ATS System Battery Distributi o Dist strib ution   Board STS STS STS STS PDU PDU PDU PDU Gen . Controls R l i Dis STS PDU

RAISED FLOOR (APPRX. 75% OF TOTAL FOOTPRINT) Russelectric Onan Asco Cutler ‐Hammer Siemens GE Square‐D

IEM Cutler ‐Hammer Siemens GE IEM Exide GNB C&D/Johnson Power Hawker ELECTRICAL ROOM

Power

 

Distribution

(6)

New Challenges Force Change

New

 

Challenges

 

Force

 

Change

Increasing power densities

Increasing

 

power

 

densities

(typically 4‐6KW, now 12 up to 30, with possibilities of 

70kW per rack) 

Improved cooling strategies

Improved

 

cooling

 

strategies

 

Need

 

for

 

scalability

Need

 

for

 

modularityy

Data

 

centre

 

consolidation

Server

 

virtualization

(7)

Traditional Power Distribution

Traditional

 

Power

 

Distribution

Majority use under floor power

Majority

 

use

 

under

 

floor

 

power

 

distribution

 

Typically

 

via

 

cables

 

fed

 

from

 

a

 

distribution

 

panel

The

 

panel

 

is

 

located

 

on

 

the

 

raised

 

floor in order to reduce voltage

floor

 

in

 

order

 

to

 

reduce

 

voltage

 

drop

 

in

 

smaller

 

conductor

The

 

panel

 

is

 

normally

 

fed

 

by

 

a

 

secondary

 

breaker

 

typically

 

located

 

in

 

a

 

critical

 

distribution

 

panel or UPS output switch gear

panel

 

or

 

UPS

 

output

 

switch

 

gear.

(8)

Traditional

 

One whip to each cabinet

PDU A

Distribution Panel

Under

 

Floor

 

Cable

 

Power

 

Distribution

C

i

 

d

 

fl

 

Congestion

 

under

 

floor

 

– obstructs

 

air

 

flow

PDU B

Distribution Panel Distribution Panel

(9)

Problems

 

with

 

traditional

 

power

 

di t ib ti

distribution

y

Inhibits flexibility : 

y

circuit additions 

are difficult, requires new cable installation, 

location of new panel breakers, temporary 

removal of floor tiles, opening of deadfronts, 

wire pulling and circuit verification wire pulling, and circuit verification. 

y

Restricts airflow; obstructing 

under floor air currents, some

under floor air currents, some 

cables are abandoned in place

y

Not scalable

y

No modularity

y

Costly

Costly

y

Increased risk of human error

(10)

Emerging

 

Trend

 

toward

 

overhead

 

distribution

distribution

Over

 

head

 

Cabinet

 

power

 

distribution

 

via

 

an

 

overhead

 

track

 

busway

– Allows users to quickly insert or relocate plug‐in units and electrical power 

drops. 

– Continuous open access and allow for power drops to be inserted instantly 

anywhere along the busway anywhere along the busway. 

– Modular, three‐phase systems which consist of electrified copper conductor 

bars within lightweight housing.  

– Circuits are added or removed through a turn‐n‐lock insertion process which 

allows users to insert and remove plug‐in units without shutting down power.

– Eliminates the need for power distribution panel boards and multiple cables.  

– Include a circuit breaker in the plug in unit which improves protection and 

id l l di ti

provides local disconnection means. 

– Possible to eliminated the raised floor, which significantly reduces data center construction costs.

(11)

Comparison

p

 

of

 

DC

 

distribution

 

Methods

OH Conduit &  wire UF  cable OH  cable OH  busway OH bus  track Comments

Requires raised floor N Y N N N Raised floor costs are high Circuit change w/o load  Dependant on amount of 

disruption N N N N Y infrastructure installed initially Single & three phase 

available at load N N N Y Y Facilitates load diversity Installation costs 4 2 3 1 1 1= lowest cost

Restricts cold air flow N Y N N N air flow dampening Restricts cold air flow N Y N N N air flow dampening

Requires entry/exit 

airflow MGMT N Y N N N

Bypass air can be created by cable 

entry/exit points Load connection at any 

location Y Y Y N Y

Dependant on amount of 

infrastructure installed initially Requires remote circuit 

identification Y N N Y Y Visual circuit management Periodic re‐torqueing 

required N N N Y N

connection joints may require re‐

torqueing Circuit changes reduces

Circuit changes reduces 

static pressure N Y N N N Removing floor tiles impacts cooling 

Circuit protection close 

to load N N N Y Y

Protection is improved when close to 

load Risk of standing water 

penetration N Y N N N

Fixed physical phase 

(12)

Benefits of over head Track Busway

• Flexibility:  add/remove circuits in minutes 

• Non‐disruptive to Power: add/remove circuits without 

d i i l d

Benefits

 

of

 

over

 

head

 

Track

 

Busway

de‐energizing load

• Improves Energy Efficiency:  overhead power  improves 

cooling by removing  underfloor cable air dams also 

reduces bypass airflow by eliminating cable access holes reduces bypass airflow by eliminating cable access holes 

(brushes, grommets' etc)

• Scalability: power connections can be added as needed 

deferring costs until cabinets require power

• Modularity: Varying power densities can be fed with the 

same busway infrastructure

• Easily Configurable: single or three phase loads from the 

b

same busway

• Low Cost: Generally lower material costs and 

significantly less labor than traditional methods

• Does not use valuable floor space by eliminating raised

• Does not use valuable floor space by eliminating raised 

(13)

Benefits

 

of

 

over

 

head

 

Track

 

Busway

• Expandable: higher densities can be easily 

accommodated in the future

R d l bl b l t d t th

• Re‐deployable:  can be relocated to other 

applications with relative ease

• LEEDS recognized: gain Leed’s points because 

of it’s sustainability (reusable), adaptability 

(ease of change), scalability (expandable 

without modification), and energy efficiency 

(cooling waste reduction

y Reduces risk of human error by improving 

visual circuit management

y Improves reliability as electrical connectionsImproves reliability as electrical connections 

are made via mechanically reducing the risk 

of a mis‐wire.

y Reduces chance of phase overloads because 

(14)

Plug

 

in

 

box

 

design

 

facilitates

 

live

 

plug

 

in

Paddle(Plug Head)

l i d     

Mounting Tab with Hanger Bolt

Polarized to prevent  improper installation Plug ‐ Guide Breakers Enclosure Receptacles

(15)

U it i

d d hil

ti

t b

Unit

 

is

 

grounded

 

while

 

connecting

 

to

 

busway

Plug Guide on Bus Ground Tab

(16)

Inserting Plug In Into Access Slot

Inserting

 

Plug

In

 

Into

 

Access

 

Slot

Plug

 

Head

 

inserted

 

completely

 

into

 

busway

Plug

 

Guide

 

fits

 

firmly

 

around

 

busway housing

 

while

 

enclosure

 

is

 

solidly

 

against

 

the

 

enclosure

 

is

 

solidly

 

against

 

the

 

plug

 

guide.

Plug

 

in

 

unit

 

enclosure

 

is

 

Plug

 

in

 

unit

 

enclosure

 

is

 

bonded

 

to

 

aluminum

 

housing

 

during

 

insertion

 

process

 

protecting

 

the

 

installer

(17)

Rotating

 

Plug

In

 

Into

 

Access

 

Slot

 

Rotate

 

plug

in

 

such

 

that

 

the

 

Rotate

 

plug

in

 

such

 

that

 

the

 

blades

 

engage

 

the

 

busbars.

 

Enclosure

 

and

 

Plug

 

Guide

 

firmly

 

pressed

 

up

 

against

 

busway.

 

p

p g

y

Rotate

 

plug

in

 

until

 

it

 

is

 

parallel

 

to

 

the

 

busway

NOTE:

 

The

 

typical

 

circuit

 

breaker/

 

NOTE:

 

The

 

typical

 

circuit

 

breaker/

 

receptacle

 

faces

 

the

 

direction

 

of

 

the

 

(18)

Securing Plug

In Into Access Slot

Securing

 

Plug

In

 

Into

 

Access

 

Slot

 

Insert

 

hanger

 

bolt

 

on

 

the

 

mounting

 

tab

the

 

mounting

 

tab

Securely

 

tighten

 

hanger

g

 

bolt

 

to

 

(19)

Typical

 

Plug

 

In

 

modules

Breaker

 

Box

yp

g

Drop

 

Cord

228 mm

Outlet

 

Box

p

203 mm
(20)

About

 

the

 

Track

 

Busway

Extruded

 

Aluminum

 

Housing

225A

 

Version

 

Shown

U

Shaped

 

busbars

Insulators

 

that

 

surround

 

the

 

busbars

 

and

 

provide

p

 

a

 

“finger

g

 

safe”

 

product.

(21)

Ratings & Dimensions

Ratings

 

&

 

Dimensions

106 mm 128 mm

106

 

mm

(22)

About

 

the

 

Track

 

Busway

Copper

 

Conductor

Stab on Plug

In

Stab

 

on

 

Plug In

 

Paddle

Constant

 

“spring”

 

tension

 

created

 

by

 

the

 

U

Shaped busbar

Shaped

 

busbar.

(23)

Typical

 

Track

 

Busway

 

System

System

E d C Threaded Rod  Housing Section Coupler Sets End Cap Hanger g Tee
(24)

Benefits

 

of

 

overhead

 

power

 

d

b

distribution

Fl ibili

Flexibility

Allows

 

for

 

technology

 

refreshing

Flexibility

 

to

 

accommodate

 

frequent

 

change

 

without

 

service

 

disruption

 

is

 

mandatory.

  

With

 

overhead

 

flexible

 

power

 

distribution

 

systems,

 

circuits

 

are

 

easily

 

added

 

with

 

very

 

little

 

risk

 

to

 

load.

 

Overhead

 

distribution

 

can

 

accommodate

 

varying

 

loads

 

as

 

the

 

main

 

infrastructure

 

is

 

designed

 

to

 

serve

 

high

 

and

 

low

 

density,

 

single

 

and

 

th

h

l

d f

d

I d

d

t f

three

 

phase

 

loads

 

from

 

day

 

one.

  

Independent

 

of

 

the

 

type

 

of

 

server

 

used,

 

the

 

systems

 

basic

 

(25)

Benefits

 

of

 

overhead

 

power

 

d

b

distribution

Reliability

• Reduces risk of human by improving visual circuit management which reduces the probability

• Reduces risk of human by improving visual circuit management which reduces the probability 

of inadvertent operation of incorrect circuit breakers.  

• Track busway electrical connections are made via mechanical connections thereby 

significantly reducing the risk of a mis‐wire.

• Track Busway also mechanically fixes the physical relationship between conductors, unlike 

cable where conductors can be in any physical relationship, thereby reducing the chance of 

(26)

B

fit

f

h d

di t ib ti

Scalability

y

Since most centres will not initially run at full capacity they

Benefits

 

of

 

overhead

 

power

 

distribution

y

Since

 

most

 

centres

 

will

 

not

 

initially

 

run

 

at

 

full

 

capacity,

 

they

 

must

 

be

 

designed

 

with

 

the

 

ability

 

to

 

accommodate

 

sustained

 

growth

 

without

 

interruption

 

of

 

existing

 

services.

 

Overhead power systems are designed

Overhead

 

power

 

systems

 

are

 

designed

 

to

 

allow

 

for

 

expansion

 

by

 

simply

 

adding

 

on

 

to

 

the

 

existing

 

system

 

or by installation of additional

or

 

by

 

installation

 

of

 

additional

 

systems.

  

When

 

an

 

additional

 

row

 

of

 

servers

 

is

 

added,

 

simply

 

add

 

another

 

row

 

of

 

over

 

head

 

track

 

busway.

  

If

 

a

 

row

 

is

 

expanded,

 

just

 

(27)

Benefits

 

of

 

overhead

 

power

 

d

b

Modularity

y

A modular approach provides a plan for overall capacity utilization in a

distribution

A

 

modular

 

approach

 

provides

 

a

 

plan

 

for

 

overall

 

capacity

 

utilization

 

in

 

a

 

number

 

of

 

smaller

 

units.

  

Traditional

 

power

 

distribution

 

methods

 

do

 

not

 

lend

 

themselves

 

to

 

modular

 

design

 

concepts

 

as

 

the

 

exact

 

configuration of the load is required

configuration

 

of

 

the

 

load

 

is

 

required

 

at

 

day

 

one.

  

Overhead

 

track

 

busway

 

systems

 

use

 

a

 

basic

 

infrastructure

 

for

 

all

 

loads.

 

Only

 

the

 

plug

 

in

 

unit

 

is

 

specifically configured for the

specifically

 

configured

 

for

 

the

 

particular

 

load.

 

The

 

basic

 

infrastructure

 

can

 

be

 

added

 

as

 

modules

 

are

 

added

 

and

 

loads

 

connected as they are determined

connected

 

as

 

they

 

are

 

determined,

 

without

 

changing

 

the

 

track

 

system.

(28)

Benefits of overhead power distribution

Benefits

 

of

 

overhead

 

power

 

distribution

Energy Efficiency

• Removing the under floor cables and reducing under floor 

obstructions.

• Cable obstructions make the air distribution very non‐

• Cable obstructions  make the air distribution very non‐ uniform, creating pressure differentials that can lead to data  centre hot spots. High pressure exists upstream of cable, tow  pressure downstream; creating large airflow through the  upstream perforated tile and low airflow in the downstream  perforated tile. Thus, a server rack placed in the downstream  region can be starved of cooling air and may overheat. If you  remove the cable obstructions, this non‐uniformity will go  away. • “Over head power also mitigates the single biggest offender in the waste of cooling efficiency which is  improperly sized raised floor penetrations for cabling that allow bypass air. Although the use of proper  airflow management, including seals, brushes, air dams and other accessories can help control bypass air;  it becomes a non‐issue when power is delivered overhead.  Under floor cabling also requires that the tiles  be removed during circuit additions.  This can significantly decrease static pressure during the time of  circuit addition.  • In some cases, it is possible to gain Leed’s points with overhead track busway as it can be defined to meet  the requirements of  sustainability (reusable), adaptability (ease of change), scalability (expandable  without modification) and energy efficiency (cooling waste reduction

without modification), and energy efficiency (cooling waste reduction

• Overhead track busway also shares a common neutral which helps promote material efficiency while 

(29)

Benefits of overhead power distribution

(30)

Uniquely

 

suited

 

for

 

POD

 

&

 

container

 

d

(31)

Conclusions

Conclusions

• The final selection of either an under floor or an 

overhead power distribution system is a balance 

between construction specifics, operational 

metrics, physical constraints, and the evolutional 

demands of the enterprise. That final selection will 

have to survive the ever changing shape of the have to survive the ever changing shape of the 

environment IT supports. In the end, it can be said 

that there are reasons for installing both under 

floor and over head power systems in the data 

centre. Both have their own set of advantages and 

limitations which have to be taken into account 

while choosing either of them.  Nevertheless, as a 

general trend under floor power distribution and general trend, under floor power distribution and 

subsequently even raised floors are giving way, to 

overhead track busway power solutions along with 

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