Tango Interactive Today for Education and Training

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Tango Interactive Today

Tango Interactive Today

for Education and

for Education and

Training

Training

Rice Tango Training

Houston October 18 1999

Geoffrey Fox

Syracuse University

NPAC

111 College Place

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Abstract of Tango and Training Technology

We describe the technology components that are needed to support

distance education and training

We describe integration of

asynchronous

and

synchronous/interactive learning

We describe role of

databases

, Java Applets and different authoring

packages

We describe Role of

Tango

as delivery vehicle of a model of

Web-based

Education and Training

This

model will succeed

because it will provide more cost effective and

higher quality learning environments

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Motivation and

Structure of

Web-based Education

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Challenge and Opportunity in Education and Training

Pervasive Communication Infrastructure (The

Internet

) and powerful new

software technologies and concepts

Distributed

Multimedia

information on the

Web

Web-linked

Databases

,

Distributed Objects

Collaborative

Systems

Can enable education and training with

Better

curricula

New

collaborative learning

models

Different “

business models

” for universities and schools

Can also change/enable businesses, research, electronic societies

Need to implement so that

Can take advantage of the

evolving web

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Why use Distance Education and Training?

New and rapidly changing Academic Curriculum suggest the use of distance education as

it will allow a few experts to deliver instruction to more students and this addresses both

The shortage of trained faculty

cost of developing new curriculum QUICKLY requires many students (say around 5-10 times traditional class) to amortize cost

Distance Education is technically sound based on web curricula-- both synchronously and asynchronously -- today with very robust clear implementations available over next 2

years

Both delivery mechanism and identification of knowledge nuggets (such as Internetics or computational science) that are smaller than a traditional degree suggests different

approaches to certification

Courses are given, graded etc. by multiple organizations -- University integrate degrees?

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Traditional Model of Instruction

Professors

Students

Personal

Lecture Material

Personal

Lecture Material

Personal

Lecture Material

Common Shared Books and Such Resources

Done separately for each class at each university

Often

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Better Model of Instruction

Professor

at AVU

(AnyTown

Virtual

University)

with team of

authoring

specialists

Outside

Students

(dominant clientele)

Common Shared Books

Web based Lecture Material

and Similar Resources

Institutions focussing on particular disciplines, teach a given class

to Students from Universities which provide

beds

and

mentors

Possible local Students

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Courses at Jackson State

Taught using Tango since fall 97 over Internet and defense high performance network DREN twice a week from Syracuse

Course material based on Syracuse Senior Undergraduate class CPS406(Web Technologies) and graduate classes CPS615/616/640 (Base Computational science/Internetics)

Curricula, Homework, Grading, Facilities done by Syracuse

Students get JSU NOT Syracuse Credit

Jackson State major HBC University with many computer science graduates

Do not compete with base courses but offer addon courses with “leading edge” material (Web Technology, modern scientific computing) which give JSU

(under)graduates skills that are important in their career

Job fair employers liked Java Programming!

Needs guaranteed 30 (audio) to 100 (video) kilobits per second bandwidth

Use a proxy server or mirror site

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Architecture of Tango Distance Education

NPAC Web

Server

JSU Web

Server

Java Tango

Server

…….

Share URL’s

Audio Video

Conferencing

Chat Rooms

White Boards etc.

Address at JSU of

Curriculum Page

Teacher’s View of

Curriculum Page

Student’s View of

Curriculum Page

Participants at JSU

Teacher/Lecturer at NPAC

…….

Java Sockets

HTTP

Java

Control Clients

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What is Web-based Collaboration?

Collaboration

means

sharing objects

Web-based Collaboration

implies use of Web to share distributed

objects accessible through the Web

Shared Web Pages

; Resources accessed through

Web Servers

or Brokers;

Client-side

applications with programmatic

interfaces

Web Page

Web Page

Specify Page

Web Page

Receive Identical Page

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Sample 1999 Java Academy

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The Ingredients of Web Based Education

Assess and install the rapidly changing

hardware

and

software

technology infrastructure

Design

of (

possibly new

as exploiting new possibilities)

curricula

Authoring

of material in curricula

Managing

the material and students response to it including

quizzes, grades and administration

Delivery

of the material in a mix of

self-paced

(asynchronous),

traditional

(synchronous) or

collaborative

(interactive)

Good answers

to all these components are

pretty clear

and these

answers will match the evolution of web over next few years

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Role of Collaborative Objects in Education

Learning

is an example of an activity which can be thought of in terms of

objects

(digital audio streams when you talk, books, homework, science fair

exhibits) worked on alone or together -- either between students or students and

teacher

digital “togetherness” is supported by collaboration technology

Collaboration can be synchronous as when individuals talk to each other

Objects or object properties are shared at

same time

Or

asynchronous

when sharing is done at

different times

I post a web page

and

you look at it later

is a basic

asynchronous

sharing model

while writing on a blackboard is hallowed synchronous model in teaching

All objects can be thought of as web pages as these are rendering of a

server side object

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Shared Form Illustrated by Shared Access to NCSA

Biology Workbench showing how general server

objects can be shared from web interface

Shared Multiple List

Shared Buttons

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Universal Shared Object Strategy

Assume

teachers, students, engineers, shoppers, salespersons,

families

teach, learn, collaborate, buy, sell, socialize via electronic

versions of traditional human interactions combined with

shared objects expressed in XML and

rendered as web pages

Most sharing is asynchronous

and one usually wishes to share

synchronously same material

that one accesses

asynchronously

objects

can be

(electronic) text books

,

aircraft designs

and

simulations

, expensive

jewelry

or

photos of grandchildren

Only shared event model (used in Tango) of sharing

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So what do we have now--TangoInteractive

http://www.npac.syr.edu/tango

Largely Java system enabling collaboration between general client side objects

If client side object is a Server proxy, then this ruse enables sharing of server side objects

Has API for Java applet/application, C++, JavaScript

API Enables sharing of events in applications

This is just a fancy way of saying it forwards messages

API Enables applications to find out about participants

Currently ONLY deployed for Netscape version 4.05 and above as uses LiveConnect to connect JavaScript to Java

Internet Explorer version not fully debugged

Tango 2.0 is about as good as you can do with current web

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The current Capabilities of Tango -I

Tango supports a synchronous shared event model of collaboration

Tango

supports (more than) enough

(over 40) applications

Core Collaboration

Capabilities

Audio-Video Conferencing

multicast between room participants

Text

chat rooms with various tradeoffs between “coolness”, ease of use etc.

Shared Browser

(Synchronized view of Web Pages)

Shared Web Search

(becomes shared

database query

)

Slide Show

White Board

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Databases Linkage

JDBC

Link to

WebWisdom Database

Lotus Notes

Link to

Asynchronous Collaboration (Abandoned)

Office and Authoring Tools

PowerPoint

via shared display or

shared Java viewer

Microsoft Excel

using NetMeeting

Microsoft Word

shared visual C++

etc.

Combined Whiteboard /

Java object based PowerPoint like

authoring

system

Shared

emacs

editor -- shared programming

Capabilities of Tango -II

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General Virtual University

Applications

Current

WebWisdom

hierarchical database system navigating through

35,000 foils and 750 foilsets

Raise Hands

” Applet to help teacher-student synchronous interaction

Special Virtual University

Applications

Shared Java applets

to teach

physics

(spring, planets, vector cross

product)

Shared

visible human

illustrates biology teaching

Shared Java Applets used to teach

Java

!

Shared SmartDesk

system aimed at activities useful in

special education

with built in assessment

Untested

Quiz

and

Glossary

Support

The current Capabilities of Tango -III

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Shared Simulations -- Fluid Flow

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JavaScript Shared Browser with Dynamic

HTML -- “Pure” Client Event

• Shared Pointer added to Internet Assistant

PowerPoint on the Web

• Illustrates sharing of W3C Object Model

internal to documents

• DHTML “Heartbeat” recording shared events in last 60 seconds on application

specific “bar” which is locked above all windows -- addresses window clutter

More Powerful than Java Shared Browser

but currently less reliable

Partly as software newer and

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Have some fun with

Multi-player games

VRML

Chess

JavaScript

Card Games and Internet Snap

Java

Othello

and

Rubic’s Cube

snakes and ladders

and could develop a bunch of similar “grid” games

“Other”

Applications

TANGOsim

command and control system with shared tools (e.g.

mapping, weather) to use in scripted

crisis management

There is a very good

shared mapper

which is

a Java whiteboard

supporting

map backends

and general

shared drawing

Shared

Visualization

available for test

The current Capabilities of Tango -IV

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Architecture and

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Versions of Tango

Currently most use is of

Tango 1.4

which gets s series of minor releases so

that now you download Tango 1.4.2.1

This is evolution of first generally useable version of Tango which was

released July98

Available for Experimentation is

Tango 2

which has important but

evolutionary changes

Tango2 will become production version over next 4 months

There will a set of features (such as support of Internet Explorer) slated

for

Tango 2.1

which could be released in January 2000

We have a version

MicroTango

(really an application change -- not a

system change) which is aimed at supporting Palmtop devices

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T

ANGO

Interactive version 1.4

T

ANGO

1.4 requires browser plug-in

Compatible with Netscape Communicator

4.06+

and

4.5, 4.61

not compatible with earlier Netscape versions (

3.0+

) and not

compatible with MS Internet Explorer

TANGO 1 uses

LiveConnect and plug-in

architecture. Both

these technologies

are

available for Internet Explorer, but MS

implementation of LiveConnect is not fully compatible. IE

version of TI exists but is currently not available for public use

supported platforms: Windows’95/98/NT/2000, IRIX, Solaris,

Linux

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T

ANGO

Interactive version 1.4

Supported browsers:

all Netscape 4 versions up

to Communicator 4.61 (not v. 4.6 as serious bugs

in browser!)

supports Netscape 4 security model

digitally signed

plug-in Java classes

Communicator version explicitly requires access

to privileged operations

user’s consent necessary

for T

ANGO

to run

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TangoInteractive System Architecture

N:

Netscape Browser

LD:

Local Daemon

CA:

Control

Application

AP: Applet

LA: Local Application

CS: Tango Java Server

DB:

Collaboration

Database (XML now)

HTTP:

Web Server

/ Object Broker

Client

Client

Collaboration

Server

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T

ANGO

Architecture: Components

Local Daemon’s

main tasks:

maintaining two-way communication

between user

applications, applets and central server

launching

local applications

passing messages

between applications running on the same

node

providing certain system level functionality not normally

available to Java applets, such as file access or printing

The daemon is implemented as a

plug-in

to Web browsers.

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Architecture of Tango

Java Tango

Server

Netscape Browser

Tango

Daemon

Shared Applet 1

Shared Applet 2

Shared

Java/C++/..

Application

Socket Connections

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T

ANGO

Architecture: Components

Central Server

is the main communication element.

Local daemons

communicate with the

central server

Server maintains the

system state data

Server

routes messages

between applications participating in each session

All

application protocols

are

opaque

to the server

Currently, T

ANGO

users are restricted to only one collaboratory server at

any given time

Server switch somewhat clumsy

T

ANGO

server is

extremely stable

and

maintenance-free

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T

ANGO

Architecture: Components

Java applets

User applications written in Java,

downloaded

from an HTTP

server, and executed in browser environment

Communication between Java applets and central server is also

maintained by the local daemons. Java applets communicate with local

daemon by calling its method functions

Local Applications:

User applications which run as standalone programs are called

local applications

. Local application may be written in

any

programming language

Communicate with the local daemon using sockets. The daemon is

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Implementation Details

Daemon

provides a mechanism for

TANGO components such as Java

applets, central server, JavaScript

scripts etc. to talk to each other.

TANGO

daemon

has been

implemented as a plug-in.

Using

LiveConnect

mechanisms,

each applet residing in the same

page with the plug-in may obtain

its handle.

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T

ANGO

Architecture: Components

Session Manager

provides TANGO GUI

Provides uniform application session and floor control for all TANGO

applications

Launches

applications locally or remotely,

creates and connects

to

existing sessions,

exits

applications,

logs

into the system, etc.

Routes

messages between applications on the same node

Monitors

integrity of the distributed system

User interface to the control application

auto-adjusts

to the operating

system

SM communicates with the system via LD

The communication between

control application

and

local daemon

is

different

than in the case of standard Java applets since control

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Events (Messages) and Data

Since T

ANGO uses

central server

architecture, there are system

scalability concerns.

System makes careful distinction between

event and data distribution

pathways

events are always distributed

via collaboratory server

data may be distributed via collaboratory server for thin data streams

voluminous data are either distributed

directly between application

instances

or delivered

from HTTP or other servers

peer-to-peer application data exchange may use

multicast

if necessary

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T

ANGO

Architecture: Media Streams

For scaleability reasons, the

real time multimedia streams

are not sent via central

server.

Instead, we use a distributed

architecture

The architecture supports

multicast.

Session control remains with

the TANGO session

manager.

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Application Protocols

A blueprint for a truly successful collaboratory system

does not exist. Hence:

Need an

extensible system

with very few limitations.

System

must not

define application specific protocols,

application programming language, or limit in whatever

way functionality of collaboratory applications

The essence of each collaboratory function

must be defined

by application

and by application only

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Session Management

A

session

is a group of application instances currently working

together in the collaborative mode.

All (and only) applications belonging to the same session

exchange information and may share behavior.

How particular application operates in collaborative mode

depends on this application characteristics.

In all sessions there is one

master user

.

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Session Management

Master status is

dynamically transferable.

Floor control allows for

both master-master and master-slave relationship

Interpretation of this (e.g. ignore it) left to application-- Tango

“just” sets a flag

TANGO

does not restrict

the number of concurrent sessions. There

may be multiple independent sessions of applications of the same

type.

Messages from one application compatible with application of

another type

will be distributed transparently.

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Session Management Functions

Currently supported operations:

Local open

Remote open

(opens an instance on remote machine)

Global and limited remote open (open an instance on a group of

machines)

Session join

Local close/leave

Remote close

, including global remote close

Acquire and grant session master status

SM implements “intelligent interface”

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Application Developers View

For each supported mode

C++

Java Applet or Application

JavaScript

You can communicate between linked clients to preserve

state

“master” sends state changes to nonmasters

You can find out list of participants

Who is master

etc.

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What About Tango 2

Significant but evolutionary improvement to Tango 1.4

Too a lot longer than expected and still in beta stage

production use is Tango 1.4

Capability

TI 1.4

TI 2.0

Core tools (BV, SB, WBD, Chat, etc.)

+

+

Shared dynamic HTML support

+

+

Shared Document Object Model

+ +

Shared Java applets

+

+

Shared Java in pages

-

+

Shared JavaBeans

-

+

SWING-based interface

-

+

User authentication

-

+

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Tango 1.4 Compared to Tango 2

Capability

TI 1.4

TI 2.0

Server licensing

-

+

File repositories

-

T2.1

Fully-integrated e-mail support

-

+

Listserv Support

- T2.1

“Awareness” service (like AIM)

-

+

Site-configurable/customizable interface

+

+

Internet Explorer support

-

T2.1

“Out-of-browser” implementation

- T2.1

Shared visualization

-

T2.1

Shared compute engine

+

+

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Applications of

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Applications of Web-based Collaboration

Multi Player Games: Use Chat Rooms and digital VTC to establish context

Share Java, JavaScript, VRML etc. games

Tango has Card Games, Othello, Chess, Snakes and Ladders

Crisis Management: Again use general tools (including whiteboard) and add shared maps and multimedia situation reports

Command and Control: Military, Test and Evaluation -- any real time control of complex system

support distributed experts who can be on call remotely and shared object is visualization of test results

Collaborative Computing and Engineering: Here specialized shared objects are CAD, simulation and planning tools

UpScale Web Commerce Sites with people available to help shoppers and lecture on demand

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Electronic Communities

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Crisis Management

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Play Games

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Prepare

Data

disloc proxy

Post Process

Generate disloc input

disloc proxy disloc2simplex proxy simplex proxy compare

disloc

code written in C

disloc2simplex

script written in perl

simplex

code written in C

Front End:

Java Applet.

CORBA client

Middle Tier:

distributed objects

implemented in Java.

CORBA servers

Back End:

computing

resources

Iterate

Collaborative Earthquake Portal

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Real Time Synchronous

Collaborative Visualization with SV2

SV2-Server :

Receiving and multi-casting the data, it contains two

computation engines: geometry and filter engines.Simulator

provides real time data to SV2-server.

SV2-Client :

It consists two parts, a client Manager and a Data

Viewer. Data Viewer is implemented using JDK1.2 and Java3D API

Large Data sets

and

Control messages

are

separated

(through SV2

Server and Tango respectively)

Substantial computing

is needed on SV2-Server . This computing

time is critical to the

response time of the whole system

. Critical

Server portions written in C++. Rest of System Java

Usually

simulator

is written in

Fortran/C/C++

instead of Java.In

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Data Viewer 1

Data Viewer 2

Client

Manager

Data Viewer 1

Data Viewer 2

Client

Manager

Tango

SV2 Server

Simulator

Control message Data

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Basic Strategy for

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Learning and Teaching the Curricula I

So the students need to learn the material and they may need some sort of help

from a teacher or mentor

In

self paced

or

asynchronous

learning, student studies material in his or her

own time and essence of this is a web site which may of course be generated from

a back-end web-linked database

optimal for

highly motivated

mature students such as those in continuing

education

electronic version of using a library

In

synchronous learning

, teacher selects material from website and delivers it in

electronic virtual class rooms

Homework

is set from same website which remains a base asynchronous

resource

Natural when teachers insight delivers

motivation and clarification of key

material to student

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Learning and Teaching the Curricula II

In collaborative learning, teachers, assistants, students and the web resource interact in an electronic collaboration system

Seems particularly valuable in K-12 arena

Also natural model for collaborative research

Note systems like Lotus Notes are “just web-linked object brokers” from this point of view (and again should be avoided as not built around modern object models)

All approaches use basic asynchronous tools such as electronic mail, bulletin boards and searchable repositories

Can record synchronous sessions for later asynchronous replay

One need not chose any one approach as can support all of them with a

(preferably database back ended) web site linked to a suite of collaboration tools

Note just as we can link asynchronous--synchronous--collaborative, we can also link education and training

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What does Tango Interactive Provide?

Overall Management

of a lecture viewed as part of a learning

environment built around a Web Resource

Audio/Video Conferencing

Chat Rooms

and

electronic mail

for synchronous and

asynchronous messages

Shared Web Pages

which can come from a database

Whiteboard

for communicating visual material

Shared Java applets

which can be embedded in web pages to

allow interactive lesson components

API

to interface specialized resources -- Planning Tools, GIS

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So what do you do I?

Author Curriculum using NO specialized systems or systems like

WebCT

that

produce HTML or preferably XML

Use pure

(D)HTML

,

PowerPoint

with

Java

applets for necessary

interactive components

Or put in

database

, (

XML

) file and map into above

For

Java

, interface to

Tango API

for sharing or automate with

TangoBean

A Single Scrolled HTML Page is all you need

Internet Export of PowerPoint is all you need …..

Add pointers and other such “WebWisdom” helpful DHTML capabilities (we

can provide a filter)

HTML Pages can be screenfuls (best?) or

scrolled

(59)

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So what do you do II?

Give your students

URL of system

If desired use

registration database

Set up necessary

infrastructure

with collection of individual machines and/or

class rooms

(PC’s are best)

teacher should/could have

multiple machines

to provide less cluttered display

In a class room, establish

proxy server

and central machine for audio/video

conferencing

Note Tango is useful just in a

classroom

as each student gets a better quality

display than many central displays

Test system for

Correct installation of

multimedia

Quality

of

Service

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Design and Architecture of Curricula Material

So the

architecture

is that of a set of web accessible

distributed

objects

which are designed to be as

modular

as possible

Natural size of basic “educational object” is about a

screenfull

Initial design will be traditional -- include

Bunch of “

foils

” (electronic

presentation

)

Bunch of

HTML

pages (electronic

book

)

Bunch of

multimedia dazzle

(today’s

educational

CDROM’s

)

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4 Approaches to Authoring of Back End Resource I

In order of

increasing sophistication; cost; preparation time

and

presumably also in

increasing learning value

Note “Low-end”

can be best solution in a case where curricula material

is changing rapidly

Note Open University in England (best known distance education organization

uses high-end asynchronous material and for this reason cannot quickly switch to Java for introductory CS course)

"Low-end"

typified by simple HTML and

PowerPoint

. Of course hand

written notes and postscript are even less sophisticated but these are

getting less important.

"Enhanced Low-end"

typified by audio or video over web pages. Not

clear how editing is possible/desirable

This can be viewed as a pragmatic way of capturing details from the

busy lecturer who does not have the time to carefully prepare a more

sophisticated resource.

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4 Approaches to Authoring of Back End Resource II

"

Medium End"

such as

WebCT

,

Campus

product from

Blackboard

LLC

(mainly administrative, modest authoring), or

Cornell Virtual Workshop

where one provides knowledge at different levels of detail, glossaries,

quizzes and dynamic instructional nuggets.

”Traditional High End"

such as the classic

Multimedia CDROM

( or its

web equivalent) prepared by sophisticated authoring tools such as

Macromedia Director

and with possibly professionally produced videos.

These will move towards Web Standards using

Web Video,

Java

plus

Dynamic HTML

and W3C based

XML

and

DOM

specification

Note clear to me if authoring of

educational material

will differ from that

of “

ordinary documents

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What’s wrong with Java Clients?

There is no argument about Java the

programming language

-- there are

some issues about Java the

user interface

builder

First there are the battles between Sun Netscape and Microsoft which

makes

Java on the client less robust

than Java on the server

However Java allows to build

totally general users interfaces

and there

appear to be no rules and nothing equivalent to style sheets in

HTML/XML.

Thus it does

not seem practical

to build

cross disability and cross

rendering device interfaces

for arbitrary

Java applet

interfaces

On the other

JavaScript

and

dynamic HTML

can do many things that you

might have thought one needed Java for

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What Else do you

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The Virtual University I

Motivated either by

decreased cost

or

increased quality

of

learning environment

Will succeed due to

market pressures

(it will offer the best

product)

Is

technologically possible today

and can only get better

Main problem is pervasive

Quality of Service

for

digital audio and video

In

structured settings

like briefings, lectures etc., support is

easier as at fixed times and digital video of secondary

importance

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The Virtual University II

“Centers of Excellence” (“

Hermits Cave Virtual University

”) is

natural entity to produce and deliver classes

Today

1 faculty delivers 2 courses a semester

-- each to say 25

students

Instead

3 faculty collaborate on 1 course

and deliver to some 200

students -- perhaps in multiple sessions (200 students required to

fund quality curricula and 200 students requires distance

education except in a few classes)

University acts as an

integrator

putting together a set of classes

where it may only teach some 20% but acts as a mentor to all

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Managing the Curricula I

So as we have

stored

all our material in a

database

, managing it is

equivalent to building an

administrative support system

for the

database

Administrative system is built in usual way as “

business logic

Javabean middleware

” running on a server and accessed from

some web client

Web export from database should support Educom’s

IMS

standard

for

metadata

to allow convenient webwide searches of repositories

One needs

special modules

that accommodate

PAPI

or Personal and Performance Information

Submission of

homework

of diverse nature

Laboratories including both

programming

and

science labs

Producing

composite lectures

from collections of base

educational objects (

re-use

)

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Managing the Curricula II

One needs database technology for

Storing

raw curricula material

with facilities to re-use, edit,

produce summaries, re-order etc.

WebWisdomDB

Archiving

multimedia learning sessions

LecCorder

Managing the students PAPI: grades, homework and personal

data --

NPAC Grading Database

As discussed under Portals,

Blackboard

is a strong commercial

system

One needs

web-linked seamless computing

to support

programming assignments

Using older NPAC

VPL

written in JavaScript to allow web

access to computer cluster for HPF and MPI (DoD

Gateway

activity

should produce better technology)

(69)

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LecCorder Lecture Recorder

Database must archive lessons with LINKED curricula material and multimedia delivery

LecCorder is integrated hardware & software system and will record live trainings or digitize taped events &

publish on web quickly and easily as “foils over audio/video”

Minimal human intervention

Java viewer

Good start but Incomplete -- need

video server back-end for random access & search capabilities

Converter for Real Audio/Video format

Integration with WebWisdomDB courseware database system

Support for Pointer events

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Current NPAC Grading Database

used to register Syracuse

and Online Courses

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Tango Status / Futures ?

Tango 2

is about as good as you can do with current browsers

When

W3C DOM

fully supported and

XML

is well established, we

can evolve Tango and

Shared Browser

to provide richer interactive

shared Web Pages

Universal Access

for different devices (Fully capable and impaired

users) from

PalmTops

to PC’s

Greater use of

XML Web components

to customize sharing of Web

Page components and specify dynamically and flexibly sharing policy

Integration of asynchronous and Synchronous messaging Services

(Tango drivers Pager)

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New Enterprise Models for Universities?

Distance Education is technically sound

-- both synchronously and

asynchronously -- today with very robust clear implementations available

over next 2 years

Separate teaching mentoring

and

dormitory

role of University

Teaching

and

grading

naturally performed by centers of excellence which

need at least an

order of magnitude more customers

than a single faculty in

order to be able to justify investment in course preparation and maintenance

Continuing Education

of growing importance and natural area to attack

first --

corporate training

is serious competition here and commercial

deliverers have advantage?

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Where are we in Distance Education?

We are meant to be short of employees trained in many important areas -- in particular computer science

Syracuse has a few good course but Courses are incomplete and hard to keep up to date…..

Nationally there is a complete set of excellent courses but most universities cannot offer quality complete program

Technology for distance education is proven in concept and improving in robustness and functionality

Networks are increasing in bandwidth …

This will lead to much better learning environments and total happiness for students ……..

There is one minor problem!

Existing University Infrastructure and K-12 Establishments will oppose

this

They will accept my courses if given as Syracuse University but not if done through

Figure

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References

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