Psychodynamic Workbook

33 

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

Loading....

Full text

(1)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

1

Psychodynamic Workbook

Name:

Group:

(2)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

2

Contents

Specification ... 3

Psychodynamic Approach ... 5

Content – Personality... 8

Content – Psychosexual development ... 10

Content – Gender Development ... 11

Studies in detail – Freud (1909) ... 13

Studies in detail: Other study (choice) ... 15

Key issue ... 17

Methodology ... 18

Methodology – Case Studies... 22

Methodology – Correlational design ... 25

Evidence of Practice: short analysis task ... 28

(3)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

3

Specification

1 – Definition of the approach 1a:

Define the psychodynamic approach showing understanding that it is about the influence of unconscious processes on behaviour, and the importance of early childhood.

1b:

Define and use psychological terminology accurately and appropriately including: i id, ego, superego, ii stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital),

iii repression, iv Oedipus complex, v defence mechanisms, vi conscious, preconscious, unconscious.

2 – Methodology/How Science Works 2a:

Describe and evaluate the case study as a research method used in psychology and as used in the psychodynamic approach.

2b:

Describe, assess and apply issues of reliability, validity, subjectivity, objectivity and generalisability in the analysis of qualitative data.

2c:

Evaluate Freud’s theory in terms of credibility (eg Masson, 1989). 2d:

Describe, assess and apply the terms ‘cross-sectional’ and ‘longitudinal’ as applied to research methods.

2e:

Describe, assess and apply issues of ethics and issues of credibility with regard to using personal data from methods such as case studies (eg should such data be in the public domain?).

2f:

Describe and evaluate the correlational method/design. 2g:

Identify, describe and apply a positive and a negative correlation, and a strength (eg +0.87) of correlation.

2h:

Identify, describe and apply different sampling techniques including random sampling, stratified sampling, volunteer and self-selected sampling, and opportunity sampling, including advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

3 - Content 3a:

Describe and evaluate Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, including the five stages of development, the Oedipus complex, and the parts of personality associated with the first three stages, and including focusing on the explanation of gender development/behaviour. 3b:

Describe defence mechanisms including repression, and one other. Suitable examples: displacement, denial, projection and regression.

3c:

Evaluate Freud’s theory as an explanation of gender development/behaviour, including comparison with explanations from the Biological and Learning Approaches.

(4)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

4

4a:

Describe and evaluate two studies in detail relating to Freud’s theory. One study must be Freud’s study of Little Hans (1909) and one other study. This must be selected from the following:

 Axline V (1964/1990) Dibs: Personality Development in Play Therapy

 Bachrach et al (1991) Effectiveness of psychoanalytic therapies

 Cramer P (1997) Identity, personality and defence mechanisms

5 – Key issue 5a:

Describe one key issue of relevance to today’s society and apply concepts, theories, and/or research (as appropriate) from the Psychodynamic Approach to explain the issue.

Suitable examples:

 effectiveness of psychoanalysis in treating abnormal and normal clients

 debate concerning the issue of false memory and repression

 debate concerning relationship of early childhood experience to later sexual orientation

 debate about whether dreams have meaning.

Note: in the examination paper, students may be given stimulus material from a key issue to

explain using concepts, theories and/or research (as appropriate) from the Psychodynamic Approach.

6 - Evidence of practice: short analysis task 6a:

Devise and conduct one practical, which must be use a correlational design, using two rating scales and self-report data. Class data collection is acceptable.

Suitable examples:

 collection of self-reports of own tidiness and own parent strictness

 self-reports using other sets of data such as obstinacy, orderliness and parsimony. 6b:

Draw a scattergram of the results. 6c:

Carry out a Spearman’s test on the data and interpret the finding (eg +0.87 is a strong correlation).

Note: with regard to inferential tests, no calculations will have to be carried out in the

examinations and formulae do not have to be learnt. 6d:

Write a short report of the procedure, sample, apparatus and results. 6e:

Assess the correlation as a research tool in terms of advantages and limitations.

Note: students must be prepared to answer examination questions focused on practical

work, which will include questions about the practical exercises themselves and questions about the general methodological issues that are specified for this particular unit. This will include the following requirement.

a Identify, describe and apply: i self-report, ii scattergram, iii correlation, iv positive and negative correlation , v procedure, vi rating scales, vii Spearman’s test, viii cross-sectional and longitudinal.

(5)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

5

Psychodynamic Approach

What is the Psychodynamic approach?

What are the assumptions of the psychodynamic approach?

History of the psychodynamic approach:

(6)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

6

Glossary of terms

Id

Ego

Superego

Oral stage

Anal stage

Phallic stage

Latency stage

Genital stage

Repression

Oedipus complex

Defence mechanisms

Conscious

Preconscious

Unconscious

Complete the table with the definitions of the words listed and add any other words as you learn

more about the psychodynamic approach.

(7)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

7

Sigmund Freud

Who was Sigmund Freud?

(8)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

8

Content – Personality

Id:

Superego:

Ego:

Conscious:

Preconscious:

Unconscious:

(9)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

9

Personality – Defence Mechanisms

What are defence mechanisms?

Why do we have them?

Repression

Example:

Displacement

Example:

Denial

Example:

Projection

Example:

Regression

Example:

Evaluation of Freud’s theory of personality

(10)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

10

Content – Psychosexual development

What is Freud’s theory of psychosexual development?

Stages

Description

Personality

Oral

Anal

Phallic

Latency

Genital

Evaluation of Freud’s theory of psychosexual develeopment

(11)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

11

Content – Gender Development

Psychodynamic approach as an explanation for gender

development

The story of Oedipus

Oedipus Complex

(12)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

12

Evaluation of the psychodynamic approach as an explanation for

gender development

Strengths

Weaknesses

(13)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

13

Studies in detail – Freud (1909)

Case study of Little Hans

Aim

Procedure

Findings

(14)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

14

Evaluation of Freud (1909)

GRAVE

Generalisability

Reliability

Application

Validity

Ethics

(15)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

15

Studies in detail: Other study (choice)

Name:

Aim

Procedure

Findings

(16)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

16

Evaluation of other study (choice). Name:

GRAVE

Generalisability

Reliability

Application

Validity

Ethics

(17)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

17

Key issue

Suitable examples from the spec: effectiveness of psychoanalysis in treating abnormal and normal clients, debate concerning the issue of false memory and repression, debate concerning relationship of early childhood experience to later sexual orientation, debate about whether dreams have meaning.

Describing the issue…

One key issue from the psychodynamic approach is ...

What exactly is this issue all about?

Who does this issue impact upon? Where this is issue most relevant?

(18)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

18

Methodology

Longitudinal study

What is a longitudinal study?

Example:

Evaluation of longitudinal studies

(19)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

19

Cross-sectional study

What is a cross-sectional study?

Example:

Evaluation of cross-sectional studies

(20)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

20

How science works

Inferential statistics

Levels of measurement

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

Statistical significance

(21)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

21

Types of inferential statistics

Chi-squared

When?

Spearman

When?

Mann-Whitney U

When?

Critical value table

Definition

Critical value

Observed value

(22)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

22

Methodology – Case Studies

What is a case study?

Qualitative data

Analysis of qualitative data

Evaluation of case studies

(23)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

23

Freud’s use of case studies

Dream analysis

What is the difference between the manifest content and the latent content?

Free association

(24)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

24

Evaluation of Freud’s case studies

Strengths

Weaknesses

(25)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

25

Methodology – Correlational design

What is a correlational design?

Positive correlation

+ve

Example:

Negative correlation

-ve

Example:

(26)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

26

Evaluation of correlational design

Strengths

(27)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

27

Spearman’s Rank

What is the equation used in the spearman’s rank statistical test?

What level(s) of data can be used in this test?

(28)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

28

Evidence of Practice: short analysis task

You must complete a correlation. You must collect your data through the use of self reports, using

rating scales.

Introduction: Title and background research:

Research aim:

Variables: 1 – 2 –

Alternative hypothesis (one or two-tailed):

Null hypothesis:

Sample (including target population & sampling method with justification):

(29)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

29

Results of pilot study and solutions:

Controls:

Ethical considerations:

(30)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

30

Results:

Scatter graph:

Conclusion:

(31)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

31

Evaluation of analysis task. Title:

GRAVE

Generalisability

Reliability

Application

Validity

Ethics

(32)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

32

Past Paper Questions

1 Robyn has just studied Freud in her psychology class. She realises her friend Liz may

be stuck in one of Freud’s stages as Liz bites her nails, smokes and is cynical. Which

stage might Liz be fixated in?

A The oral stage.

B The anal stage.

C The phallic stage.

D The latency period stage.

2 Repression is a defence mechanism that

A directs hatred at someone else

B acts in a way to make a person look good

C motivates us to forget

D expresses the opposite of what we really feel

6 While at school Thomas noticed an increase in aggressive behaviour at break time

when more people were outside. This is an example of

A negative correlation

B no correlation

C positive correlation

12 Researchers carried out a correlational study to see if there was a relationship

between eating breakfast and students’ scores on a maths test. They carried out a

Spearman’s rho test on the data and found that the observed value of rho was +0.519,

N = 20.

Table to show the critical values for Spearman’s test.

p ≤ 0.05

p ≤ 0.025

N = 20

0.380

0.447

(The observed/calculated value of rho must be equal to or greater than the critical/table

value to be significant.)

(a) What is meant by the term p ≤ 0.05?(2)

(b) (i) State whether the researchers would reject their null hypothesis.(1)

(ii) Explain your answer to (b)(i).(2)

13 Oedipus was a man who had been raised by foster parents and did not know his real

(33)

King Edward VI Psychology Department

33

(a) Describe Freud’s theory of how boys develop through the Oedipus Complex. (4)

(b) Evaluate Freud’s theory of psychosexual development. (5)

You may find it helpful to include:

• application to real life

• comparison with other explanations

• methodology

• research evidence.

*17 For part of your course you will have carried out a practical in the Psychodynamic

Approach using a correlation.

When evaluating your practical you may look at:

• validity

• reliability

• credibility

• generalisability.

Describe the procedure of your practical, and evaluate your practical.

Title of your investigation (10)

Figure

Updating...

References

Updating...

Related subjects :