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Amazon Inspector

User Guide

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Amazon Inspector: User Guide

Copyright

©

2016 Amazon Web Services, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Amazon's trademarks and trade dress may not be used in connection with any product or service that is not Amazon's, in any manner that is likely to cause confusion among customers, or in any manner that disparages or discredits Amazon. All other trademarks not owned by Amazon are the property of their respective owners, who may or may not be affiliated with, connected to, or sponsored by Amazon.

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Table of Contents

What is Amazon Inspector? ... 1

Benefits of Amazon Inspector ... 1

Features of Amazon Inspector ... 2

Accessing Amazon Inspector ... 2

Amazon Inspector Terminology and Concepts ... 3

Setting up Amazon Inspector ... 5

Create Role ... 5

Tag EC2 instances ... 6

Install Amazon Inspector Agent ... 6

Amazon Inspector Quickstart Walkthrough ... 7

Set up Amazon Inspector ... 7

Prepare Your Application for the Amazon Inspector Assessment ... 8

Create and Run an Assessment ... 8

Locate and Analyze Generated Findings ... 9

Apply the Recommended Fix to Your Application ... 9

Amazon Inspector Agents ... 11

Operating Systems Supported by the Inspector Agent ... 11

Amazon Inspector Agent Limits ... 11

Adding, Removing, and Restarting the Amazon Inspector Agent on Amazon Linux or Ubuntu Server ... 12

Verifying the Amazon Inspector Agent for Amazon Linux or Ubuntu Server is Running ... 12

Amazon Inspector Agent Dependencies ... 12

Amazon Inspector Agent Connectivity Requirements ... 13

(Optional) Verify the Signature of the Amazon Inspector Agent Download ... 13

Overview ... 13

Install the GPG Tools ... 13

Authenticate and Import the Public Key ... 14

Verify the Signature of the Package ... 15

Amazon Inspector Applications ... 17

Tagging Resources to Create an Application ... 17

Amazon Inspector Application Limits ... 18

Creating an Application ... 18

Amazon Inspector Assessments ... 19

Amazon Inspector Assessment Limits ... 20

Create an Assessment via the Amazon Inspector Management Console ... 20

Amazon Inspector Findings ... 21

Locate, Analyze, and Assign Attributes to Generated Findings ... 21

Amazon Inspector Rules Packages and Rules ... 23

Severity Levels for Rules in Amazon Inspector ... 23

Rules Packages in Amazon Inspector ... 24

Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures ... 24

Network Security Best Practices ... 24

Use Secure Protocols ... 25

Enable Packet Signing on SMB Servers ... 25

PCI DSS Readiness Best Practices ... 26

PCI DSS Requirement 1: Install and maintain a firewall configuration to protect cardholder data ... 26

PCI DSS Requirement 2: Do not use vendor-supplied defaults for system passwords and other security parameters ... 27

PCI DSS Requirement 4: Encrypt transmission of cardholder data across open, public networks ... 29

PCI DSS Requirement 6: Develop and maintain secure systems and applications ... 30

PCI DSS Requirement 7: Restrict access to cardholder data by business' "need to know" ... 30

PCI DSS Requirement 8: Identify and authenticate access to system components ... 31

Authentication Best Practices ... 33

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Disable root log in over SSH ... 33

Support SSH Version 2 Only ... 33

Disable Password Authentication Over SSH ... 34

Configure Password Maximum Age ... 34

Configure Password Minimum Length ... 34

Configure Password Complexity ... 35

Operating System Security Best Practices ... 35

DEP Enabled ... 35

Address Space Layout Randomization Enabled ... 36

System Directories Writable for Root Users Only ... 36

Secure Access to High Privilege Processes ... 36

Application Security Best Practices ... 37

Stack Cookies Enabled ... 37

Data Execution Prevention Enabled ... 37

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What is Amazon Inspector?

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

Important

AWS does not guarantee that following the provided recommendations will resolve every potential security issue. The findings generated by the Amazon Inspector depend on your choice of rule packages included in each assessment, the presence of non-AWS components in your system, and other factors. You are responsible for the security of applications, processes, and tools that run on AWS services. For more information, see the AWS Shared Responsibility Model for security.

Amazon Inspector enables you to analyze the behavior of the applications you run in AWS and helps you to identify potential security issues. Using Amazon Inspector, you can define a collection of AWS resources that comprises your application.You can then create and launch a security assessment of this application. During the security assessment, the network, file system, and process activity within the specified application are monitored, and a wide set of activity and configuration data is collected. This data includes details of communication with AWS services, use of secure channels, details of the running processes, network traffic among the running processes, and more. The collected data is correlated, analyzed, and compared to a set of selected security rules. A completed assessment produces a list of findings -potential security problems of various severity.

For more information, see Amazon Inspector Terminology and Concepts (p. 3)

Benefits of Amazon Inspector

• Amazon Inspector enables you to quickly and easily assess the security of your AWS resources for forensics, troubleshooting or active auditing purposes at your own pace, either as you progress through the development of your infrastructures or on a regular basis in a stable production environment. • Amazon Inspector enables you to focus on the more complex security problems by offloading the overall

security assessment of your infrastructure to this automated service.

• By using Amazon Inspector, you can gain deeper understanding of your AWS resources since Amazon Inspector findings are produced through the analysis of the real activity and configuration data of your AWS resources.

Amazon Inspector User Guide Benefits of Amazon Inspector

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Features of Amazon Inspector

• Configuration Scanning and Activity Monitoring Engine - Amazon Inspector provides an engine that analyzes system and application configuration and monitors activity to determine what an application looks like, how it behaves, and its dependent components. The combination of this telemetry provides a complete picture of the application and its potential security or compliance issues.

• Built-in Content Library - Amazon Inspector incorporates a built-in library of rules and reports. These include checks against best practices, common compliance standards (e.g. PCI, ISO27001) and vulnerabilities. These checks include detailed recommended steps for resolving potential security issues.

• Automatable via API - Amazon Inspector is fully automatable via APIs. This allows organizations to incorporate security testing into the development and design process, including selecting, executing and reporting the results of those tests.

Accessing Amazon Inspector

You can work with the Amazon Inspector service in any of the following ways.

Amazon Inspector Management Console

Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon Inspector console at https:// console.aws.amazon.com/inspector/.

The console is a browser-based interface to access and use the Amazon Inspector service.

AWS SDKs

AWS provides SDKs (software development kits) that consist of libraries and sample code for various programming languages and platforms (Java, Python, Ruby, .NET, iOS, Android, etc.). The SDKs provide a convenient way to create programmatic access to the Amazon Inspector service. For information about the AWS SDKs, including how to download and install them, see the Tools for Amazon Web Services page.

Amazon Inspector HTTPS API

You can access Amazon Inspector and AWS programmatically by using the Amazon Inspector HTTPS API, which lets you issue HTTPS requests directly to the service. For more information, see Amazon Inspector API Reference.

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Amazon Inspector Terminology and

Concepts

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

As you get started with Amazon Inspector, you can benefit from learning about its key concepts.

Agent

This is a software agent that must be installed on all Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud instances (EC2 instances) that comprise the application the security of which you want to access. The agent monitors the behavior of the EC2 instance on which it is installed, including network, file system, and process activity, and collects a wide set of behavior and configuration data (telemetry) which it then passes to the Amazon Inspector service. For more information, see Amazon Inspector Agents (p. 11)

Application

In the context of Amazon Inspector, an application represents a collection of AWS resources that help you accomplish your business goal(s).

Note

In this release of Amazon Inspector, applications can only consist of EC2 instances hosted in AWS in the US West (Oregon) region.

To create an application for Amazon Inspector to assess, you must first tag your EC2 instances with key and value pairs of your choice and then create a view of these tagged EC2 instances that have common tag keys or common values in those tag keys. For more information, see Amazon Inspector Applications (p. 17)

Assessment

An assessment is the process of discovering potential security issues through the analysis of your application’s behavior against selected rule packages. During the assessment, behavioral data (telemetry) within the specified application, such as the use of secure channels, network traffic among running processes, details of communication with AWS services, etc., is monitored, collected, and then analyzed and compared against a set of selected security rule packages. A completed assessment produces a list of findings - potential security issues of various severity. For more information, see Amazon Inspector Assessments (p. 19)

Finding

This is a potential security issue discovered during the Amazon Inspector's assessment of the specified application. Findings are displayed in the Inspector console or via the API, and contain both a detailed description of the security issue, and a recommendation on how to remediate it. For more information, see Amazon Inspector Findings (p. 21)

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Rule

In the context of Amazon Inspector, a rule is a security check that is performed during an assessment. When a rule detects a potential security issue, the Amazon Inspector service generates a finding that describes a potential security issue.

Rules package

In Amazon Inspector, rules are grouped together into rules packages. A rules package corresponds to a security goal that you might have. You can specify your security goal(s) by selecting the appropriate rules package(s) when creating an Amazon Inspector assessment. For more information, see Amazon Inspector Rules Packages and Rules (p. 23)

Telemetry

This is behavioral data such as records of network connections and process creations, collected by the Amazon Inspector agent on your EC2 instances during an assessment and passed to the Amazon Inspector service for analysis.

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Setting up Amazon Inspector

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

When you sign up for Amazon Web Services (AWS), your AWS account is automatically signed up for all services in AWS, including Amazon Inspector. If you don't have an AWS account, use the following procedure to create one.

To sign up for AWS

1. Open http://aws.amazon.com/, and then choose Create an AWS Account. 2. Follow the online instructions.

Part of the sign-up procedure involves receiving a phone call and entering a PIN using the phone keypad.

When you launch the Amazon Inspector Management Console for the first time, click Get Started and complete the following prerequisite tasks. You must complete these tasks before you can create and run an Amazon Inspector assessment:

• Create a role to allow Amazon Inspector to access your AWS account (p. 5) • Tag all EC2 instances that comprise your application (p. 6)

• Install the Amazon Inspector agent on all EC2 instances that comprise your application (p. 6)

Create Role

In order for Amazon Inspector to access the EC2 instances in your AWS account and collect the behavior data during the assessment, you must create an Identity Access Management (IAM) role. To create an IAM role, do the following:

On the Step 1: Prerequisites page, click Select/Create a Role.

This launches the IAM Management Console where you see the following message: "Amazon Inspector is requesting permissions to use resources in your account. Click Allow to give Amazon Inspector read-only access to resources in your account."

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Click Allow. You are redirected back to the Amazon Inspector Management Console where you can complete the rest of the Getting Started wizard.

Tag EC2 instances

You can use Amazon Inspector to evaluate whether you AWS applications have potential security issues. Amazon Inspector finds the EC2 instances that comprise your application by looking for the specified tags applied to these EC2 instances. Therefore, before you can specify an application for Amazon Inspector to assess, you must apply tags to all EC2 instances that comprise your application. For more information about tagging, see Working with Tag Editor and Tagging Your Amazon EC2 Resources.

Important

In this release of Amazon Inspector, applications can only consist of EC2 instances hosted in AWS in the US West (Oregon) region, running Amazon Linux AMI 2015.03 (or later) or Ubuntu Server 14.04 LTS.

In this release of Amazon Inspector, your applications cannot include EC2 instances running Microsoft Windows operating systems.

For detailed information about tagging EC2 instances to be included in Amazon Inspector applications, see Amazon Inspector Applications (p. 17)

Install Amazon Inspector Agent

An Amazon Inspector agent must be installed on all EC2 instances that comprise the application the security of which you want to access. The agent monitors the behavior of the EC2 instances on which it is installed, including network, file system, and process activity, and collects a wide set of behavior and configuration data (telemetry) which it then passes to the Amazon Inspector service.

To install the Amazon Inspector agent, complete the following steps on each EC2 instance that is included in your application:

• Connect to your EC2 instance (for more information, see Connect to Your Instance) and then complete the following steps:

a. To download the agent installation script, run either of the following commands:

• wget https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/inspector.agent.us-west-2/latest/install • curl -O https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/inspector.agent.us-west-2/latest/install

b. To install the agent, run sudo bash install

For detailed information about installing and configuring Amazon Inspector agents, see Amazon Inspector Agents (p. 11)

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Amazon Inspector Quickstart

Walkthrough

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

Before following the instructions in this walkthrough, it is recommended that you get familiar with the Amazon Inspector Terminology and Concepts (p. 3).

By completing the steps in this walkthrough, you will accomplish the following:

• Set up Amazon Inspector (p. 7). This is the first-run experience, including completing all the pre-requisite tasks via the Amazon Inspector Management Console.

• Prepare Your Application for the Amazon Inspector Assessment (p. 8) • Create and Run an Assessment (p. 8)

• Locate and Analyze Generated Findings (p. 9) • Apply the Recommended Fix to Your Application (p. 9)

Set up Amazon Inspector

1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon Inspector console at https:// console.aws.amazon.com/inspector/.

2. Click Get Started to launch the Get Started wizard, and on the Step 1: Prerequisites page, do the following:

a. Create a role to allow Inspector to access your AWS account. For detailed information, see Create Role (p. 5).

b. Tag the EC2 instances that you want to include in your Amazon Inspector application.

For this walkthrough, create one EC2 instance running Ubuntu Server 14.04 LTS and tag it using the Name key and a value of InspectorEC2Instance.

Note

You can add tags to EC2 instances when you create them or add, change, or remove those tags one EC2 instances at a time within each EC2 instance's console. To add tags to multiple EC2 instances at once, you can to use Tag Editor. For more information,

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see Tag Editor. For more information about tagging EC2 instances, see Resources and Tags.

c. Install the Amazon Inspector agent on your tagged EC2 instance. For detailed information, see Install Amazon Inspector Agent (p. 6)

Prepare Your Application for the Amazon

Inspector Assessment

For this walkthrough, you can modify your application to make it exposed for a potential security issue CVE-2014-1424. For more information, see

https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2014-1424. Also, for more information, see Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (p. 24).

Connect to your instance InspectorEC2Instance that you created in the previous section, and run the following command:sudo apt-get install apparmor=2.8.95~2430-0ubuntu5

Create and Run an Assessment

1. On the Step 2: Define an application page, do the following: a. In Application name, type in the name for your application.

For this walkthrough, type in MyApplication.

b. Use the Tags' Key and Value fields to type in the tag key name and key value pairs in order to select the EC2 instances that you want to include in this application.

For this walkthrough, to use the EC2 instance that you created in the previous step, type in Name

in the Key field and InspectorEC2Instance in the Value field, and then click Next.

2. On the Step 3: Define assessment page, do the following:

a. In Assessment name, type in the name for your assessment. For this walkthrough, type in

MyFirstAssessment.

b. In Rule packages, use the pull-down menu to select the rule packages that you want to use in this assessment.

For this walkthrough, select Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures. c. In Duration, specify the duration of your assessment.

For this walkthrough, select 1 hour. d. Click Next.

3. On the Step 4: Review page, review your selections, and then click Create and run.

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Prepare Your Application for the Amazon Inspector Assessment

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Locate and Analyze Generated Findings

A completed assessment produces a set of findings, or potential security issues that were discovered by Amazon Inspector in your application.You can review the discovered findings and follow the recommended steps to resolve the potential security issues.

In this walkthrough, if you complete the steps above, your assessment produces a finding against a common vulnerability CVE-2014-1424.

1. First, navigate to the Assessments page in the Amazon Inspector Management Console and verify that the status of MyFirstAssessment that you created in the previous step is set to Collecting_Data. This indicates that the assessment is currently running and the telemetry data for your application is being collected and analyzed against the selected rules packages.

2. You cannot view the findings generated by the assessment while the assessment is still running. In a production environment, it is recommended to let the assessment run for its entire set duration. For this walkthrough though, you can stop MyFirstAssessment after several minutes. To stop the assessment, select it, and then click the Stop button.

Note that the status of MyAssessment is changed to Data_Collected.

3. In the Amazon Inspector Management Console, navigate to the Findings page.

You can see a new finding of High severity that reads "Instance InspectorEC2Instance is vulnerable to CVE CVE-2014-1424".

Note

If you do not see a new finding, click the Refresh widget.

To expand the view and see the details of this finding, click the arrow to the left of the finding. The details of the finding include the following:

• The name of the application that includes the EC2 instance where this finding was registered • The name of the assessment that produced this finding

• The assessment start time • The assessment end time • The assessment status

• The name of the rules package that includes the rule that triggered this finding • The name of the finding

• The description of the finding

• The recommended remediation steps that you can complete to fix the potential security issue described by the finding

Apply the Recommended Fix to Your Application

For this walkthrough, you modified your application to expose it for a potential security issue CVE-2014-1424. In this procedure, you can apply the recommended fix for this issue.

1. Connect to your instance InspectorEC2Instance that you created in the previous section, and run the following command:sudo apt-get install apparmor=2.8.95~2430-0ubuntu5.1

2. Follow Step 3 from Create and Run an Assessment (p. 8) to create a new assessment. This time, you can name it MySecondAssessment.

Amazon Inspector User Guide Locate and Analyze Generated Findings

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3. Follow the steps in Locate and Analyze Generated Findings (p. 9) to see the findings resulting from

MySecondAssessment.

Since you resolved the found security issue, you can now see a finding that reads No potential

security issues found, informing you that Amazon Inspector found no potential security issues

during this assessment.

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Amazon Inspector Agents

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

To assess the security of the EC2 instances that make up your Amazon Inspector applications, you must install the Amazon Inspector agent on each instance. The main function of the agent is to monitor the behavior of the EC2 instance on which it is installed, including network, file system, and process activity, to collect behavior and configuration data (telemetry) and then pass it to the Amazon Inspector service. The instructions in this topic describe how to install, uninstall, and reinstall the agent and how to verify whether the installed agent is running.

Once the agent is installed and running on your EC2 instance you can modify the settings in the agent.cfg

file, located in the /opt/aws/inspector/etc directory to alter the agent's behavior. After you modify and

save the agent.cfg file, you must stop and start the agent in order for the changes to take effect.

Important

It is highly recommended that you only modify the agent.cfg file with the guidance of AWS Support.

Operating Systems Supported by the Inspector

Agent

In this release of Amazon Inspector, applications can only consist of EC2 instances hosted in AWS in the US West (Oregon) region, running Amazon Linux AMI 2015.03 (or later) or Ubuntu Server 14.04 LTS. In this release of Amazon Inspector, your applications cannot include EC2 instances running Microsoft Windows operating systems.

Amazon Inspector Agent Limits

You can run up to 500 concurrent agents per AWS account.

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Adding, Removing, and Restarting the Amazon

Inspector Agent on Amazon Linux or Ubuntu

Server

If you suspect the agent is missing or not working on an instance, sign in to the instance, and run the following commands:

• To install the agent, do the following:

1. To download the agent installation script, run either of the following commands:

• wget https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/inspector.agent.us-west-2/latest/install • curl -O https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/inspector.agent.us-west-2/latest/install 2. Optional: verify that the Amazon Inspector agent installation script is not altered or corrupted. For

more information about verifying the download before installing the agent, see (Optional) Verify the Signature of the Amazon Inspector Agent Download (p. 13)

3. To install the agent, run sudo bash install

Note

Optional: to remove the agent installation script, you can run rm install • To uninstall the agent, use the following commands:

• On Amazon Linux, run yum remove InspectorAgent • On Ubuntu Server, run apt-get remove inspectoragent • To stop the agent, run sudo /etc/init.d/inspector stop

To start the agent, run sudo /etc/init.d/inspector start

Verifying the Amazon Inspector Agent for

Amazon Linux or Ubuntu Server is Running

To verify whether the Amazon Inspector agent is installed and running, sign in to the EC2 instance, and run the following command:

sudo /opt/aws/inspector/bin/inspector status

This command returns the status of the currently running agent, or an error stating that the agent can not be contacted.

Amazon Inspector Agent Dependencies

Make sure that the following dependencies required for the agent to be successfully installed and functioning properly are installed:

• libgcc1

Amazon Inspector User Guide

Adding, Removing, and Restarting the Amazon Inspector Agent on Amazon Linux or Ubuntu Server

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Amazon Inspector Agent Connectivity

Requirements

Amazon Inspector agent communicates with the Amazon Inspector service using HTTPS over TCP. The agent uses an ephemeral local port to open a connection to the Amazon Inspector service endpoint on port 443. All connections are initiated by the agent.

For the Amazon Inspector Preview release, the agent resolves the DNS name

“arsenal.us-west-2.amazonaws.com” and connects to an IP address that is returned. This DNS name maps to the following IP addresses (note that these addresses are subject to change at any time): • 54.240.255.129

• 54.240.255.137 • 54.240.255.124

(Optional) Verify the Signature of the Amazon

Inspector Agent Download

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

Whenever you download an application from the Internet, we recommend that you authenticate the identity of the software publisher and check that the application is not altered or corrupted since it was published. This protects you from installing a version of the application that contains a virus or other malicious code. If after running the steps in this topic, you determine that the software for the Amazon Inspector agent is altered, do not run the installation file. Instead, contact Amazon Web Services.

Overview

The first step is to establish trust with the software publisher: Download the public key of the software publisher, check that the owner of the public key is who they claim to be, and then add the public key to your keyring. Your keyring is a collection of known public keys. After you establish the authenticity of the public key, you can use it to verify the signature of the application.

Amazon Inspector agent files are signed using GnuPG, an open source implementation of the Pretty Good Privacy (OpenPGP) standard for secure digital signatures. GnuPG provides authentication and integrity checking through a digital signature. Amazon EC2 publishes a public key and signatures that you can use to verify the downloaded Amazon EC2 CLI tools. For more information about PGP and GnuPG (GPG), see http://www.gnupg.org.

Install the GPG Tools

If your operating system is Linux or Unix, the GPG tools are likely already installed. To test whether the tools are installed on your system, type gpg at a command prompt. If the GPG tools are installed, you see a GPG command prompt. If the GPG tools are not installed, you see an error stating that the command cannot be found. You can install the GnuPG package from a repository.

To install GPG tools on Debian-based Linux

From a terminal, run the following command: apt-get install gnupg.

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To install GPG tools on Red Hat–based Linux

From a terminal, run the following command: yum install gnupg.

Authenticate and Import the Public Key

The next step in the process is to authenticate the Amazon Inspector public key and add it as a trusted key in your GPG keyring.

To authenticate and import the Amazon Inspector public key

1. First obtain a copy of our public GPG build key by doing one of the following:

• Download from https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/inspector.agent.us-west-1/latest/inspector.key. • Cut and the key directly from the following text and paste it into a file called inspector.key. Be

sure to include everything that follows:

---BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK---Version: GnuPG v2.0.18 (GNU/Linux)

mQINBFYDlfEBEADFpfNt/mdCtsmfDoga+PfHY9bdXAD68yhp2m9NyH3BOzle/MXI 8siNfoRgzDwuWnIaezHwwLWkDw2paRxp1NMQ9qRe8Phq0ewheLrQu95dwDgMcw90 gf9m1iKVHjdVQ9qNHlB2OFknPDxMDRHcrmlJYDKYCX3+MODEHnlK25tIH2KWezXP FPSU+TkwjLRzSMYH1L8IwjFUIIi78jQS9a31R/cOl4zuC5fOVghYlSomLI8irfoD JSa3csVRujSmOAf9o3beiMR/kNDMpgDOxgiQTu/Kh39cl6o8AKe+QKK48kqO7hra h1dpzLbfeZEVU6dWMZtlUksG/zKxuzD6d8vXYH7Z+x09POPFALQCQQMC3WisIKgj zJEFhXMCCQ3NLC3CeyMq3vP7MbVRBYE7t3d2uDREkZBgIf+mbUYfYPhrzy0qT9Tr PgwcnUvDZuazxuuPzucZGOJ5kbptat3DcUpstjdkMGAId3JawBbps77qRZdA+swr o9o3jbowgmf0y5ZS6KwvZnC6XyTAkXy2io7mSrAIRECrANrzYzfp5v7uD7w8Dk0X 1OrfOm1VufMzAyTu0YQGBWaQKzSB8tCkvFw54PrRuUTcV826XU7SIJNzmNQo58uL bKyLVBSCVabfs0lkECIesq8PT9xMYfQJ421uATHyYUnFTU2TYrCQEab7oQARAQAB tCdBbWF6b24gSW5zcGVjdG9yIDxpbnNwZWN0b3JAYW1hem9uLmNvbT6JAjgEEwEC ACIFAlYDlfECGwMGCwkIBwMCBhUIAgkKCwQWAgMBAh4BAheAAAoJECR0CWBYNgQY 8yUP/2GpIl40f3mKBUiSTe0XQLvwiBCHmY+V9fOuKqDTinxssjEMCnz0vsKeCZF/ L35pwNa/oW0OJa8D7sCkKG+8LuyMpcPDyqptLrYPprUWtz2+qLCHgpWsrku7ateF x4hWS0jUVeHPaBzI9V1NTHsCx9+nbpWQ5Fk+7VJI8hbMDY7NQx6fcse8WTlP/0r/ HIkKzzqQQaaOf5t9zc5DKwi+dFmJbRUyaq22xs8C81UODjHunhjHdZ21cnsgk91S fviuaum9aR4/uVIYOTVWnjC5J3+VlczyUt5FaYrrQ5ov0dM+biTUXwve3X8Q85Nu DPnO/+zxb7Jz3QCHXnuTbxZTjvvl60Oi8//uRTnPXjz4wZLwQfibgHmk1++hzND7 wOYA02Js6v5FZQlLQAod7q2wuA1pq4MroLXzziDfy/9ea8B+tzyxlmNVRpVZY4Ll DOHyqGQhpkyV3drjjNZlEofwbfu7m6ODwsgMl5ynzhKklJzwPJFfB3mMc7qLi+qX MJtEX8KJ/iVUQStHHAG7daL1bxpWSI3BRuaHsWbBGQ/mcHBgUUOQJyEp5LAdg9Fs VP55gWtF7pIqifiqlcfgG0Ov+A3NmVbmiGKSZvfrc5KsF/k43rCGqDx1RV6gZvyI LfO9+3sEIlNrsMib0KRLDeBt3EuDsaBZgOkqjDhgJUesqiCy =iEhB

---END PGP PUBLIC KEY

BLOCK---2. At a command prompt in the directory where you saved inspector.key, use the following comand to import the Amazon Inspector public key into your keyring:

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gpg: key 58360418: public key "Amazon Inspector <inspector@amazon.com>" im ported

gpg: Total number processed: 1

gpg: imported: 1 (RSA: 1)

Make a note of the key value; you need it in the next step. In the example above, the key value is

58360418.

3. Verify the fingerprint by running the following command, replacing key-value with the value from the previous step:

gpg --fingerprint key-value

This command returns results similar to the following:

pub 4096R/58360418 2015-09-24

Key fingerprint = DDA0 D4C5 10AE 3C20 6F46 6DC0 2474 0960 5836 0418

uid Amazon Inspector <inspector@amazon.com>

Additionally, the fingerprint string should be identical to DDA0 D4C5 10AE 3C20 6F46 6DC0 2474 0960 5836 0418 as shown above. Compare the key fingerprint returned to that published on this page. They should match. If they do not match, do not install the Amazon Inspector agent installation script, and contact Amazon Web Services.

Verify the Signature of the Package

With the GPG tools installed and the Amazon Inspector public key is authenticated, and the Amazon Inspector public key is trusted, you are ready to check the signature of the Amazon Inspector installation script.

To verify the Amazon Inspector installation script signature

1. At a command prompt, run the following command to download the signature file for the installation script:

curl -O https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/inspector.agent.us-west-1/latest/install.sig

2. Verify the signature of the by running the following at a command prompt in the directory where you saved install.sig and the Amazon Inspector installation file. Both files must be present.

gpg --verify ./install.sig

The output should look something like:

gpg: Signature made Thu 24 Sep 2015 03:19:09 PM UTC using RSA key ID 58360418 gpg: Good signature from "Amazon Inspector <inspector@amazon.com>" [unknown] gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!

gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: DDA0 D4C5 10AE 3C20 6F46 6DC0 2474 0960 5836 0418

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If the output contains the phrase Good signature from "Amazon Inspector

<inspector@amazon.com>", it means that the signature has successfully been verified and you can proceed to run the Amazon Inspector installation script.

If the output includes the phrase BAD signature, check whether you performed the procedure correctly. If you continue to get this response, contact Amazon Web Services and do not run the installation file that you downloaded previously.

The following are details about the warnings you might see:

• WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! There is no indication that the

signature belongs to the owner. This refers to your personal level of trust in your belief that you

possess Amazon Inspector's authentic public key. In an ideal world, you would visit an Amazon Web Services office and receive the key in person. However, more often you download it from a website. In this case an Amazon Web Services web site.

• gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found. This means that the specific key is not "ultimately trusted" by you (or by other people that you trust).

For more information, see http://www.gnupg.org.

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Amazon Inspector Applications

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

You can use Amazon Inspector to evaluate whether your AWS applications (your collections of AWS resources) have potential security issues that you need to address. In other words, in the context of Amazon Inspector, an application is a collection of AWS resources and that you want to access for potential security issues.

Note

In this release of Amazon Inspector, applications can only consist of EC2 instances hosted in AWS, in the US West (Oregon) region.

Tagging Resources to Create an Application

Every AWS tag consists of a key and a value pair. To create an application for Amazon Inspector to assess, you first tag your EC2 instances with key and value pairs of your choice and then create a view of these tagged EC2 instances that have common tag keys or common values in those tag keys. In other words, when Amazon Inspector is identifying the EC2 instances that belong to your application, it looks for tags on each of your instances. If an instance has a tag with a key and value pair that exactly matches any of the key/value pairs in the application object in Amazon Inspector, then it will be considered to be part of the application. It is not necessary that any instance match more than one tag key/value pair. When you are tagging your EC2 instances to build applications for Amazon Inspector to assess, you can create your own custom tag keys or use tag keys created by others in your same AWS account. You also can use the tag keys that AWS automatically creates, for example, the Name tag key that is automatically created for the EC2 instances that you launch.

You can add tags to EC2 instances when you create them or add, change, or remove those tags one at a time within each EC2 instance's console. You can also add tags to multiple EC2 instances at once using the Tag Editor.

For more information, see Tag Editor. For more information about tagging EC2 instances, see Resources and Tags.

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Amazon Inspector Application Limits

You can create up to 50 applications per AWS account.

Creating an Application

You can create an Amazon Inspector application in the AWS Management Console.

1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon Inspector console at https:// console.aws.amazon.com/inspector/.

2. In the navigation pane, choose Applications and click the Create button. 3. In Application name, type the name for your application.

4. Use the Tags' Key and Value fields to type in the tag key name and key value pairs in order to select the EC2 instances that you want to include in this application.

5. Click Save.

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Amazon Inspector Assessments

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

An Amazon Inspector assessment is the process of discovering potential security issues through the analysis of your application’s behavior against selected rule packages. During the assessment, behavioral data (telemetry) within the specified application, such as the use of secure channels, network traffic among running processes, details of communication with AWS services, etc., is monitored, collected, and then analyzed and compared against a set of selected security rules packages. A completed assessment produces a list of findings - potential security issues of various severity.

For every assessment that you create, you must specify a duration or the period of time during which Amazon Inspector monitors and collects your application's telemetry. You can set your assessment's duration to any of the following available values:

• 15 minutes

• 1 hour (recommended) • 8 hours

• 12 hours • 24 hours

The longer your running assessment's duration is, the more thorough and complete is the set of telemetry that Amazon Inspector can collect and analyze. In other words, longer assessments allow Amazon Inspector to observe the behavior of your application in greater detail and to produce fuller sets of findings. Similarly, the more thoroughly you exercise the behavior of your application during the assessment, the more thorough and complete is the telemetry set that Amazon Inspector can collect and analyze. Once the assessment is created, it can be tagged like any other AWS resource. For more information, see Tag Editor. Tagging assessments enables you to organize and get better oversight of your security strategy. For example, Amazon Inspector offers a large number of rules that you can assess your applications against but you might want to include various subsets of the available rules in your

assessments in order to target specific areas of concern or to uncover specific security problems. Tagging assessments allows you to locate and run them quickly and at any time at your convenience in accordance with your security strategy and goals.

Important

Once the assessment is created, you can only run it once.You cannot run the same assessment more than once. This restriction applies equally whether you let your assessment run through its entire duration or if you stop it at any point during its run.

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Amazon Inspector Assessment Limits

You can create up to 500 assessments per AWS account.

Create an Assessment via the Amazon Inspector

Management Console

1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon Inspector console at https:// console.aws.amazon.com/inspector/.

2. Navigate to the Assessments page and click the Create button. 3. In Assessment name, type the name for your assessment.

4. To automatically assign attributes to all findings generated by this assessment, you can use the Key and Value fields from Attributes for findings from this assessment. For more information about findings and tagging findings, see Amazon Inspector Findings (p. 21).

5. To select an application to assess, do one of the following:

• Use the Tags' Key and Value fields to type in the tag key name and key value pairs in order to select the EC2 instances that you want to include in this application.

• Select an existing application from the Applications pull-down menu.

6. Use the Rule Packages pull-down menu(s) to select one or more rule packages to include in your assessment.

7. Use the Duration field, to specify the duration for your assessment. 8. Click Create and run or Create assessment.

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Amazon Inspector Findings

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

Findings are potential security issues discovered during the Amazon Inspector's assessment of the selected application. Findings are displayed in the Amazon Inspector Management Console or via the API, and contain both a detailed descriptions of the security issues and recommendations on how to resolve them.

Once findings are generated, you can track them by assigning Amazon Inspector-specific attributes to them. These attributes consist of key and value pairs.

Tracking findings with attributes can be quite useful for driving the workflow of your security strategy. For example, once you create and run an assessment, it generates a list of findings of various severity, urgency, and interest to you, based on your security goals and approach. You might want to follow one finding's recommendation steps right away to resolve a potentially urgent security issue. And you might want to postpone resolving another finding until your next upcoming service update. For example, to track a finding to be resolved right away, you can create and assign to a finding an attribute with a key/value pair of Status / Urgent. You could also use attributes to distribute the workload of resolving potential security issues. For example, to give Bob (who is a security engineer on your team) the task of resolving a finding, you can assign to a finding an attribute with a key/value pair of Assigned Engineer / Bob.

Locate, Analyze, and Assign Attributes to

Generated Findings

1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console and open the Amazon Inspector console at https:// console.aws.amazon.com/inspector/.

2. Once you run your assessment either throughout its entire duration or stop it at some point during its run, you can navigate to the Findings page in the Amazon Inspector Management Console to view your generated findings.

You can also see your existing findings in the Notable Findings section on the Dashboard page of the Amazon Inspector Management Console.

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Note

You cannot view the findings generated by an assessment while this assessment is still running. In a production environment, it is recommended to let every assessment run for its entire set duration so that it can produce a fuller set of findings.

3. To view the details of a specific finding, click the xxx arrow next to that finding. The details of the finding include the following:

• The name of the application that includes the EC2 instance where this finding was registered • The name of the assessment that produced this finding

• The assessment start time • The assessment end time • The assessment status

• The name of the rules package that includes the rule that triggered this finding • The name of the finding

• The description of the finding

• The recommended steps that you can complete to fix the potential security issue described by the finding

4. To assign attributes to a finding, select a finding and click the Add/Edit Attributes button.

You can also assign attributes to findings as you create a new assessment. To do this, configure the new assessment, as you are creating it, to automatically assign attributes to all findings generated by this assessment. To do this, you can use the Key and Value fields from the Tags for findings

from this assessment field. For more information, see Amazon Inspector Assessments (p. 19).

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Amazon Inspector Rules Packages

and Rules

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

You can use Amazon Inspector to assess your applications for potential security issues and vulnerabilities. Amazon Inspector compares the behavior and the security configuration of the application against selected security rules packages. In the context of Amazon Inspector, a rule is a security check that Amazon Inspector performs during the assessment.

In Amazon Inspector, rules are grouped together into distinct rules packages either by category, severity, or pricing. This gives you choices for the kinds of assessments you can perform. For example, Amazon Inspector offers a large number of rules that you can use to assess your applications. But you might want to include a smaller subset of the available rules to target a specific area of concern or to uncover specific security problems. Companies with large IT departments might want to determine whether their application is exposed to any security threat, while others might want to concentrate only on issues with the severity level of High.

Severity Levels for Rules in Amazon Inspector

Each Amazon Inspector rule has an assigned severity level. This reduces the need to prioritize one rule over another in your assessments. It can also help you determine your response when a rule highlights a potential problem. High, Medium, and Low levels all indicate a security issue that can result in compromised information confidentiality, integrity, and availability within your application. The Informational level simply highlights a security configuration detail of your application. Following are recommended ways to respond to each:

• High – this severity level describes a security issue that can result in a compromise of the information confidentiality, integrity, and availability within your application. It is recommended that you treat this security issue as an emergency and implement an immediate remediation.

• Medium – this severity level describes a security issue that can result in a compromise of the information confidentiality, integrity, and availability within your application. It is recommended that you fix this issue at the next possible opportunity, for example, during your next service update.

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• Low - this severity level describes a security issue that can result in a compromise of the information confidentiality, integrity, and availability within your application. It is recommended that you fix this issue as part of one of your future service updates.

• Informational – this severity level describes a particular security configuration detail of your application. Based on your business and organization goals, you can either simply make note of this information or use it to improve the security of your application.

Rules Packages in Amazon Inspector

The following are the rule packages available in Amazon Inspector: • Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (p. 24)

• Network Security Best Practices (p. 24) • PCI DSS Readiness Best Practices (p. 26) • Authentication Best Practices (p. 33)

• Operating System Security Best Practices (p. 35) • Application Security Best Practices (p. 37)

Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

The rules in this package help verify whether the EC2 instances in your application are exposed to common vulnerabilities and exposures (CVEs). Attacks can exploit unpatched vulnerabilities to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of your service or data. The CVE system provides a reference method for publicly known information security vulnerabilities and exposures. For more information, go to https://cve.mitre.org/.

If a particular CVE appears in a finding produced by an Amazon Inspector assessment, you can search https://cve.mitre.org/ for the CVE's ID (for example, CVE-2009-0021). The search results can provide detailed information about this CVE, its severity, and how to mitigate it.

The rules included in this package help you assess whether your EC2 instances are exposed to the CVEs in the following list:https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/rules-engine/CVEList.txt

Network Security Best Practices

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

The rules in this package can help improve the security of your application’s network configuration.

Topics

• Use Secure Protocols (p. 25)

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Use Secure Protocols

This rule helps determine whether your EC2 instances allow support for insecure and unencrypted ports/services such as FTP, Telnet, HTTP, IMAP, POP version 3, SMTP, SNMP versions 1 and 2, rsh, and rlogin.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

There is an EC2 instance in your application that is configured to support insecure protocols.

Resolution

We recommend you disable insecure protocols that are supported on an EC2 instance in your application and replace them with secure alternatives as listed below:

• Disable telnet, rsh, and rlogin and replace them with SSH. Where this is not possible, you should ensure that the insecure service is protected by appropriate network access controls such as VPC network ACLs and EC2 security groups.

• Replace FTP with SCP or SFTP where possible. Where this is not possible, you should ensure that the FTP server is protected by appropriate network access controls such as VPC network ACLs and EC2 security groups.

• Replace HTTP with HTTPS where possible. For more information specific to the web server in question see http://nginx.org/en/docs/http/configuring_https_servers.html and

http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ssl/ssl_howto.html).

• Disable IMAP, POP3, SMTP services if not required. If required, it’s recommended these email protocols should be used with encrypted protocols such as TLS.

• Disable SNMP service if not required. If required, replace SNMP v1, v2 with more secure SNMP v3 which uses encrypted communication.

Enable Packet Signing on SMB Servers

This rule helps determine whether SMB packet signing is disabled on your EC2 instances.

Severity:

Low (p. 23)

Finding

There is an EC2 instance in your application that is configured to support the SMB protocol without packet signing.

Resolution

It is recommended that you enable SMB packet signing on all EC2 instances in your application, by setting "server signing = auto" in smb.conf. Packet signing ensures that data is not modified while in transit between server and client.

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PCI DSS Readiness Best Practices

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) was developed to encourage and enhance cardholder data security and facilitate the broad adoption of consistent data security measures globally. PCI DSS provides a baseline of technical and operational requirements designed to protect cardholder data. PCI DSS applies to all entities involved in payment card processing, including merchants, processors, acquirers, issuers, and service providers, as well as all other entities that store, process or transmit cardholder data (CHD) and/or sensitive authentication data (SAD). The standard is broken up into several requirements. Each requirement is broken into sub-requirements that have numbers like 1.1.6, 2.3.4a etc. Each sub-requirement recommends a certain process, or a security-related configuration change. The rules in this package help improve readiness for the PCI DSS 3.0 Standard.

This package includes rules that fall within the following PCI DSS 3.0 requirements:

• PCI DSS Requirement 1: Install and maintain a firewall configuration to protect cardholder data (p. 26) • PCI DSS Requirement 2: Do not use vendor-supplied defaults for system passwords and other security

parameters (p. 27)

• PCI DSS Requirement 4: Encrypt transmission of cardholder data across open, public networks (p. 29) • PCI DSS Requirement 6: Develop and maintain secure systems and applications (p. 30)

• PCI DSS Requirement 7: Restrict access to cardholder data by business' "need to know" (p. 30) • PCI DSS Requirement 8: Identify and authenticate access to system components (p. 31)

PCI DSS Requirement 1: Install and maintain a

firewall configuration to protect cardholder data

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

Topics

• Requirement 1.1.6 - Use Secure Protocols (p. 26)

Requirement 1.1.6 - Use Secure Protocols

This rule helps determine whether your EC2 instances allow support for insecure and unencrypted ports/services such as FTP, Telnet, HTTP, IMAP, POP version 3, SMTP, SNMP versions 1 and 2, rsh, and rlogin.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 1.1.6 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application that is configured to support insecure protocols.

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• Disable telnet, rsh, and rlogin and replace them with SSH. Where this is not possible, you should ensure that the insecure service is protected by appropriate network access controls such as VPC network ACLs and EC2 security groups.

• Replace FTP with SCP or SFTP where possible. Where this is not possible, you should ensure that the FTP server is protected by appropriate network access controls such as VPC network ACLs and EC2 security groups.

• Replace HTTP with HTTPS where possible. For more information specific to the web server in question see http://nginx.org/en/docs/http/configuring_https_servers.html and

https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ssl/ssl_howto.html).

• Disable IMAP, POP3, SMTP services if not required. If required, it’s recommended these email protocols should be used with encrypted protocols such as TLS.

• Disable SNMP service if not required. If required, replace SNMP v1, v2 with more secure SNMP v3 which uses encrypted communication.

PCI DSS Requirement 2: Do not use

vendor-supplied defaults for system passwords

and other security parameters

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

Topics

• Requirement 2.2.1 - Do not run multiple major services on a single EC2 instance (p. 27) • Requirement 2.2.3 - Use Secure Protocols (p. 28)

• Requirement 2.2.2 - Do not have unused protocols running (p. 28) • Requirement 2.2.5 - Do not have unused protocols running (p. 28) • Requirement 2.3 - Use Secure Protocols (p. 29)

Requirement 2.2.1 - Do not run multiple major services on

a single EC2 instance

This rule helps determine whether multiple major services (such as DNS and email/SMTP) are running on the same EC2 instance within your application.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 2.2.1 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application where major services are running simultaneously.

Resolution

Consider putting these services on separate EC2 instances. If server functions that need different security levels are located on the same server, the security level of the functions with higher security needs can be reduced due to the presence of the lower security functions. Additionally, the server functions with a lower security level may introduce security weaknesses to other functions on the same server. It is recommended that you configure each EC2 instance in your application to perform one primary function to prevent different security levels from co-existing on the same EC2 instance. For example, web servers, database servers, and DNS should be implemented on separate EC2 instances.

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Requirement 2.2.3 - Use Secure Protocols

This rule helps determine whether your EC2 instances allow support for insecure and unencrypted ports/services such as FTP, Telnet, HTTP, IMAP, POP version 3, SMTP, SNMP versions 1 and 2, rsh, and rlogin.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 2.2.3 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application that is configured to support insecure protocols.

Resolution

We recommend you disable insecure protocols that are supported on an EC2 instance in your application and replace them with secure alternatives as listed below:

• Disable telnet, rsh, and rlogin and replace them with SSH. Where this is not possible, you should ensure that the insecure service is protected by appropriate network access controls such as VPC network ACLs and EC2 security groups.

• Replace FTP with SCP or SFTP where possible. Where this is not possible, you should ensure that the FTP server is protected by appropriate network access controls such as VPC network ACLs and EC2 security groups.

• Replace HTTP with HTTPS where possible. For more information specific to the web server in question see http://nginx.org/en/docs/http/configuring_https_servers.html and

http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ssl/ssl_howto.html).

• Disable IMAP, POP3, SMTP services if not required. If required, it’s recommended these email protocols should be used with encrypted protocols such as TLS.

• Disable SNMP service if not required. If required, replace SNMP v1, v2 with more secure SNMP v3 which uses encrypted communication.

Requirement 2.2.2 - Do not have unused protocols running

This rule helps determine whether there are unused protocols running in your EC2 instances.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 2.2.2 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application that is running unnecessary services.

Resolution

We recommend that you disable extraneous services if not required for your business operations or restrict access to them via security groups. Enable only necessary services, protocols, daemons, etc., as required for the function of the system. There are many protocols that a business may need (or have enabled by default) that are commonly used by malicious individuals to compromise a network. Including this requirement as part of an organization's configuration standards and related processes ensures that

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Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 2.2.2 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application that is running unnecessary services.

Resolution

We recommend that you disable extraneous ports if not required for your business operations or restrict access to them via security groups. Enable only necessary services, protocols, daemons, etc., as required for the function of the system. There are many protocols that a business may need (or have enabled by default) that are commonly used by malicious individuals to compromise a network. Including this requirement as part of an organization's configuration standards and related processes ensures that only the necessary services and protocols are enabled.

Requirement 2.3 - Use Secure Protocols

This rule helps determine whether your EC2 instances allow support for insecure and unencrypted ports/services such as FTP, Telnet, HTTP, IMAP, POP version 3, SMTP, SNMP versions 1 and 2, rsh, and rlogin.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 2.3 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application that is configured to support insecure protocols.

Resolution

We recommend you disable insecure protocols that are supported on an EC2 instance in your application and replace them with secure alternatives as listed below:

• Disable telnet, rsh, and rlogin and replace them with SSH. Where this is not possible, you should ensure that the insecure service is protected by appropriate network access controls such as VPC network ACLs and EC2 security groups.

• Replace FTP with SCP or SFTP where possible. Where this is not possible, you should ensure that the FTP server is protected by appropriate network access controls such as VPC network ACLs and EC2 security groups.

• Replace HTTP with HTTPS where possible. For more information specific to the web server in question see http://nginx.org/en/docs/http/configuring_https_servers.html and

http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/ssl/ssl_howto.html).

• Disable IMAP, POP3, SMTP services if not required. If required, it’s recommended these email protocols should be used with encrypted protocols such as TLS.

• Disable SNMP service if not required. If required, replace SNMP v1, v2 with more secure SNMP v3 which uses encrypted communication.

PCI DSS Requirement 4: Encrypt transmission of

cardholder data across open, public networks

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

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Topics

• Support SSH Version 2 Only (p. 30)

Support SSH Version 2 Only

This rule helps determine whether your EC2 instances are configured to support SSH protocol version 1.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 4.1 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application that is configured to support SSH version 1 which contains inherent design flaws that greatly reduce its security.

Resolution

Configure the SSH server to support only SSH version 2. For OpenSSH, this can be achieved by setting

Protocol 2 in /etc/ssh/sshd_config. See man sshd_config for more information.

PCI DSS Requirement 6: Develop and maintain

secure systems and applications

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

Topics

• Support SSH Version 2 Only (p. 30)

Support SSH Version 2 Only

This rule helps determine whether your EC2 instances are configured to support SSH protocol version 1.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 6.5.4 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application that is configured to support SSH version 1 which contains inherent design flaws that greatly reduce its security.

Resolution

Configure the SSH server to support only SSH version 2. For OpenSSH, this can be achieved by setting

Protocol 2 in /etc/ssh/sshd_config. See man sshd_config for more information.

PCI DSS Requirement 7: Restrict access to

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Topics

• Requirement 7.0 - Leave no high privilege processes vulnerable to tampering (p. 31)

Requirement 7.0 - Leave no high privilege processes

vulnerable to tampering

This rule helps detect high-privileged processes on your EC2 instances that are running code that can be written by low-privileged users.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

There is an EC2 instance in your application that does not meet PCI DCC Requirement 7.0. It is a running process with elevated privileges that is vulnerable to unauthorized access. There are modules loaded by this high privileged process that are not protected appropriately and hence can be modified by unprivileged users.

Resolution

In order to improve the security posture of your application environment, it is recommended that you correct the permissions on the relevant modules to ensure they are writable only by root.

PCI DSS Requirement 8: Identify and authenticate

access to system components

Amazon Inspector is in preview release and is subject to change.

Topics

• Requirement 8.1.8 - Limit user's idle session time (p. 31) • Requirement 8.2 - Configure Password Maximum Age (p. 32) • Requirement 8.2 - Configure Password Minimum Length (p. 32) • Requirement 8.2 - Configure Password Complexity (p. 32)

Requirement 8.1.8 - Limit user's idle session time

This rule helps determine whether you have placed recommended restrictions on the idle time a user can have on your EC2 instances.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 8.1.8 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application with no restrictions set on limiting user's idle session time.

Resolution

In order to limit the risk of unauthorized access, we recommend that all machines be configured to auto-lock when 15 minutes of inactivity has been detected.

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Requirement 8.2 - Configure Password Maximum Age

This rule helps determine whether maximum age for passwords is configured on your EC2 instance.

Severity -

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 8.2 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application where maximum age for passwords is not configured.

Resolution

If you are using passwords, it is recommended that you configure maximum age for passwords on all EC2 instances in your application. It is recommended that a maximum age of 90 days be set on all passwords to comply with PCI password policy. This requires users to regularly change their passwords and reduces the chances of a successful password guessing attack. To fix this issue for existing users, use the chage command. To configure maximum age for passwords for all future users, edit the

PASS_MAX_DAYS field in the /etc/login.defs file.

Requirement 8.2 - Configure Password Minimum Length

This rule helps determine whether minimum length for passwords is configured on your EC2 instance.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 8.2 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application where minimum length for passwords is not configured.

Resolution

It is recommended that you configure the system to impose a minimum password length of 7 characters to comply with PCI policy. Increasing the minimum length significantly decreases the chances of successful password guessing attacks.

Requirement 8.2 - Configure Password Complexity

This rule helps determine whether a password complexity mechanism is configured on your EC2 instance.

Severity:

Informational (p. 23)

Finding

PCI DSS Requirement 8.2 is not met. There is an EC2 instance in your application that is missing any restrictions on password complexity. This allows users to set simple passwords, thereby increasing the chances of unauthorized access.

Resolution

It is recommended that you configure the system with restrictions on password complexity by having both

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Figure

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References

Related subjects :