Impacts on Maritime Trade with Regard to Navigational Route Adjustments in Avoiding Conflicts with Marine Protected Areas: an Insight to the Law and Policy

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IMPACTS ON MARITIME TRADE WITH REGARD

TO NAVIGATIONAL ROUTE ADJUSTMENTS

IN AVOIDING CONFLICTS WITH MARINE

PROTECTED AREAS: AN INSIGHT TO THE LAW

AND POLICY

Dan Malika Gunasekera*

Abstract

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I. INTRODUCTION

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II. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT: CO-EXISTENCE AND IN-TERPLAY

Since the origination of maritime activities, seafarers considered VDIHW\ DV DQ LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQW +RZHYHU WKHUH¶V QR HYLGHQFH WKDW safety of navigation was given any statutory recognition in the history RI PDULWLPH WUDGH DV LW ODFNHG UHJXODWLRQV XQOLNH LQ WKH SUHVHQW HUD $OWKRXJK VDIHW\ RI QDYLJDWLRQ LVQ¶W LWVHOI D FRQ¿QHG FRQFHSW WKDW OLHV within the subject of protecting the ship alone together with its crew and anything on board; it has spread to a much wider meaning thus covering the protection of maritime waters and anything that lies in DQG ZLWKLQ VXFK HQYLURQPHQW (QDFWLQJ LQWHUQDWLRQDO UHJXODWLRQV were indeed a much seldom approach in the past4 until Convention

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particular convention was brought into being as a matter of preventing FROOLVLRQV DW VHD UDWKHU WKDQ RI D PHUH SURWHFWLRQ RI PDULQH HQYLURQPHQW 7KLV FODVVLFDO DSSURDFK KDV QRZ EHHQ HQODUJHG LQ WKH ZDNH RI PRGHUQ DSSURDFKHV WKDW KDYH EHHQ GHYHORSHG LQ WKH ODWWHU¶VEHQH¿W

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III. TASK OF SETTING UP MPAS

If one may to ascertain the effects of shipping on marine environment are only with regard to pollution, such assumption may not be FRPSDWLEOH ZLWK PRGHUQ WKUHDWV SRVHG E\ QDYLJDWLQJ REMHFWV 6LQFH WKH law is well settled in relation to pollution damage at both national and LQWHUQDWLRQDO OHYHOV WKHUH¶V PXFK QHHG WKDW H[LVWV LQ UHODWLRQ WR WKUHDWV faced by living and non-living resources of the sea in light of shipping DFWLYLWLHV 81&/26¶V $UWLFOH GRHVQ¶W VHHP TXLWH H[KDXVWLYH WR WKH H[WHQW RI SURWHFWLQJ WKHVH VDLG UHVRXUFHV ZLWKLQ WKH FRQWH[W RI

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the maritime environment19 2QH PXVW EHDU LQ PLQG WKDW WKH URXWLQJ

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NP HDVW ZHVW DQG NP QRUWK VRXWK DQG WR D IXUWKHU GHSW RI P into deep sea believed to consist of a high density Whale population, VXJJHVW D VKLIW RI QP VRXWKZDUGV IURP WKH FXUUHQW 766 8QOLNH LQ WKH case of Stellwagen, where a considerably longer period of research and VXUYH\V KDV EHHQ FDUULHG RXW VSDQQLQJ WR \HDUV WKHVH VXJJHVWLRQV RI WKH ZRUN DUH EDVHG RQ D VPDOOHU FRQFHQWUDWLRQ RI D ZLQGRZ RI GD\V Furthermore, the relevant survey has indicated that the whale patterns were conducted during inter-Monsoon and north-east-Monsoon, and KDV KHQFH VXJJHVWHG WKDW µGLIIHUHQW RFHDQRJUDSKLF FRQGLWLRQV PLJKW EH H[SHFWHG WR UHVXOW LQ GLIIHUHQW IDFWRUV LQÀXHQFLQJ ZKDOH GHQVLW\¶ In DGGLWLRQ WKH SDUWLFXODU UHVHDUFK KDV IRXQG WKH SUHVHQFH RI %OXH :KDOHV LQ WKH VHOHFWHG YLFLQLW\ ZLWKLQ DQ DYHUDJH RI DSSUR[LPDWHO\ NP RQ WUDQVHFW RQ VXUIDFH RI WKH VHD ZKLOH %OXH :KDOHV KDYH EHHQ VLJKWHG XQGHUQHDWK WKH VHD ZLWKLQ DQ DYHUDJH RI NP RQ WUDQVHFW ,W is noteworthy that these sightings aren’t indicating any overlapping or UHSHWLWLRQV DQG D TXLWH QDUURZ IUDPH RI WLPH PD\ QRW SURGXFH FRQFOXVLYH HYLGHQFH 7KH VWXG\ KDV IXUWKHU SURYHG WKDW PRVW RI WKHVH ZKDOHV DSSHDU

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WKDQ PXFK LPSDFW RQ WKH ORQJ H[LVWLQJ 3RUW RI &RORPER 1HYHUWKHOHVV D GH¿QLWLYH GHFLVLRQ DV WR WKH GHJUHH RI GHYLDWLRQ FRXOG RQO\ EH DFKLHYHG through proper hydrographic survey and compilation of chart, which KDV \HW WR EH XQGHUWDNHQ E\ WKH DXWKRUL]HG DJHQF\ 1DWLRQDO $TXDWLF 5HVRXUFHV 5HVHDUFK DQG 'HYHORSPHQW $JHQF\ 1$$5$ 2Q WKH RWKHU KDQG 6UL /DQND KDV QRW \HW JDLQHG PHPEHUVKLS RI WKH ,QWHUQDWLRQDO Whaling Commission, thereby the subject of management and conservation of whales become a subject within the application of the UNLCOS provisions, and its domestic laws consisting inthe Fauna and

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WR UHDS WKH EHQH¿WV RI FRVW VDYLQJ JDLQLQJ FRPSHWLWLYH DGYDQWDJH DQG SRVVLELOLWLHV RI FDUU\LQJ PRUH FDUJR RQ ERDUG &RPSDUDWLYHO\ DOWHUQDWLYH routes along African continent would thus incur higher costs and longer WLPH SHULRGVLQ SDUWLFXODU IRU VKLSV WKDW RSHUDWH IURP (XURSH WR $VLD and vice versa though on the part of such ships rest the obligation to sail in that route for the collection and delivery of cargo in African FRQWLQHQWDO SRUWV $OWKRXJK DQ DOWHUQDWH RI VXFK QDWXUH ZRXOG QRW PDNH a direct impact on the marine environment, but inadvertently distributes RYHUDOO HIIHFWV RQWR RWKHU DUHDV RI WKH PDULWLPH HQYLURQPHQW 7KLV ZRXOG FOHDUO\ GHFHQWUDOL]H WKH H[RUELWDQW YROXPH RI DOO DQG VXQGU\ 2Q the other hand, opting for an alternate route to avoid congestion would EULQJ DERXW WUDGH EHQH¿WV VXFK DV PLQLPL]LQJ GHOD\V LQ GHOLYHULQJ WKH goods to the hands of the customer by using alternate ports instead of WKH EXVLHU RQHV 7KLV DSSURDFK KDV EHHQ FRQVLGHUHG LQ WKH 86 :HVW &RDVW 3RUW 'LVSXWH Considering these options, it can be suggested that WKH ULVNV DQG GDQJHUV WR WKH PDULQH HQYLURQPHQW FRXOG EH PLQLPL]HG WKURXJK WUDI¿F GLYHUVLRQ XVLQJ 15$ FRPSDWLEO\ +RZHYHU VHOHFWHG 03$V ZLWKLQ FRDVWDO VRYHUHLJQW\ ZRXOG QRW IDOO ZLWKLQ WKLV GRFWULQH DQG VXFK VWUDWHJ\ FDQQRW EH DSSOLHG DV D VROXWLRQ 7KH QH[W RSWLRQ ZRXOG EHWRORRN DW SRVVLELOLWLHV RI UHGXFLQJ DQG YDU\LQJ VSHHGV DW WLPHV RI UHDFKLQJ DW DQG GXULQJ WKH WLPHV LQ 03$V ,W LV D PDWWHU WKDW QHHGV WR be assessed on a balance of probabilities between the economic aspects DQG HQYLURQPHQWDO SURWHFWLRQ $OWKRXJK RYHUZKHOPLQJ PDMRULW\ RI carriers, whether owners or charterers, would not support this idea, WKH\ ZRXOG EH LQ WXUQ REOLJHG WR WDNH SUHFDXWLRQDU\ PHDVXUHV DV D PHDQV RI WKH JHQHUDO SULQFLSOHVRI ODZ ,Q LWV WUXH VHQVH SUHFDXWLRQDU\ SULQFLSOH UHVWV RQ VFLHQWL¿F HYLGHQFH RI DQ LGHQWL¿HG KD]DUG UDWKHU WKDQ RI D PHUH SROLF\ 7KHUHIRUH SURSHU UHVHDUFK DQG VWXGLHV PXVW GLVFORVH D QHHG WR H[HUFLVH SUHFDXWLRQDU\ SULQFLSOH LQ MXVWLI\LQJ WKH WDNLQJ RI PHDVXUHV E\ WKH FDUULHUV ,I WKLV LV IDLOHG WKH FDUULHU ZRXOG QRW KDYH DQ\ REOLJDWLRQ WR WDNH VXFK PHDVXUHV :KHQ WKHUH¶V FOHDU HYLGHQFH RI GDQJHU WR WKH PDULQH HQYLURQPHQW VXFK FDUULHUV DUH ERXQG WR WDNH the precautionary measures to avoid damage rather than relying upon DQ\ µULJKW¶ WR SURFHHG DORQJ D GHVLJQDWHG 766 ,Q WKDW FDVH WKH FDUULHU

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would be obliged to stand on the precautionary principle and act with GXH GLOLJHQFH 7KLV REOLJDWLRQ ZRXOG FRPSHO LW WR UHGXFH VSHHG DW WLPHV RI GDQJHU DV ZHOO DV LQ WKH ZDNH RI D GHVLJQDWHG 03$ RU ULVN\ DUHD WKRXJK D VKLIW LQ WKH 766 KDV QRW EHHQ HIIHFWHG ,Q VXFK FLUFXPVWDQFHV WKH FDUULHUV PD\ ORRN LQWR DQ RSWLRQ RI DODUPLQJ WKH OLYLQJ UHVRXUFHV E\ ZD\ RI VRXQG 7KDW LV WKH RWKHU SRVVLELOLW\ RI HYDGLQJ GDPDJH RQ PDULQH environment especially on marine mammals at large, but this option RSHQV ÀRRGJDWHV WR DQRWKHU FDWDVWURSKH DOUHDG\ LGHQWL¿HG LQ PDULWLPH WUDI¿F ZKLFK LV µQRLVH SROOXWLRQ¶ $OWKRXJK PDQ\ LQWHUHVWHG SDUWLHV GLGQ¶W DVVHVV WKH DPRXQW RI GDPDJH FDXVHG E\ PDULWLPH WUDI¿F RQ OLYLQJ UHVRXUFHV XQGHUQHDWK WKH VHD XQWLO TXLWH UHFHQWO\ QHZHVW VWXGLHV KDYH UHYHDOHG WKH H[WHQW WR ZKLFK WKDW FRXOG FDXVH GHWULPHQWDO HIIHFWV 7KLV is in addition to the noise pollution generated by horns and distress DODUPV 1HYHUWKHOHVV WKH RQ VXUIDFH QRLVH SROOXWLRQ FRXOG EH QHJDWHG WR D FRQVLGHUDEOH H[WHQW LQ FRPSDULVRQ ZLWK WKH VDLG XQGHUZDWHU HIIHFWV JHQHUDWHG PDLQO\ E\ WKH SURSHOOHUV ,W LV XQGHUVWRRG WKDW LPSDFWV RI noise pollution on underwater ecosystems are on the increase while a wide variety of marine animals especially the mammals such as whales GHSHQG RQ VRXQG WR QDYLJDWH FRPPXQLFDWH DQG VXUYLYH LQ WKH RFHDQV Adverse effects of noise pollution would certainly distract their abilities LQ LGHQWLI\LQJ GDQJHUV ZKHWKHU JHQHUDWH DERYH RU XQGHUQHDWK WKH ZDWHUV However, the alarm systems on-board would create more awareness than causing distract, and therefore, can be considered a favourable RSWLRQ LQ DUHDV ZKHUH 766 FRXOG QRW EH DPHQGHG RQ HFRQRPLF UHDVRQV

Considering the alternative that have been adopted till now, , DP RI WKH YLHZ WKDW WKH PRVW IRUZDUG WKLQNLQJ VWUDWHJ\ LV WKH RQH adopted60 in the straits of Malacca under the auspices of the IMO as

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and promotion of maritime environment while sustainably developing WKH PDULQH UHVRXUFHV LQ SDUWLFXODU 6XFK D FRRUGLQDWHG HIIRUW ZRXOG WKXV

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FRPSOHPHQW WKH REMHFWLYHV RI SUHVHUYLQJ WKH 03$V DORQJ WKH VWUDLWV ZLWKRXW LQWHUIHULQJ ZLWK PDULWLPH WUDI¿F62In addition to these efforts,

further hi-technological support could be obtained to timely notify VKLSV LQ DYRLGLQJ ULVN\ DUHDV 7KHVH FRXOG LQFOXGH UHPRWH VHQVLQJ EXLOW LQ VHQVRUV LQ VKLSV VKRUH WR VKLS RQOLQH DVVLVWDQFH DQG WKH OLNH 6XFK IDFLOLWDWLRQ FDQ HDVLO\ EH DI¿[HG WR WKH H[LVWLQJ DQG IXWXUH 0(+ V\VWHPV 7KH RWKHU DGYDQWDJH LQ FRPPLVVLRQLQJ 0(+ UDWKHU WKDQ periodical changes to TSSis that the former is well adoptable to changing circumstances with minimal interference on the part of the port-State DQG FRDVWDO 6WDWH FRQWUROOHUV $OWKRXJK WKLV PHWKRG ZRXOG EH PRVW compatible with changing patterns of seasonal conditions affecting the OLYLQJ LW ZRXOG QRW PDNH PXFK RI GLIIHUHQFH IRU QRQ OLYLQJ UHVRXUFHV LQ D 03$

VI. CONCLUSION

$OWKRXJK FRDVWDO 6WDWHV ERUGHULQJ EXV\ PDULWLPH WUDI¿F KDYH ZHOO DGRSWHG WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH 766 LQ OLQH ZLWK WKH ,02¶V UHTXLUHPHQW LQ GL-UHFWLQJ VKLSV RQ VDIHW\ RI QDYLJDWLRQ VXFK H[LVWLQJ URXWHV VHHP WR XQ-GHUJR FKHFNV DQG EDODQFHV LQ ZDNH RI GHVLJQDWHG 03$V 6LQFH GHVLJQD-WLRQ RI 03$ LV TXLWH D UHFHQW GHYHORSPHQW LQ WKH SURWHFGHVLJQD-WLRQ RI VHDV DQG RFHDQV WKH ODZ RQ PDULWLPH WUDI¿F FDQQRW EH FRQVLGHUHG VHWWOHG DV \HW Within its competence to deal with this issue, IMO has a long way to go LQ GHWHUPLQLQJ WKH H[WHQW WR ZKLFK WKH H[LVWLQJ 766 RI 6WDWHV VKRXOG EH DOORZHG RU GLVDOORZHG ,Q GHWHUPLQLQJ WKH SURSHU SDUDPHWHUV DSSOLFD-WLRQ RI WKH ODZ DORQH ZRXOG QRW VXI¿FH RQ WKH SDUW RI FRDVWDO 6WDWHV EXW D EDODQFHG VWUDWHJ\ FRQVLVWLQJ RI HTXLWDEOH VROXWLRQ VKRXOG IDOO LQ SODFH

In this respect, the law and policy relating to amending TSS to suit WKH GHPDQGV RI GHVLJQDWLQJ 03$V VKRXOG EH KLJKO\ UHVSHFWHG $V PDQ\ 6WDWHV KDYH \HW IDLOHG WR GHVLJQDWH WKHLU UHVSHFWLYH 03$V WR WKH IXOOHVW DQG UHTXLUHG H[WHQWV WDNLQJ RI DFWLRQV LQ ¿QDOL]LQJ WKHVH GHVLJQDWLRQV LV RI XWPRVW LPSRUWDQFH LQ DYRLGLQJ GDPDJH RQ PXWXDO LQWHUHVWV L H RQ PDULQH HQYLURQPHQW DV ZHOO DV RI WKH YHVVHOV ,W LV XQGHUVWRRG WKDW WKH PHFKDQLVP LQ DPHQGLQJ WKH H[LVWLQJ 766V LV ZHOO SODFHG ZLWKLQ WKH

62 Main concerns surround the cost factor where the Malacca case involved an

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,02 V\VWHP DQG WKH QHHG WR H[SHGLWH VXFK SURFHVV DULVH DW QDWLRQDO OHYHO LQ IDFLOLWDWLQJ WKH SURWHFWLRQ RI 03$V 7KHUHIRUH IRU D ZHOO FR-ordinated NRA, it is mandatory and thus imperative for coastal-States to formulate a clear strategy focused on effective protection of marine environment as its primary goal in both its law and policies relating to PDULQH HQYLURQPHQWDO SURWHFWLRQ DQG YHVVHO WUDI¿F PDQDJHPHQW ZKLOH UHVSHFWLQJ IUHHGRP RI WKH VHDV DQG GRFWULQH RI LQQRFHQW SDVVDJH

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