Industrial Minerals And Rocks of Turkey







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Spring 2015 | Vol 4 | Number 8 |

Mining & Earth Sciences Magazine


ISSN: 2146-9423

2014 Turkish Industrial Minerals Export


Step Forward In The Mining Industry



adres : Kerimbey Mahallesi Işık Sok. No:2 Tekkekoy Samsun / Turkey 55300

telefon : 90 362 266 80 91 - internal 175 faks : 90 362 266 80 94

Samsun Fabrika ve Ofis

telefon : 90 216 660 04 69 - 660 07 62 faks : 90 216 660 05 48

adres : Mimar Sinan Mahallesi

Yedpa Ticaret Merkezi F Caddesi No: 11/12 Ataşehir / İstanbul

İstanbul Ofis

telefon : 90 312 418 30 00 faks : 90 312 425 12 21 adres : Tepe Prime İş Merkezi

B Blok Kat:9 No: 74

Eskişehir Yolu 9. km 06800 / Ankara

Ankara Ofis






Spring 2015


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adres : Kerimbey Mahallesi Işık Sok. No:2 Tekkekoy Samsun / Turkey 55300

telefon : 90 362 266 80 91 - internal 175 faks : 90 362 266 80 94

Samsun Fabrika ve Ofis

telefon : 90 216 660 04 69 - 660 07 62 faks : 90 216 660 05 48

adres : Mimar Sinan Mahallesi

Yedpa Ticaret Merkezi F Caddesi No: 11/12 Ataşehir / İstanbul

İstanbul Ofis

telefon : 90 312 418 30 00 faks : 90 312 425 12 21 adres : Tepe Prime İş Merkezi

B Blok Kat:9 No: 74

Eskişehir Yolu 9. km 06800 / Ankara

Ankara Ofis






















Mining Turkey is published biannually by Mayeb Madencilik ve Yer Bilimleri Basım Yayın Dağıtım Ltd. (Yayın Sahibi)

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Cover Photo

Aragonite, which largely compose lime-stone with calcite, is a naturally occur-ring mineral and crystal form of calcium carbonate. Limestone is an abundant sedimentary rock; in fact it consists 10%of all sedimentary rocks. Turkey is an important limestone producer, and the majority of the Turkey’s limestone is

recovered in the Aegean region. Lime-stone is used for several industries such as construction industry, medical in-dustry and chemical inin-dustry. The natu-rally occurring aragonite crystal sample on the cover was obtained in Elmadağ, Ankara.


Turkish mining industry has been seeking a way out from the drawbacks of the latest legislations for the last two years. The government has been trying to provide an optimum solution, being conscious about the industry’s apprehensions and demands. Authorities did not flinch from consulting public institutes or associations before enacting the mining legislations. Companies, on the other hand, were suffering from two major subjects which are permitting process and the value of forest lands. Exploration companies had difficulties obtaining environmental permits and surface areas; therefore many considerable exploration projects had to be precluded by reason of permitting process. Besides, both exploration and production companies were forced to pay high forest land fees in order to do operations.

A number of international exploration companies, including large scale companies, have decided to hand over their projects to local or other international companies during this period. They showed “risky condition of Turkey” as their reasons for leaving. On the contrary, some other internationally large scaled companies have entered to Turkish market to take advantage of this tense atmosphere. These companies either consider this period an exact time to be involved in the mining industry of Turkey or they see the light at the end of the tunnel.

The government has recently published a new amendment to the Mining Law No. 3213 on the official gazette. As a whole, the amendment pleased the mining industry although some articles are not found satisfactory by company authorities. A circular about all entailed lands of Turkey has been constituting the major problem of mining companies since 2012. The new amendment failed to offer a solution to this problem, which obliges all transactions related to State owned lands subject to the approval of the Prime Ministry. Hence, mining industry keeps insisting on their primary demands about the circular before it is too late. On the other hand, recent efforts of government may relieve the industry’s anxiety.

The amendment cleared up an important struggle for the exploration companies. Some clauses of the Law had been penalizing exploration companies by delicensing before the amendment; but now the companies are served with fine.

Thus, all the efforts of the exploration companies will not go down the drain for an unexpected reason.

Another unpleasant incident showed up with the application regulation of 16th article of the Forest Law no. 6831 on April 2014. Despite the complaints of the industry before the regulation, the regulation instead, tripled the value of use and sale of government forest land. Hopefully, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs published a draft that lowers the value 50%.

In general, mining companies are optimistic about the future of Turkish mining industry. They believe that engaging in dialogue with government structures will solve all of these problems eventually. Recent exploration results and opportunities of Turkey keep attracting companies around the world. However, in order to accelerate the mining development of Turkey, the government needs to get a move on. Collaboration between mining industry and government authorities with the consult of associations, institutes and universities could be the driving force of this acceleration.

Passive – Aggressive Mood of Turkish Mining Industry

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Turkish Energy and Natural Resources Minister

Commented About Privatization of Boron Mines

Energy and Natural Resources Minister of Turkey Taner Yıldız commented on a Turkish TV channel program that priva-tization of Turkish boron is beside the point. “We would not privatize boron. We

do not have any privatization sched-ule, on the contrary we would like to emphasize that boron should remain nationalized. Neither Justice and De-velopment Party (AKP) nor Turkey has

any cogitation about privatization of boron.” said Yıldız, regarding privati-zation of boron mines, which has be-come a current issue lately.

October 2014


Koza Announced Partnership

Agreements in Ireland and Portugal

2 Billion TL Budget for 52 Projects in 2015

İhlas Madencilik Continues Operations

Koza Limited, a subsidiary of Koza Altın İşletmeleri A.Ş. has signed an agree-ment with IMC Exploration Limited regarding gold, silver and base metal exploration activities on IMC’s four li-cense areas in Ireland. The agreement includes exploration operations, geo-logical surveys and their finance. Koza Ltd, which will operate and/or develop the Project, will have the right to own

55%of shares of JV company. Koza had signed an agreement with Lonmin Lim-ited in Ireland in 2014. Thus, Koza has increased the JV companies to two in Ireland with the latest agreement. At the same time, Koza Ltd announced an-other agreement with Kote Medgold to TSX. Koza acquired 19.31%of Medgold stakes by issuing C$1.5 Million through Joint Venture agreement. The

agree-ment includes exploration operations of gold and silver deposits in Portugal and Koza will owe the higher share of JV company. Koza Limited will initially have the right to owe of 55%of shares whereas the company has an option to owe 75%of shares of the JV company.

March 2015

52 mining and petroleum-natural gas ex-plorations are 2.016 billion TL budgeted on 2015 annual investment program. Accord-ing to Anatolian Agency (AA), minAccord-ing and petroleum-natural gas explorations were 1.977 TL budgeted in 2014, now this value has raised to 2.016 billion TL in 2015.The big-gest share of this budget belongs to Turkish Petroleum (TP) General Directorate while General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) becomes the most bud-geted mining institute currently. Electricity Generation Company (EÜAŞ) General Direc-torate is also one of the most budgeted

in-stitutes among all mining sector related to institutes. EÜAŞ budget is determined as 100 million TL for its 8 projects. State-owned coal producer companies, Turkish Coal En-terprises (TKİ) and Turkish Hard Coal Enter-prises (TTK) will carry out 10 projects. 5 proj-ects of TKİ have 100 million budget whereas 5 projects of TTK have 95 million TL budget. On the other hand, Eti Maden General Di-rectorate will carry out 11 projects with a 60 million TL budget and Republic of Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources has 4 million TL budget for 3 projects.

January 2015

İhlas Madencilik, an important metal mining company of Turkey released its 2014, 03 report. According to the report, İhlas has continued to reserve determination process on its existing mines as well as making geological sur-veys in 29 fields in 2013. The company, on the other hand, has applied for 81 royalties so far. İhlas initially plans to increase the capacity of Bayındır zinc – lead facility, implement polymetal

investment in Salihli and complete preliminary preparations at Elbistan power plant. Reserve determination and development operations will con-tinue by application results and other investment projects will take a place in 2015 schedule. İhlas Madencilik had completed feasibility studies and capital budgeting for Salihli polymetal project in 2013. The company applied for mining license and has been

wait-ing for response from competent au-thority. Mir İç ve Dış Ticaret, which is a subsidiary of İhlas Madencilik has completed the feasibility studies to produce concentrated zinc – lead with 500 tons/month capacity in two fields in Bayındır region. İhlas has time extension option in group IV mine in Çanakkale – Kalkım, whose royalty was obtained by Oreks Madencilik.

November 2014


Spring 2015


Qatari Company Negotiates to

Invest in Turkish Coal Power Plant Project

Lundin Mining Corporation Opened Turkish Branch

Chinese Investors Caused Marble Crises in Turkey

Çelikler Won Orhaneli and Tunçbilek Thermal

Power Plants and Properties of Bursa Lignite Tenders

Çelikler Taahhüt İnşaat ve Sanayi AŞ won privatization of Orhaneli and Tunçbilek thermal power plants and properties of Bursa Lignite tenders for $521 million of-fer. Tender was initiated by Privatization Administration of Turkey and closed of-fers were taken at preliminary

qualifica-tion. Highest offer was $160 million in this qualification then two more tender qualifi-cation sessions were opened. Starting bid was $463.8 million on auction and mini-mum bid was set to $100,000. Konya Şeker Sanayi ve Ticaret AŞ and Çelikler Taahhüt İnşaat ve Sanayi AŞ were the two

compa-nies on auction and Çelikler won the ten-der after a 30 minutes session.Çelikler had also won Seyitömer thermal power plant tender for $2.2 billion in 2012.

December 2014

Negotiations between Qatari company, Nebras Energy and Turkish authority are proceeding for a large scale project in-cluding operation of Afşin – Elbistan coal field and constructing a thermal power plant on this region. “Along with devel-oping coal mines, the project will aim to

build coal power plants that will be able to generate 4,500 megawatts of electric-ity. Nebras Power and Qatar Holding, in cooperation with some of the world’s most experienced developers in this field, have begun working on project feasibility studies.” said Khalid Jolo, CEO

of Nebras Energy. Negotiations between Turkish authority and other companies for Afşin – Elbistan project could not be concluded previously.

December 2014

International mining company, Lundin Mining Corporation opened their Turkish Branch in January 2015 in Ankara. Directors or delegates of Turkey’s leading mining and earth sciences companies joined the open-ing cocktail. “We believe in minopen-ing poten-tial of Turkey and we would like to invest in Turkish mining industry through Lundin’s experience. As a result of our persistence in this issue, our Ankara branch was opened with your kindly participation. I hope Lun-din Mining, which has an understanLun-ding of

caring about people and environment, will contribute to Turkish mining industry and economy.” said Tayfun Cerrah, New Busi-ness Development, Europe and Near East Director of Lundin Mining. Ciara Talbot, Cor-porate Manager Exploration and New Busi-ness Development of Lundin Mining made a statement about Lundin’s Turkish Market penetration. According to Talbot, Lundin has been seeking for mining opportunities of Turkey and evaluating several offers since

June 2014 February 2015

One of the most important sectors in Tur-key, natural stones and marble sector, has been facing crises after Chinese marble quarry investments in Turkey. Balance of marble sector has been upset because of being a rapidly growing and export-de-pendent sector in Turkey. Chinese

inves-tors have acquired more than 100 marble quarries in Mediterranean region of Turkey which is a critical region for Turkish marble sector. Chinese block marble merchants, who prefer to invest in Antalya, Isparta and Burdur, have come a long way in forming the sectors’ rules. Mediterranean

sector representatives claim that marble purchasing in Turkey are encouraged and credited by Chinese Government, where-as Turkish companies continue to look for a way to get over this crises.

December 2014

Imerys Acquired S&B Minerals

Imerys, the world leader in mineral-based specialty solutions for industry, acquired S&B Industrial Minerals assets for €525 million. S&B minerals is the Euro-pean leader in bentonite and the world leader in continuous casting fluxes,

wol-lastonite and perlite-based solutions. Therefore Imerys, which holds feldspar, calcite and perlite mines in Turkey, is ex-pected to take the world leader position in bentonite, perlite and wollastonite production after acquisition of S&B.

Ac-quisition does not include S&B’s bauxite mines in Greece and it will come into force by confirmation of competition au-thority in 2015.


Chesser Resources Leaves Turkey

Australian mining company, Chesser Resources, which has been operating in Turkey for 7 years, announced that they would leave. Turkey by the end of June 2015. Chesser had mentioned conduct-ing a strategic review for company’s

fu-ture in a previous announcement, then capital distribution to shareholders in-stead of investing in sources was decided by company managers. According to the report that was given to Australian Stock Market by Chesser, company’s former

project, Kestanelik had a considerable potential for future operations. However Chesser decided to sell the project that is under development process to avoid sev-eral political or other risks.

February 2015

Anatolia Energy Completed Prefeasibility Study for Temrezli

According to the prefeasibility study (PFS) carried out by Anatolia Energy, Temrezli Uranium Project is found out as profitable. By taking 5.2 million tons of uranium oxide (U3O8) resource into consideration, PFS was based on pro-cessing of uranium bearing solutions, which are obtained from Temrezli field, in a central processing plant that deliv-ers 1.2 million tons of U3O8. PFS shows that $41 million will be invested by

Anatolia Energy in order to recover 9.9 million lb (around 4500 tons) U3O8 in following 12 years. “Completion of the PFS is a significant milestone for Ana-tolia and takes the company to a great deal closer towards achieving our ob-jective of becoming a high margin pro-ducer of uranium in the near term. Our focus over the coming months will be to complete detailed plant designs and seek to assess the project capital based

on local Turkish plant costs ,which we believe may substantially reduce up front capital requirements.” said Paul Cronin, CEO of Anatolia Energy. Be-sides, Anatolia Energy plans to submit environmental and social impact as-sessment (ÇED) at the end of February while they will be working on convert-ing their operatconvert-ing license into an op-erating permit.

February 2015

Ariana Resources Evaluated 2014 Operations

Anglo-Turkish gold exploration and development company focused on Turkey, Ariana Resources made a brief evaluation of company’s Turkey op-erations. According to the announce-ment; Ariana successfully completed the permitting process required by the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning as a part of the Envi-ronmental Impact Assessment (EIA) re-porting process by the end of 2013, so the company could apply for a 20 year license extension. Besides, Ariana’s ap-plication to the Ministry of Economy for a series of tax incentives and other

gov-ernment support mechanisms was also approved in June. Finally the company obtained 100%of the land rights for their primary Reserve at Kızıltepe. Ac-cording to the announcement, Ariana is likely to move into mine construction at Kiziltepe as they await the delivery of the final permit for access to govern-ment-owned land, which in this case relates to an area of forest. Moreover, the company indicated that expanding Kızıltepe resources, which is a part of Red Rabbit district, in size and scale is taking their priority. Once the Kiziltepe mine becomes operational, Ariana

expects to convert this potential into further mineable reserves, enhancing mine life as well as the long-term eco-nomics of the mine. On the other hand, Ariana continues to advance their ex-citing Ardala-Salınbaş JV project with Eldorado Gold Corp. Independent re-views of geological, metallurgical and mining data were completed and the JV is in the process of compiling this data as part of an internal scoping study which will be used to gauge the potential value of the project.

February 2015

$100 Million Investment to Perlite by Bergama Madencilik

Bergama Mining, which is a perlite min-ing company of Turkey plans to invest $100 Million to company’s existing mines in Aliağa and Akhisar regions and proj-ects to produce perlite this year. Chair-man of Bergama Mining, Levent Çullas emphasized that 74%of world’s total

perlite reserve (5.7 billion tons) present in Turkey and he added “EU countries have been studying on modification of perlite for more efficient use in recent years and R&D department of Bergama has been following the same procedure.” Bergama mining recovers perlite from 10

differ-ent perlite ore quarries in İzmir, Manisa, Çanakkale and Ankara which are expand-ed in 5,752 hectares and the company produces recovered perlite in İzmir and Konya processing plants.

February 2015


Mediterranean Resources Leaves Turkey

by Selling its Interests to Turkish JV Partner

Pilot Gold Acquired 60%of TV Tower Project

Canada based, gold and base metal ex-ploration and mining company Medi-terranean Resources announced sale of its Turkish property to company’s Turkish joint venture partner. Mediter-ranean has had exploration and de-velopment projects in Artvin region of Turkey since 2007. The company closed the sale of 80%interests in its Turkish subsidiary, Akdeniz Resources Maden-cilik AŞ for $9 million to JV partner Çeka

İnşaat ve Sanayi Ticaret AŞ. “The joint venture with Çeka started well. In fact, had Çeka not made timely payments on the Company’s behalf, prior to sign-ing the joint venture, it was likely that the Company would have lost its li-censes.   Unfortunately, the mounting political risks have led Çeka to believe that even a more aggressive develop-ment schedule is the solution.  Giving growing concern around the political

climate, we believe the Property will have a better chance of succeeding with a domestic owner who has bet-ter access to capital.  We continue to believe that the Property has tremen-dous potential, but given our financial position, we believe we are much bet-ter off selling the Property to Mr. Kaya.” said the Company’s President and CEO Robert Abenante. 

March 2015

International gold exploration company, Pilot Gold acquired 60%interests of TV Tower Project in Biga Region of Turkey. TV Tower is a joint venture between Pilot Gold (60%) and Teck Madencilik Sanayi Ticaret A.S. (Teck) (40%), which is a Turk-ish subsidiary of Teck Resources Limited. The TV Tower project has delivered four gold, silver and copper-gold discoveries over the past four years, and hosts nu-merous untested targets. The Company

expects to start the 2015 program soon. The company’s priority is to complete drilling operations. The Joint Venture company, which consists of the prede-cessor company of Pilot Gold, Fronteer Gold and Teck, has been working to de-fine the potential of the district. On the other hand, Pilot Gold defined Turkey’s 3rd largest silver deposit with significant gold credits in 2014.

March 2015

Kazan Soda Project of Ciner Group was Awarded

MNG ORKO Buys Balogo Gold Project

Turkish market leader in natural soda ash production, Ciner Group was given ECA Deals of the Year 2014 award by Trade & Forfaiting Review (TFR). As well as the size and the environmental suf-ficiency of the project, financing agree-ment between a subsidiary of Ciner Group, Kazan Soda Elektrik Üretim AŞ

and China’s Sinosure also made a con-tribution to the company to win the award. Ciner group, which has a pro-duction capacity of 1.1 million tons a year, wanted to ramp up its output and sought support for investment in a 2.7 million tons-a-year soda plant together with a gas-fired  800MW  generation

power plant in Turkey. The agreement is the largest Sinosure-covered  long-term facility in Turkey at more than $1billion of financing, and Ciner Group is the first Turkish company which is funded by both Chinese and interna-tional banks at the same time.

March 2015

Turkish private gold exploration com-pany, MNG ORKO announced an agree-ment with Golden Rim Resources to ac-quire its entire interests in Balogo Project for $10 million in staged cash payments, plus a 1%net smelter return.Balogo is an advanced gold exploration project situ-ated in southern Burkina Faso that will be managed by MNG Gold through its subsidiary MNG Gold Burkina Sarl. The Project, which is comprised of 2 joint li-censes covering 360km2 and 43,070m of

drilling, has been completed to date. “I

am delighted to execute this acquisition agreement. Balogo is a high grade gold Project that Golden Rim has been able to develop to its current level through their professionally run exploration activities. We believe that the further funding that we are able to provide from our existing cash resources will enable us to improve upon the resource identified to date and the Project moved into production in a relatively short time frame. Balogo also demonstrates the first step of our gold mining investments in Burkina Faso. Our

aim will be continuing to develop the Balogo Project with consideration of the environmental / social impacts and local community collaboration to commence production right after our Kokoya Proj-ect in Liberia commences production. Our pipeline of projects started with the acquisition of the Kokoya Project in 2014 and will continue with the Balogo Project purchase in line with our targets and strategies.” said Serhan Umurhan, General Manager of MNG ORKO.

March 2015 Source:


Life Sentence Trial for Soma Mine Executives

Record Funding to Yıldırım Holding by UniCredit and EBRD

Turkish prosecutors demand a life sentence for the eight executives of Soma mine who are accused of being responsible for involuntarily causing 301 deaths in Soma coal mine. CEO of Soma Kömür İşletmeleri Can Gür-kan, General Manager of Soma Kö-mür İşletmeleri Ramazan Doğru and six other executives face life sentence whereas prison sentence between 32

months and 20 years was demanded for the eight other company officials. According to the investigations in Soma mine, insufficiency of CO2

de-tectors and quality oxygen masks and some other defects were revealed. 301 miners had died of carbon mon-oxide poisoning after the explosion in the mine.

December 2014

Yıldırım Holding agreed with UniCredit and European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) for company’s Voshkod chrome mining complex in Aktobe, North-Western of Kazakhstan. The agreement was signed after an evaluation of health and safety, techni-cal, taxational and judiciary criteria of Voshkod complex. The EBRD is consid-ering a loan of up to US$130MM as part of a US$260MM A/B facility whereas the 50%of the loan will be financed by UniCredit. Credit agreement between

Yıldırım Holding and EBRD was signed in London with presence Prime Minis-ter of Kazakhstan Karim Massimov and executives of financial institutions on 23 February 2015. The loan will be used for reconstruction of Voskod complex and supporting environmental, operational and safety standards. Chrome produc-tion in Voshkod started in July 2009 and Yıldırım Holding acquired the complex at the end of 2013. The complex consists of an underground chrome mine and a processing plant. Mineral processing

capacity of Voshkod is 1 million ton an-nually whereas its potential is 1.5 million tons. “Our group accelerated metal and mining investments by acquiring Vosh-kod chrome complex in 2013. This loan is the longest term credit for a mining company as well as being the first inter-national long-term credit of our com-pany. We feel right pride of being the first company which takes a loan of this amount from EBRD.” said Yüksel Yıldırım, CEO of Yıldırım Holding.

March 2015

Eti Maden Aims to Reach $2.5 Billion Export

Eti Maden, Turkish  state-owned  min-ing  and  chemicals  company focusing on  boron  products, plans to invest $17 million in R&D studies in 2015 and aims to reach $2.5 billion by 2023. The company will employ around 2,500 people through this investment plan. Eti Maden has qua-drupled its profit for the 5 years, thus the company plans to focus on R&D studies all year round. “Increasing the market share of Eti Maden in world market and entering new markets rely on using of contemporary and modern technology, therefore R&D study investments are cru-cial. Keeping the world leader position in sector, permanence and constant growth underlie a proper R&D policy of the company. Besides, Eti Maden has been

studying to supply foreign-dependent equipment in Turkey.” said Orhan Yılmaz, Chairman of the Board of Eti Maden. “We give weight to value-added boron in production process. In this context, concentrated products’ share has been decreasing in overall boron export while boron chemicals’ or equivalent products’ share has been increasing.” said Yılmaz. He also stated that 5.5 million tons of bo-ron chemicals and equivalents produc-ing capacity and $2.5 billion revenue are aimed in 2023. According to Yılmaz, they expect a significant growth in their boron based detergent export. Yılmaz added “Our R&D studies are in the lab scale but we produce in industrial scale and supply these products for international markets.

For example, boron oxide, calcined cole-manite, calcined tincal, boron soda, Eti Matik, Boron Cleaning Product, glassy boron oxide, zinc borate consist some of our products.”

January 2015

Konya Şeker Won Soma B Thermal Power Plant Tender

Konya Şeker won privatization of Soma B Thermal Power Plant and its prop-erties’ tender for $685.5 million offer. Alsim Alarko Sanayi Tesisleri ve Ticaret

AŞ, Kalyon İnşaat Sanayi ve Ticaret AŞ, Konya Şeker Sanayi and Ticaret AŞ, Ber-eket Enerji ve Üretim AŞ participated to the tender. Soma B Thermal Power

Plant is a lignite fired thermal power plant which consists of 6 units with 165 MW installed power.

January 2015


Spring 2015


Conference on Historical Mining

Sites of Turkey Will be Held in Trabzon

1st Conference on Historical Mining Sites of Turkey (CHMT 2015) will be held on De-cember 3-5 2015, in Trabzon city of Turkey. After the presentation sessions and the official closing ceremony on December 4, the World Miners’ Day will be celebrated at beach complex of Karadeniz Techni-cal University. Sightseeing and TechniTechni-cal tours in Trabzon and Gümüşhane cities will be organized on 3rd day of the con-ference.The aim of the conference is to be a platform for researchers of the top-ics of mining history and preservation of historical mining sites. It will be free to attend the conference presentations. The fee for dinner and sightseeing tours will be announced through 2nd draft.1st Conference on Historical Mining sites of Turkey is organized by Mining Engineer-ing Department of Karadeniz Technical University, International Society for Rock Mechanics Commission on Preservation of Ancient Sites, Madencilik Türkiye Min-ing & Earth Sciences Magazine and Inter-national Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering Asian Techni-cal Committee on “Geo Engineering for Conservation of Heritage Monuments and Historical Sites.


3 December 2015 - Mining and Tunnel Engineering in History

13:00-13:30 Opening ceremony 13:30-15:20 Presentations (Session 1) 15:20-15:40 Coffee&Tea Break 15:40-17:30 Presentations (Session 2) 4 December 2015 - Preservation of His-torical Mining sites and Tunnels 13:00-14:50 Presentations (Session 3) 14:50-15:10 Coffee&Tea Break 15:10-17:00 Presentations (Session 4) 17:00-18:00 Music recital & Closing ceremony

18:00-23:00 Dinner & Celebrations of World Miners’ Day

5 December 2015

Sightseeing and Technical tours in

Tra-bzon and Gümüşhane cities will be or-ganized on 3rd day of the conference (Details will be in the 2nd draft)


Mining Engineering Department of Karadeniz Technical University

ISRM Commission on Preservation of Ancient Sites

Madencilik Türkiye Mining & Earth Sci-ences Magazine

ISSMGE Asian Technical Committee on Geo Engineering for Conservation of Heritage Monuments and Historical Sites


Prof. Dr. Ali Osman Yılmaz (Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey)

Dr. Guo Qinglin (Dunhuang Academy, China)

Dr. Zhang Jingke (Lanzhou University, China)

Onur Aydın (Madencilik Türkiye Mining & Earth Sciences Magazine, Turkey) Eren Komurlu (Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey)

Sener Aliyazicioglu (Karadeniz Techni-cal University, Turkey)

Fatma Sinem Özkan (Karadeniz Techni-cal University, Turkey)

Ali Osman Çakır (Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey)


The official languages of this conference are Turkish and English. Turkish Proceedings should be sent with an abstract in English. Proceedings will be published with a spe-cial issue of MT Bilimsel Journal of Under-ground Resources as free to read online and download. Please, use the web site of jour-nal to see writing norms (www.mtbilimsel. com). To download guide for authors, the link is  In addi-tion to full manuscripts, English and Turkish abstracts booklet will be published. Please use the contact e-mail address given below for sending abstract and full manuscript. The conference can be followed on face-book  (www.facebook. com/chmt2015)


Abstract Submission - 13 March 2015 Notification of Abstract Acceptance - 27 March 2015

Full Paper Submission - June 2015 Full Paper Notification - 24 July 2015 Revised Paper Submission - 4 September 2015



Prof. Dr. Ayhan Kesimal (Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey)

Prof. Dr. Bahtiyar Ünver (Hacettepe University, Turkey)

Prof. Dr. C. Okay Aksoy (Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey)

Prof. Dr. Chen Wenwu (Lanzhou University, China)

Prof. Dr. David Williams (The University of Queensland, Australia)

Prof. Dr. Eduardo A.G. Marques (Federal University of Vicosa, Brazil)

Prof. Dr. Erkan Topal (Curtin University, Australia)

Prof. Dr. Ömer Aydan (University of the Ryukyus, Japan)

Prof. Dr. Resat Ulusay (Hacettepe Uni-versity, Turkey)

Prof. Dr. Wang Xudong (Dunhuang Academy, China)

Prof. Dr. Yoshinori Iwasaki (Geo-Re-search Institute, Japan)

Assoc. Prof. Dr. H. Aydın Bilgin (Middle East Technical University, Turkey) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bayram Ercikdi (Karad-eniz Technical University, Turkey) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Guzin Gulsev Uyar (Hacettepe University, Turkey)

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Melih Genis (Bulent Ece-vit University, Turkey)

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mostafa Sharifzadeh (Curtin University, Australia)

Ass. Prof. Dr. Ferdi Cihangir (Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey)

Ass. Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Cavusoglu (Gu-mushane University, Turkey)


Eren Komurlu (PhD. Candidate) KTU Mining Engineering Department 61080 Trabzon Turkey


Phone: +90462 377 42 97, Mobile: +90554 412 72 98


Alacer Obtained Environmental

Impact Assessment Report for Çöpler Sulphide Mine

Tigris Resources is Listed as Royal Road Minerals in TSX-V

Alacer, a prominent metal miner of Turkey announced that the company obtained Environmental Impact As-sessment (EIA) report by Turkish Minis-try of Environmental and Urbanization. Alacer took an important step to in-crease its production to 3.2 million oz. over 20 years after obtaining the EIA report. “The approval of the EIA repre-sents a significant positive milestone for Çöpler and the Sulfide Project and demonstrates the ongoing support from the Turkish Ministry of Environ-ment and Urbanization for Çöpler and the Project. ‘’The EIA approval is a

fur-ther evidence that the Sulfide Project is fully on track and we can now begin the process of securing the necessary land use permits. In parallel with the land use permitting process, we will continue to advance basic engineer-ing and de-riskengineer-ing efforts. With no debt and a growing cash balance of $320 million, Çöpler’s high-margin produc-tion provides the platform to deliver on our strategy of becoming a sustainable mining operation with a focus on Tur-key.” said Rod Antal, Alacer Gold CEO.

December 2014

Royal Road Minerals, which is a gold and copper focused exploration and development company working in Western and Southeastern Regions of Turkey announced that its ordinary shares have been approved for listing on the TSX Venture Exchange, and will commence trading on April 20, 2015 under the ticker RYR.“Listing is a chal-lenge at the best of times but doing so at the bottom of a cycle is a test of

con-viction and evidence of the Company’s commitment to its projects, people and plans. We are very grateful for the incomparable loyalty of our staff, for the understanding and support of our local partners and for the hard work and persistence of our financiers and our legal and accounting teams.” said Dr. Tim Coughlin, President and CEO of Royal Road Minerals Ltd.

April 2015

Approval to Çöpler Sulphide Project by Alacer’s Board

Alacer Gold, a leading intermedi-ate  gold  mining company with its Turkish subsidiary  Anagold Maden-cilik, approved the Çöpler Sulphide Project for company’s world class Çö-pler Gold Mine. Board of Alacer Gold has approved advancement of the Project into detailed engineering and procure-ment of long-lead time items. Company would be waiting for obtainment of land use permits of the project to start

construction.“The Board’s decision to approve the advancement of the Sulfide Project represents a significant mile-stone for both the Çöpler  Gold  Mine and Alacer. We remain focused on fur-ther de-risking the Sulfide Project and I am confident that we have the resourc-es and expertise in place to advance the Project into the execution phase.” said Rod Antal, CEO of Alacer.

April 2015

Mining Sector Will Achieve its

2023 Goal through New Mining Law

According to the announcement of Ae-gean Exporters’ Association, new min-ing law pleased Turkish minmin-ing sector with about $5 billion contribution to the sector and the sector is now one step closer to its $15 billion 2023 goal.

However, association has been waiting for cancellation of mining circular that obliges obtaining royalties directly to Prime Ministry.Mining Law No. 6592, which is vital for mining sector in terms of contributing natural resources to

Turkish economy, was approved on 4 February 2015 by Turkish Parliamen-tary. The law was published in Official Gazette of Turkey on 18 February 2015 after President’s approval.

February 2015



Spring 2015


Turkey Becomes a Member of International

Lead and Zinc Study Group (ILZSG)

Turkey has joined to Internation-al Lead and Zinc Study Group (ILZSG), which is an effective international ming  organization. According to the in-terview that was made by Mining Tur-key Magazine, Selim Ergüder received a congratulation mail from ILZSG regard-ing the membership of Turkey.

Membership of Turkey on behalf of Eti Maden  has been approved in March 2015. Intervention of Ergüder, who was invited to study group as an observer member in  Portugal  in 2013, and the contribution of Deputy Undersecretary, Ministry of Energy & Natural Resources Nevzat Kavaklı, played an important role for this membership.



• Intergovernmental dialog about  global  zinc,  lead  and metal


• Representing  Turkey  in  global  in-tellectual platforms,

• Following the recent developments and R&D studies of the global nick-el and copper industries,

• Sharing the latest industrial innova-tions and technological developments with other group member countries,

• Attending to organizations where the results of  ILZSG  studies are shared with sector representatives,

• Acquiring about global supply and demand balance information,

• Obtaining raw material produc-tion and consumpproduc-tion in galvanize, iron,  steel  and automotive indus-tries data,

• Acquiring a new vision in industrial-ized countries platforms.



ILZSG was formed by the  United Na-tions in 1959 to:

• Provide opportunities for regular intergovernmental consultations on

international trade inlead and zinc,

• Provide continuous information on the supply and demand position of lead and zinc and its probable devel-opment and to make special studies of the world situation in lead and zinc,

• Consider possible solutions to any problems or difficulties which are unlikely to be resolved in the ordi-nary development of world trade. The main role of the  ILZSG  is to en-sure transparency in the markets for  lead  and  zinc  worldwide. This is achieved by producing a continu-ous flow of information to the market place on supply and demand devel-opments in lead and zinc through the monthly publication of high quality statistics and in depth economic stud-ies. We also organize international ses-sions and special conferences bringing together industry and governments to discuss matters of concern in the lead and zinc sectors.

May 2015

Short Stories ...

Alkim Continues R&D Studies

Odaş Enerji Started Gold


Merger between Park Elektrik

and Silopi Elektrik was Cancelled

Aşkale Çimento Buys

Sançim Bilecik Çimento

Mining Law and Other

Laws No. 6592 Entered into Force

Coal Import of Turkey Reached

Record High in 2014

Alkim Alkali Kimya, which is the largest sodium sulphate company of Turkey, Middle East, Northern Africa and Eastern Europe, has published a report regard-ing company’s R&D studies and invest-ment policy. Alkim will produce high quality and purity magnesium chloride solution, magnesium hydroxide, mag-nesium oxide and potassium chloride thanks to their recent studies. On the other hand, the company completed permits for a chrome processing plant.

November 2014

Anadolu Export Maden Sanayi, sub-sidiary of Odaş Enerji announced an agreement with Stratex Madencilik that includes gold exploration and production. Completing gold explora-tion of Karaağaç district near Kütahya and Uşak, and investing through ex-ploration results are included in terms of the agreement.

February 2015

Merger between two subsidiaries of Park Holding, Park Elektrik AŞ and Silopi Elektrik AŞ was cancelled. Rea-son for the cancellation was shown as the unexpected long process of the merger.

February 2015

Two important cement companies of Turkey agreed that the sale, and conveyance will be completed after competition authority’s approval. Sançim Çimento has been acquired for $220 million by Çimsa Çimento before.

January 2015

According to data obtained from Mon-tel-Foreks, coal import of Turkey reached to 29.8 million tons with a 12%increase in 2014. Turkey imports the majority of its coal from Russia and Colombia.

February 2015

Mining Law No. 3213 was amended with the Law Amending the Mining Law and Other Laws No. 6592 after approval of President of Turkish Re-public, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan on 17 February 2015. New mining law was published in the Official Gazette of Turkey on 18 February 2015.


Mining Turkey Magazine made an interview with Vice President of FKK Eyüp Altuncu and Director of Inter-natyional Sales of Arnco Pathway Fernando Bedos about TyrFil which is distributed over 7 countries including Turkey by FKK Group, and the partner-ship between FKK and Arnco Pathway. FKK was found in 1957 to produce automotive spare parts from metal and rubber. Today, the company pro-duces more than 3000 type of prod-ucts from SMR, NBR, EPDM, Vulkol-lan®, Polyurethane, Polyamide and

other elastomers in its three produc-tion units and supplies to automo-tive, mining, textile, construction, petroleum and earthmoving ma-chinery industries.

On the other hand, Arnco Pathway is a subsidiary of Accella Performance Materials, which is owned by Arse-nal Capital Partners. In 1971, Arnco Pathway invented TyrFil, the world’s first polyurethane tire fill material in-tended to flatproof tires. Since then, TyrFil has not only eliminated flat tires in the most hazardous

indus-tries, but has also been specifically formulated to pro-mote safety by sig-nificantly reducing the transmission of G-Force vibra-tions.

According to Be-dos, TyrFil is a liquid polyurethane that has two compo-nents: polymer and catalyzer. It is in-jected to the tires, then the chemistry starts and after 24

hours it takes its elastic form. He added, “For the sake of good order, there is no more air in the tire, and the tire be-comes flatproof. TyrFil is widely used in mining, construction, airport, sports, military applications etc. We present in 65 countries, and we are happy that FKK is our partner in Turkey.”

Altuncu states that FKK and Arnco Path-way has started a JV for Turkish mar-ket and six other marmar-kets. FKK is the distributer of Arnco Pathway in these countries. He also mentioned that steel industry, mining industry and airport industry consist their major customer profile.

Bedos expresses his opinions about MINEX: “Fair is a perfect opportunity for us to present our products, to open the eyes of OEM’s. It is a perfect venue for us to see other manufactur-ers, clients, products etc. and make them know about our products.”

TyrFil: Flatproofing

Solution to Tires



FKK Güney Oto Lastik A.Ş. Email: Web:


Special discount for Madencilik Turkiye Magazine readers.

Book now and save up to 25% off the standard price.

Use discount code: UB927MTM

“Excellent opportunity to meet and

discuss mutual challenges in the mining

industry, especially those challenges that

if overcome, could enable significant value

generation for the future of mining”

Paul Roos, Vale

15th – 17th June, 2015

Turkey Istanbul


After a sharp decline in Turkish export value in 2009, it started to acceler-ate in positive direction. This positive trend came up with a short break in 2013 yet overall export increased to $157.6 billion in 2014. Meanwhile, total mining export had been increas-ing proportionally between 2009 and 2013. Although a positive trend oc-curred in overall Turkish export, min-ing export value decreased to $4.6 bil-lion in 2014. Figure 1 shows that total mining export share on overall export dropped to 2.9%in 2014 comparing to 3.3%in 2013.

On the other hand, natural stones and industrial minerals constitutes the

majority of Turkish min-eral export. Figure 2 shows that 46%and 18%of total mineral export consists of natural stones and indus-trial minerals respectively. Variety of natural stones and industrial minerals in Turkey has been exciting importing countries’ at-tention recently, and more than 25 varieties of natural stones and industrial min-erals are exported world-wide every year.

Mineral potential of Tur-key has been attracting in-dustry giants of the world. China and USA, which are ranked 1st and 2nd respec-tively with their industrial outputs among the world’s most industrialized coun-tries, have imported the majority of Turkish miner-als by 70.9%in 2014 (Figure 3). These countries are

fol-lowed by Belgium, Italy, Iraq and Saudi Arabia respectively. Marble kept the leading posi-tion as most exported Turkish natural stone and industrial mineral with a value of 4.8 bil-lion kg in 2014, despite a sig-nificant drop in marble export (12.3%) between 2013 and 2014 (Fig-ure 4). On the contrary, feldspar ex-port increased by 11.3%and reached to 4.5 billion kg in 2014 but due to decline in feldspar price, total feldspar income of Turkey increased by 9.5%. Turkey is the primary source of world’s borate and boric acid de-mand. Although unit borate and bo-ric acid pbo-rice remained close to pre-vious years’ unit price, total borate and boric acid export of Turkey in-creased by 14.9%in 2014 comparing to 2013, and consequently Turkey

Industrial Mineral and Natural

Stone Export of Turkey in 2014

  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Overall Export Value

(1000 USD) 132,027,195 102,142,612 113,685,989 134,571,338 151,860,848 151,707,002 157,622,057 Mining Export Value

(1000 USD) 3,241,019 2,508,609 3,655,300 3,876,465 4,181,381 5,042,322 4,646,945 Mining Export Share

on Overall Export (%) 2.4 2.4 3.2 2.9 2.8 3.3 2.9 Figure 1 Natural Stones Industrial Minerals Metalic Minerals Others Mineral Export Distribution

Figure 2 PRC USA Belgium Iraq Saudi Arabia İndia Spain Russian Federation Netherlands Others Italy Top 10 Turkish Mineral Importers

Figure 3


Hazal Birses Mining Turkey Magazine Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineer, Email: Web:




Spring 2015




Export - Amount Export - Value

2014 (kg) 2013 (kg) 2014 ($) 2013 ($) Change in Amount Change in Value

Marble 4,897,548,418 5,704,375,982 975,951,933 1,120,397,059 -14.1% -12.9% Feldspar 4,559,460,171 4,096,543,407 155,621,851 142,146,429 11.3% 9.5% Borate, Boric Acid 848,590,793 738,429,859 266,745,180 232,974,801 14.9% 14.5% Gypsum 813,653,682 945,161,533 77,718,780 90,068,356 -13.9% -13.7% Quartz 442,808,101 399,494,744 62,580,166 51,869,981 10.8% 20.6% Perlite 418,095,684 384,217,222 25,478,527 22,316,106 8.8% 14.2% Bentonite 370,153,765 393,862,684 47,899,135 46,402,693 -6.0% 3.2% Magnesite 303,434,857 304,800,068 100,868,748 104,480,835 -0.4% -3.5% Barite 273,831,267 212,516,491 39,783,642 31,988,996 28.9% 24.4% Salt 158,951,859 90,192,484 18,288,722 12,335,067 76.2% 48.3% Granite 140,282,381 117,928,261 17,850,462 19,667,825 19.0% -9.2% Pumice 129,621,944 121,831,071 9,883,033 8,508,804 6.4% 16.2% Kaolinite 117,303,902 91,340,586 4,056,305 3,255,783 28.4% 24.6% Sulphur 62,813,898 47,707,119 10,373,839 6,765,215 31.7% 53.3% Dolomite 53,593,768 47,589,716 6,371,366 5,603,395 12.6% 13.7% Diatomite 46,444,956 55,444,644 3,164,155 3,963,561 -16.2% -20.2% Slate 5,347,497 4,628,839 637,846 565,711 15.5% 12.8% Steatite 3,379,515 3,404,869 1,331,379 1,381,883 -0.7% -3.7% Leucite 2,926,297 8,000 357,928 5,945 36478.7% 5920.7% Calcium Phosphate 1,301,727 1,128,000 329,133 275,672 15.4% 19.4% Graphite 662,930 835,604 960,505 1,270,338 -20.7% -24.4% Mica 572,095 623,742 170,826 203,162 -8.3% -15.9% Soda Ash 395,051 652,184 400,425 434,907 -39.4% -7.9% Sepiolite 197,201 45,841 52,511 18,894 330.2% 177.9% Figure 4

obtained more than $266 million in-come from boron product’s export. 813.6 million kg of gypsum were ex-ported in 2014, which is 13.9%less than 2013 export value. The de-crease was resulted in a $12 mil-lion loss in Turkish economy with respect to 2013 value. On the other hand, quartz export contributed to Turkish economy positively in 2014. Quartz export of Turkey increased by 10.8%in amount and 20.6%in value. Another important mineral recov-ered in Turkey is perlite. As Turkey is the second largest perlite supplier of the world after Greece, perlite export tends to increase every passing year; thus perlite export reached to 418 million kg ($25.4 million) in 2014. Despite a decrease in bentonite ex-port amount, exex-port value increased by 3.2%in 2014 due to increase in ben-tonite price.

One of the most significant increase in mineral export of Turkey occurred in barite with 28.9%in 2014. Other out-standing changes in mineral and nat-ural stone export of Turkey take place in salt, sulphur and sepiolite exports. On the other hand, graphite, soda ash and diatomite exports faced a signifi-cant drop in 2014. Besides, although 19%increase occurred in granite ex-port in amount, total income dropped 9.2%due to granite price in 2014. In the meantime, import values of some of these minerals and natural stones take attention un-expectedly. Although magnesite, barite, kaolinite, sulphur, salt and feldspar are ranked in Top 20 ex-ported industrial minerals and nat-ural stones of Turkey, significant amount of these minerals was im-ported imim-ported by Turkish indus-try in 2014. Turkey based minerals and natural stones such as marble, boron derivatives and perlite were not affected from this situation. For example, boron derivatives import was only 4.127 kg and perlite



Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($) Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($)

No 2013 2014 1 China 4.879.840.748 977.151.188 China 824.962.675 2 India 153.343.821 42.302.754 India 185.225.664 51.319.255 3 Syria 116.325.713 3.179.841 Syria 141.297.539 4.885.995 4 Taiwan 95.067.876 19.931.325 Egypt 103.069.843 9.328.416 5 Egypt 92.359.526 7.469.893 Taiwan 84.357.683 19.598.037 6 Jordan 55.985.159 2.111.987 Greece 34.676.040 3.460.649 7 Italy 33.666.625 10.009.994 Jordan 33.033.786 1.311.752 8 Indonesia 31.400.152 8.703.925 Italy 24.864.787 9.913.775 9 Greece 29.183.558 3.240.992 Lebanon 24.212.915 3.388.845

10 Hong Kong 22.631.972 5.221.430 Indonesia 19.664.504 5.553.546

As Chinese investors have acquired more than 100 marble quarries in Mediterra-nean region of Turkey, which is a critical region for Turkish marble sector, most of the marble has been exported to China. However, Chinese marble import dropped by 16.9%between 2013 and 2014. Except from China, India, Syria, Egypt and Taiwan are listed in the top of the Turkish marble importers ranking re-spectively in 2014 (Figure 5).


Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($) Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($)

No 2013 2014

1 Italy 1.820.892.404 56.650.460 Italy 1.891.511.866 57.400.032

2 Spain 850.198.756 23.340.749 Spain 1.003.798.123 26.819.638

3 Russian Federation 394.809.871 14.129.423 Russian

Federation 433.175.456 14.571.161

4 Poland 147.519.291 5.099.187 Bulgaria 133.774.800 3.397.863

5 Bulgaria 110.665.437 2.932.293 Egypt 126.349.200 7.038.394

6 Egypt 104.250.527 6.071.514 Poland 121.000.200 4.666.218

7 Saudi Arabia 85.800.600 4.815.911 Tunisia 93.747.000 2.534.733

8 Netherlands 77.704.000 4.297.882 Ukraine 85.842.500 3.059.290

9 Belarus 68.644.000 1.732.671 Netherlands 76.134.500 4.307.522

10 Ukraine 62.276.193 2.790.067 Israel 73.541.615 4.669.151

Turkey’s most exported industrial mineral, feldspar has been mostly demanded by Italy. Italy’s feldspar import reached to 1.9 billion kg in 2014 with a slight increase. Other Mediterranean country, Spain, took 2nd place in 2014, and fol-lowed by Russia, Bulgaria and Egypt. (Figure 6)

Figure 5

Figure 6


Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($) Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($)

No 2013 2014 1 China 330.914.881 109.509.565 China 353.831.030 118.038.212 2 USA 133.394.100 31.424.176 USA 173.927.798 41.408.295 3 Taiwan 51.855.000 18.069.393 Taiwan 53.092.000 18.682.543 4 Spain 42.538.000 10.686.320 India 50.601.606 14.097.549 5 India 36.849.311 10.180.640 Spain 42.224.000 10.886.802 6 Romania 29.907.000 11.025.865 Austria 30.100.000 11.154.463 7 Japan 17.285.000 5.690.130 Japan 29.799.000 9.733.310 8 Belgium 16.373.058 6.028.260 Malaysia 16.168.000 5.735.440

9 Malaysia 14.000.000 5.040.000 FederationRussian 14.298.278 5.684.220 10 Russian

Federation 8.393.110 3.643.198 Netherlands 10.921.000 3.613.493

China, USA, Taiwan, India and Spain re-main in the top of the list as the major borate and boric importers of Turkey (Figure 7). Although Austria did not take any place in the Top 20 borate and boric acid importers list in 2013, the country imported 30 million kg borate and boric acid from Turkey in 2014. Besides, Neth-erlands, France and Romania also take attention by entering the Top 20 rank-ing in 2014.


Spring 2015



Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($) Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($)

No 2013 2014

1 Russian Federation 257.692.205 25.875.620 FederationRussian 210.677.243 19.831.174

2 Ukraine 139.206.428 11.033.648 Nigeria 138.769.161 15.982.971 3 Nigeria 120.676.855 14.730.007 Ukraine 98.339.689 7.911.647 4 Iraq 67.801.782 6.910.329 Georgia 58.460.650 6.029.638 5 Georgia 50.399.533 5.361.053 Iraq 50.456.665 4.082.936 6 Azerbaijan 37.404.692 3.774.467 Bulgaria 33.090.077 3.151.698 7 Turkmenistan 32.275.746 2.734.338 Turkmenistan 32.048.219 4.034.258 8 Bulgaria 30.344.198 2.933.471 Azerbaijan 23.647.215 2.327.173 9 Lebanon 12.090.043 236.638 Israel 11.137.629 363.775 10 Israel 7.790.709 303.539 Lebanon 10.671.563 256.510

Russian Federation remains as the top Gypsum importer of Turkey in 2014. Russia imported $19.8 million of gyp-sum comparing to $25.8 million in 2013. Nigeria, Ukraine, Georgia and Iraq stand in the leading positions of the Top 20 gypsum importers ranking in 2014 as in 2013 (Figure 8).


Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($) Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($)

No 2013 2014

1 Russian Federation 257.692.205 25.875.620 FederationRussian 210.677.243 19.831.174

2 Ukraine 139.206.428 11.033.648 Nigeria 138.769.161 15.982.971 3 Nigeria 120.676.855 14.730.007 Ukraine 98.339.689 7.911.647 4 Iraq 67.801.782 6.910.329 Georgia 58.460.650 6.029.638 5 Georgia 50.399.533 5.361.053 Iraq 50.456.665 4.082.936 6 Azerbaijan 37.404.692 3.774.467 Bulgaria 33.090.077 3.151.698 7 Turkmenistan 32.275.746 2.734.338 Turkmenistan 32.048.219 4.034.258 8 Bulgaria 30.344.198 2.933.471 Azerbaijan 23.647.215 2.327.173 9 Lebanon 12.090.043 236.638 Israel 11.137.629 363.775 10 Israel 7.790.709 303.539 Lebanon 10.671.563 256.510

Top two quartz importers were Is-rael and Spain in this order both in 2013 and 2014. Quartz import of Is-rael, Iceland and Vietnam increased by 14.2%, 8.8%and 140.5%respectively, but quartz import of Spain, Norway and USA declined by 8%, 71.1%and 29.1%respectively in 2014 (Figure 9).


Figure 9


Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($) Country Export Amount (kg) Export Value ($)

No 2013 2014

1 Belgium 64.274.495 1.679.343 FederationRussian 67.984.323 3.897.726 2 Russian Federation 54.376.075 3.184.509 Belgium 48.519.926 1.405.795

3 Italy 39.385.962 1.494.643 India 40.990.600 3.028.620

4 India 35.281.461 2.553.713 Italy 34.251.993 1.145.109

5 South Korea 34.231.000 2.814.695 Spain 32.054.528 1.694.844

6 Spain 32.780.681 1.648.776 South

Korea 30.821.518 2.571.391

7 Brazil 23.845.510 1.665.872 China 28.126.026 2.392.221

8 China 19.231.365 1.660.600 ArabiaSaudi 24.475.800 1.911.424

9 Saudia Arabia 14.974.333 1.268.195 Brazil 23.906.895 1.660.127

10 Denmark 11.981.894 551.827 England 17.453.069 956.834

There was not a significant change in ranking of the Top 20 perlite importers in 2014 (Figure 10). Russian Federation moved up to the top of the list with a 25%increase in total perlite import while perlite import of Belgium de-clined by %24.5 this year. Apart from these countries, Poland, which import-ed more than 1.6 million kg of perlite for $150,000 became the new perlite demander of Turkey in 2014.

Figure 10 Source:





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