TEACHER’S CLUB EXAMS
End-of-year exam – Paper 2
TIME: 2½ hours
INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION
Read the instructions carefully before answering the questions. 1. Answer ALL the questions.
2. Start the answer to each question at the top of a NEW page.
3. Number the answers correctly according to the numbering system used in this question paper.
4. Write neatly and legibly.
5. If you do NOT present the answers according to the instructions of each question, you will lose marks.
6. Do ALL drawings in pencil and label them in blue or black ink.
7. Only draw diagrams or flow charts when you are requested to do so. 8. The diagrams in this question paper are not necessarily drawn to scale. 9. You are NOT allowed to use graph paper.
Various possible answers are provided for each question. Write only the letter for the correct answer next to the corresponding number.
1.1.1 The biocontrol agent that was introduced to control the prickly pear was the …
A cochineal scale insect B rust fungus gall
C gall wasp
D red-water fern weevil. (2)
1.1.2 The phylum of animals that has a rod of stiffening tissue to support the body with a nerve cord running alongside it is ...
A Arthropoda B Annelida C Chordata
D Porifera. (2)
1.1.3 The specialised cells found in the body wall of the sponge that filters out tiny particles of food are called ...
A nematocysts B collar cells C endoderm cells
D mesoglea. (2)
1.1.4 The arthropods that have been linked to the spread of cholera are ... A mosquitos
B spiders C ticks
1.1.5 The forelimb shown below that is modified for digging is ... A B C D A forelimb A B forelimb B C forelimb C D forelimb D. (2)  Question 1.2
Give the correct biologicalterm for each description. Write only the term next to the relevant question number.
1.2.1 a specific geographical area with distinct vegetation types that exist as a
result of the climate in the area (1)
1.2.2 plants that have naked seeds (1)
1.2.3 the female part of the flower consisting of the stigma, style and ovary (1) 1.2.4 harmful substances released into the air, land or water (1) 1.2.5 the phylum to which sea anemones and jellyfish belong (1)
Write the letter of the statement or description in Column B that can be associated best with each term in Column A.
Column A Column B
1.3.1 Kyoto Protocol A clearing alien weeds 1.3.2 tsetse fly B flightless birds
1.3.3 ratites C protects Earth from harmful UV rays
1.3.4 landfill site D global warming
1.3.5 Argentine ants E waste water containing pollutants
1.3.6 Work for Water Programme F African sleeping sickness
1.3.7 effluent G Ethiopian region
1.3.8 ozone layer H fresh water snail
1.3.9 Africa I invasive alien species
1.3.10 bilharzia host J rubbish dump K earthworm
Look at the flow chart below and answer the questions that follow.
Life cycle of the pork tapeworm
1.4.1 To which phylum does the tapeworm belong? (1) 1.4.2 In which host does the adult tapeworm live? (1) 1.4.3 How does the adult tapeworm gain nutrients? (2) 1.4.4 Explain how the tapeworm completes its lifecycle. (4) 1.4.5 What complications arise when tapeworm eggs are eaten by young
1.4.6 List two steps that communities can take to prevent young children being
harmed by tapeworms. (2)
 Question 1.5
1.5.1 List the three Rs of waste management. (3)
1.5.2 Give the name used to describe the process whereby earthworms are
used to breakdown wastes. (1)
1.5.3 How do the activities of earthworms benefit the soil? (2) 1.5.4 Give two ways in which earthworm farms can benefit rural communities. (2)
The graph below shows the effect of biocontrol on an invasive alien plant population.
Graph showing the effect of biocontrol on an invasive alien plant population
1.6.1 Explain what is meant by the term ‘biocontrol’. (1) 1.6.2 Give two reasons that you can see from the graph to support the fact that
biocontrol has been successful in controlling the alien plant population. (2) 1.6.3 Why is host specificity so important when introducing a biocontrol agent? (2)
 Total Question 1: 50 marks Total Section A: 50 marks
Read the article and answer the questions that follow.
Cheetahs are endangered animals in southern Africa. A high percentage of cheetahs live outside protected National Parks and in farmlands. Unfortunately, cheetahs prey on livestock, especially during prolonged drought when their natural prey numbers are low. Some farmers shoot and poison cheetahs in an attempt to protect their livestock.
In 1993 the Cheetah Conservation Fund introduced the Livestock Guarding Dog
Programme. The Anatolian shepherd dog originates from Turkey. It was bred to protect livestock from bears and wolves. The climate where the Anatolian shepherd dogs come from is very similar to parts of southern Africa with little rain, and extreme heat in summer and cold in winter. The Anatolian shepherd dogs have coarse, light-coloured hair that allows effective body cooling. They are large, move fast and can go for days with very little food or water.
Anatolian shepherd dog puppies are raised with the herds they will protect and form strong bonds with them. They stay with the herds and are very sensitive to changes in herd
behaviour. In southern Africa the Anatolian shepherd dogs aggressively protect herds of goats, sheep or cattle from predators such as cheetah, leopards, baboons, jackals, caracals and sometimes poachers. These dogs are not trained to chase or attack, but to bark and maintain aggressive posture to scare away predators.
To date the programme has been highly successful. Farmers who have Anatolian shepherd dogs guarding their livestock report no stock losses.
a) Give the scientific name for the diagram above. (1)
b) What does A indicate on the diagram? (1)
c) What does B indicate on the diagram? (1)
d) Are cheetahs related to domestic cats? Give a reason for your answer. (2)
e) How long ago did cheetahs evolve? (2)
2.1.3 Cheetahs once occurred in Africa and Asia. Today cheetahs are extinct in Asia and almost extinct in Africa. List three possible reasons why
cheetahs face extinction. (3)
2.1.4 Why are the Anatolian shepherd dogs so well suited to guard herds of
livestock in southern Africa? (4)
2.1.5 Why are the Anatolian shepherd dogs raised from puppies with the herds
of livestock they will protect? (1)
2.1.6 Why is the introduction of the Livestock Guarding Dog Programme
regarded as a sustainable environmental management strategy? (5)
South Africa has offered to slow the growth of its greenhouse gas emissions by 34% by 2020. The biggest producers of greenhouse gases in South Africa are Eskom, the producers of electricity, and Sasol, the producers of petrol and diesel from fossil fuels.
2.2.1 Which is the most important greenhouse gas? (1) 2.2.2 Explain why Eskom and Sasol produce the most greenhouse gases. (2) 2.2.3 You are a scientist who has been employed by the government to check
that the target is reached. Briefly explain the methodology you would use
to do this. (3)
2.2.4 Suggest two strategies that Eskom and Sasol could use to reduce their
greenhouse gas emissions. (2)
 Total Question 2: 30 marks
More than 1,5 million hectares of South Africa is covered by industrial tree
plantations that provide wood for the pulp and paper industry. The percentage of different tree species occurring in the plantations is shown in the table below.
Species Percentage occurring in commercial plantations
black wattle 8%
other species 5%
3.1.1 Use the data given in the table to draw a pie chart showing the percentage of different tree species occurring in the industrial tree
3.1.2 a) To which major plant group do pine trees belong? (1) b) Explain how pines are adapted to grow to such great heights. (3) c) List the economically important products that are obtained from pine
3.1.4 Several large timber and paper companies encourage afforestation by selling seedlings and fertilisers to local rural farmers at inexpensive prices. They buy back the wood from the farmers once the trees are fully
grown. Give two reasons why afforestation can degrade the environment. (2) 3.1.5 Sugar cane fibre is a by-product of sugar production. The Sappi paper
mill in Stanger, KwaZulu-Natal, uses sugar cane fibre, bought mostly from previously disadvantaged local sugar cane growers, as its primary source of pulp. Why is it an advantage for the mill to use sugar cane fibre as pulp
for making paper? (2)
 Question 3.2
Oystercatcher birds use the coastal dunes as a breeding area. Over a 20-year period the size of an oystercatcher population has been monitored on a coastal dune where off-road vehicles drive. The data shown in the table was collected. Look at the table carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Year population sizeOystercatcher using the beach during seasonNumber of off-road vehicles
1990–1991 250 birds 12 1992–1993 320 birds 10 1994–1995 111 birds 14 1996–1997 205 birds 16 1998–1999 134 bird 28 2000–2001 50 birds 34 2002–2003 60 birds 36 2004–2005 103 birds 30 2006–2007 74 birds 29 2008–2009 150 birds 14
3.2.4 List possible reasons for the decrease in the oystercatcher population in
the period 1994–1995. (1)
3.2.5 Consider the experimental design and suggest ways in which the
technique used could be improved. (2)
3.2.6 What can you conclude from this study? (1)
3.2.7 Name one other example of how the dune ecosystem is impacted by the
use of off-road vehicles on the dunes. (1)
 Total Question 3: 30 marks Total Section B: 60 marks
Cichlids are herbivorous, freshwater fish that are found widely in the southern continental regions as shown on the map. Cichlids form one of the largest vertebrate families with at least 1 300 scientifically described species. Many new species are discovered each year with numerous species still not
described. Use the map and the data in the table to answer the questions that follow.
Map and table showing the worldwide distribution of cichlid fish
4.1.1 Define the term ‘biogeography’. (2)
4.1.2 The scientific theory of biogeography grew from the work of two
scientists. Name these scientists. (2)
4.1.5 In Lake Victoria on the East African Plateau, scientists claim that as many as 400 cichlid species may have evolved from five ancestors. Most cichlid species in Lake Victoria are endemic.
a) Explain the meaning of the term ‘endemic’. (2) b) Give one possible reason why so many cichlid species have evolved
in Lake Victoria. (2)
4.1.6 In the 1950s, the Nile Perch, a large predatory fish, was introduced into Lake Victoria. Half the cichlid species have been lost from the lake, resulting in an ecological disaster.
a) Why is the Nile Perch known as an ‘invasive alien species’? (3) b) The Nile Perch is fished commercially by large fishing companies that
largely displace the local traditional fishing industry which relies on cichlids. List two possible ways in which the Nile Perch population can
be controlled allowing the cichlids to recover. (2)
 Question 4.2
The iSimangaliso Wetland Park was declared a World Heritage Site in 1999. The Lake St Lucia area has been a site of a long and bitter struggle for the use of land.
Write an essay in which you discuss the issues surrounding the Lake St Lucia area under the following headings.
• The environmental importance of the Lake St Lucia ecosystem (8) • The impact of mining in the Lake St Lucia region from the point of view of the
mining company, the conservationists and the local community (4 × 3)
Note: No marks will be awarded for answers in the form of flow charts or diagrams.
 Total Question 4: 40 marks Total Section C: 40 marks Grand total: 150 marks