Warm-Up. Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases. Lesson Question. Lesson Goals. Identify the. of phrases in writing. Use phrases.

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Warm-Up

Lesson Question

Lesson Goals

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Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

Revise phrases in sentences to

precise ideas.

Recognize various

types of

.

Use phrases . Identify the

of phrases in writing.

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Warm-Up

Words to Know

Write the letter of the definition next to the matching word as you work through the lesson. You may use the glossary to help you.

W

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Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

A. to add description and detail to another word

B. a group of words that work together to perform a certain function in a

sentence

C. a verbal that functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb that is formed by placing to in front of a verb stem D. a verbal that functions as a noun and

is formed by adding -ing to a verb stem

E. a verbal that functions as an adjective _____ gerund

_____ infinitive

_____ modify

_____ participle

_____ phrase

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Warm-Up

Parts of Speech

Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

The explain how words are used in sentences.

a noun (person, place, or thing) or pronoun

• Examples: warm, sad, four,

exciting

• Modifies a

, adjective, or adverb

• Examples: well, quickly, never, very, also

a noun to another word

• Examples: at, on, in, from, over, under

Adjective Verb Adverb Preposition

• Shows an

or state of being

• Examples: go, speak, eat, leave, is, are

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A is a group of words that work together to perform a certain function in a sentence.

A phrase can function as:

• a .

• an adjective.

• an adverb.

Writers use phrases to:

• convey precisely.

• show specific .

• add variety and interest.

Understanding Phrases

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Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

Instruction

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Verbal Phrases

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Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

A verbal phrase is a group of words that use a verb to another part of speech.

Gerund phrase

• – a

noun formed by adding

to a verb

• Always acts as a noun

• Example: Playing the flute is a lot of fun.

Infinitive phrase

• – the

word in front of a verb

• Can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb

• Example: To kick the ball past the goalie is my goal!

Participial phrase

• – a

verb that functions as an

• Is always an adjective describing a noun

• Example: Filled with joy, I sprinted down the hall.

Instruction

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Slide

Analyze the Function of Verbal Phrases

Follow these steps to a verbal phrase.

• Identify the phrase: Look for gerunds, infinitives, and participles.

• Consider its : What part of speech does the phrase work as in the sentence?

• Consider its : What does the phrase add to the writing? Does it convey an idea or add detail?

Underline gerund phrases. Circle infinitive phrases. Put a box around participial phrases.

Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

Instruction

Creating a healthier lifestyle doesn’t have to be boring. In fact, it can be fun!

Hector loves to walk to school. He enjoys watching the sun peep over the treetops. Hector’s goal is to eat more fruits and vegetables. When chopped into small pieces, apples are a perfect topping for a salad! What can you do to add healthier habits to your life every day?

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Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

Adverbial and Adjectival Phrases

Phrases can also be categorized by the they use or by their function.

phrase

• A group of words that together function as an

• Used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb

• Example: The children sang loudly and joyfully.

phrase

• A group of words that together function as an

• Used to modify a noun or pronoun

• Example: I am extremely happy.

Instruction

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Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

Using Phrases to Enhance Writing

Phrases improve writing by conveying and adding variety and interest.

Adverbial phrases

• Example: , I studied for my exam.

• Example: We learned fascinating details from our tour guide.

Adjectival phrases

• Example: Cameron and Abby were students in chemistry class.

• Example: Their enthusiasm made them friends.

Prepositional Phrases

A phrase:

• begins with a preposition.

• ends with an or noun.

• functions as an adverb or .

Prepositional phrases can direction, location, or time, or an object.

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Instruction

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Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

Prepositional Phrases

Properly Placing Modifiers

must be correctly placed in a sentence to ensure that ideas are conveyed precisely.

Misplaced modifier

• A word or phrase that is separated from the word it modifies

Dangling modifier

• A word or phrase that is in an incorrect , so that it appears to a part of the sentence other than the part intended

Instruction

These sentences include prepositional phrases that add . Underline the prepositional phrase in each sentence.

• After dinner, we will go for a walk.

• I saw the new dinosaur display at the museum.

• Tell me the story about the big blizzard!

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Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

Correcting Misplaced Modifiers

An important strategy for detecting modifiers is to determine what the word or phrase is describing.

Instruction

Correcting Dangling Modifiers

A modifier modifies a part of the sentence other than the part intended.

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Incorrect Correct

• A bowl of is not very appetizing.

• The three students

sat in the corner.

• A cold bowl of oatmeal is not very appetizing.

• The three students sat in the corner cracking jokes.

Underline the dangling modifier, then complete the sentence to correct it.

Circle the word that the modifier modifies in each of the incorrect sentences.

Then complete the correct sentences.

Incorrect Correct

• Looking toward the west, a funnel

cloud began to take shape on the horizon.

• Looking toward the west, a funnel cloud beginning to take shape on the horizon.

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Summary

Answer

How do phrases help writers convey ideas precisely?

Lesson Question

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Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

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Summary Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

How do help writers convey ideas precisely?

Recognize various types of phrases.

• such as gerunds, infinitives, and participles

• Prepositional phrases

• Adjectival phrases

• phrases

Identify the of phrases in writing.

• Nouns

• Adjectives

• Adverbs

Use phrases correctly to convey ideas precisely.

• modifiers

• modifiers

Review: Key Concepts

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Summary Parts of Speech and Types of Phrases

Use this space to write any questions or thoughts about this lesson.

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