Psy.D. Program in Clinical Psychology Practicum Training Handbook

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Psy.D. Program in Clinical Psychology

Practicum Training Handbook

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Accredited by the American Psychological Association

For information regarding the accreditation of our program Please consult:

American Psychological Association Commission on Accreditation

750 First Street, NE Washington, DC 20002

(202)336-5979

http://www.apa.org/ed/accreditation

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Table of Contents

I. Introduction 5

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology 5

Goals of Practicum Training 5

The Practicum Training Handbook 6

II. Organizational Structure & Responsibilities: 6

Program Chair/Director of Clinical Training 6

Clinical Training Committee 7

III. Student Responsibilities 7

IV. Confidentiality 8

V. Agency Affiliation Process 8

VI. Practicum Placement Process 9

VII. Professional, Ethical & Legal Conduct 10

VIII. Professional Liability Insurance 10

IX. Sexual Harassment 10

X. Multiple Relationships 10

XI. Clinical Training Guidelines: Practicum 11

Introduction 11

Practicum Defined 11

Definition of Practicum Hours 12

Standards for Supervisors 13

Personal Psychotherapy Requirements 14

Credit for Clinical Hours from Other Disciplines 14

Standards for Practicum Settings 15

Practicum Requirements 15

When Problems Arise 16

XII. Evaluation 17

Introduction 17

Domain A: Due Process General Guidelines 18

Domain B: Communicating between ULV and practicum sites 19

Domain C: The Evaluation Process 19

Student Evaluations of Supervisor(s) and Practicum Sites 20

Supervisor Evaluation of Students 20

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Guidelines for Communication when problems arise

about a student 21

Defining deficiencies in a Student’s Performance 22

Problematic Behaviors 22

Incompetence 22

Impairment 23

Behaviors Warranting Expulsion 24

Domain D: Other Complain Procedures 30

Domain E: Other areas of formal review 31

Domain F: Due Process remediation considerations 31

References 33

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I. Introduction Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology

The Clinical Psychology program awards the Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree and is accredited by the American Psychological Association. It builds on the University of La Verne’s established tradition of community service, and prepares graduates to work competently and responsibility in a multicultural and pluralistic society.

Students receive a breadth and depth of training that combine practical experience with research and writing requirements, integrating knowledge and skills with scientific foundations of

psychology. The program exemplifies the scholar-practitioner model of professional training and prepares clinical psychologists to promote mental health for the welfare of individuals, families, groups, institutions, and society as a whole.

The core mission of the program is to train scholar-practitioners who think critically, apply their knowledge diligently, and practice ethically and compassionately.

Goals of Practicum Training

The goal of practicum training is to prepare doctoral students to become competent and ethically mature professional psychologists through practical training guided by the integration of classroom instruction and the hands-on work of clinical psychologists in mental health settings. These training objectives include the following:

1. To enhance the ability to apply theoretical constructs to the practical aspects of training;

2. To consolidate a knowledge base of the critical aspects in the practice of clinical- psychology in the domains of assessment, intervention and management of mental health issues;

3. To develop the skills, techniques and models to competently carry out psychological, consultation, evaluation and research services at multiple levels of intervention; 4. To become skilled at integrating theory, research and practice in all aspects of

clinical professional activities;

5. To become knowledgeable and skilled in working in a wide range of settings with diverse populations;

6. To confront current issues and controversies in the field and to provide real solutions through a process of exploring one’s own psychological perspective, utilizing/applying the legal and ethical guidelines in the field, and consulting with supervisors and other key participants;

7. To become engaged with positive role models in the field who will

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The Practicum Training Handbook

This Practicum Training Handbook is provided to all students enrolled in the Psy.D. program at the University of La Verne. The handbook is also distributed to practicum supervisors at the various sites in which students complete their training requirements. The purpose of this handbook is to provide information necessary for students to successfully satisfy and complete the predoctoral field training requirements that have been established by the Psy.D. program at the University of La Verne, the American Psychological Association, and the California Board of Psychology. The instructions and procedures in this Handbook are based on the laws and regulations of the most recent Board of Psychology rules and regulations. The Program Leaders of the Psy.D. program are in continual contact with the Board of Psychology, and students will receive any changes and/or amendments to the present rules and regulations pertaining to the training component of the Psy.D. program.

The handbook provides pertinent information regarding ULV’s requirements and expectations concerning clinical training, clinical supervision, and professional development. Practicum supervisors comply with the requirements and procedures which are defined and discussed in this handbook, along with any amendments that are forwarded to the agency at a later date.

II. Organizational Structure and Responsibilities

The Program Chair/Director of Clinical Training (PC/DCT) and the Clinical Training Committee (CTC) are responsible for the Clinical training components of the ULV’s Psy.D. program.

A. Program Chair/Director of Clinical Training (PC/DCT)

The Program Chair (PC) of the Psy.D. Program is responsible for administering ULV’s Psy.D. Program. The PC/DCT oversees the Practicum and Internship training component of the Psy.D. Program and coordinates the Clinical Competency Exam. The PC/DCT is responsible for: anticipating the needs and concerns of students; developing appropriate agenda items for the Clinical Training Committee, and representing the University of La Verne and its doctoral program at relevant meetings (i.e. Southern California Association of Psychology Training Program’s (SCAPTP), Association of Psychology Internship and Postdoctoral Centers (APPIC).

The PC/DCT serves as an agency liaison, which includes the following responsibilities: 1. Make initial contact with potential agencies and conduct site visits

to ascertain the appropriateness of the particular site for practicum. 2. Serve as liaison with practicum placement agencies by informing them of

ULV’s policies and procedures, conducting regular site visits, meeting with both students and supervisors on site, responding to agency and student needs as they arise, and providing consultation to agencies to enhance their training programs;

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3. Conduct scheduled evaluations of agencies;

4. Meet with students to advise them regarding practicum training, which includes recommending, reviewing, and approving agency choices, and assisting with the application process;

5. Participate in the professional evaluation of students after completion of practicum;

6. Ensure that students systematically evaluate practicum placement experiences at appropriate points in time.

B. Clinical Training Committee

The Clinical Training Committee (CTC) is comprised of the PC/DCT and additional clinical/counseling faculty members. The CTC is responsible for facilitating

communication, decisions, and interaction between the committee and the Psychology Department. Members of the CTC may also serve as advisors to students relative to clinical training issues.

III. Student Responsibilities

Each student is expected to know and follow the contents of the guidelines contained in this handbook. Should an issue arise that is not covered in the handbook the student should consult with the PC/DCT for assistance. Failure to follow the guidelines as set forth in this handbook may affect the student’s progress through the program. More specifically, students are responsible for the following:

A. To be accountable for their legal, ethical, and professional conduct at ULV and at all practicum training agencies (see Section VIII).

B. To advise the PC/DCT when placement conditions differ from those contracted for by the agency, the student, and the school, or which interfere with proper training. Examples of such conditions may include the following:

1. Supervision that does not meet with the terms of the affiliation and/or other contractual agreements, and/or does not meet the specific criteria as cited in Section XI;

2. Insufficient training opportunities (i.e., in-services, case conferences, client load, supervision);

3. Any agency changes (i.e., financial or administrative problems, changes in personnel) that may adversely affect the professional standards and/or clinical or administrative functioning of the agency;

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4. Any form of exploitation, which includes sexual harassment, workload, or any and all inappropriate requests, such as tasks that are unrelated to the training of a clinical psychologist;

5. Discriminatory practices based on race, color, national origin, age, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or physical disability.

IV. Confidentiality

Any communication between a student and the Program Chair/Director of Clinical Training, and Clinical Training Committee faculty regarding training issues is not viewed as confidential. However, the welfare and training of the student as well as the needs of the profession, the public, and the university will be taken into consideration when determining how to use any shared information. The student may participate in discussions regarding the dissemination of information.

The supervision experience is generally considered open for discussion between supervisors and the PC/DCT. Supervisors will be instructed to use their discretion regarding the form and content of what they communicate, and students may request that certain personal information be treated as confidential by supervisors. However, each supervisor must consider whether the disclosure of information will be beneficial to the training of the student, as well as to the good of the public. It is recommended that the student and supervisor discuss these issues prior to the disclosure of sensitive information to the PC/DCT.

Practicum placement evaluations of students are only available to the Psychology faculty, and are to be treated similarly to course evaluations. Disclosure of information is to be done solely on a “need to know” basis, and any other release of information requires the student’s request and consent.

As a function of the selection process, Practicum placement agencies have the right to contact former supervisors at previous placement agencies. It is broadly assumed that the student’s listing of these placement agencies on their applications and vitae constitutes a tacit release of information.

V. Agency Affiliation Process

After the PC/DCT designates specific practicum training sites that are appropriate for students to gain their training, these agencies are sent an Affiliation Packet which contains general information regarding ULV’s policies for supervision, training, and hours. Affiliation packets are forwarded to practicum sites after the agency has accepted students for practicum training. The PC/DCT maintains appropriate contractual relationships with the practicum training sites. These contractual relationships include (but are not limited to) university affiliation agreements, agency contracts, county contracts, state contracts, and federal contracts.

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VI. Practicum Placement Process

The placement of ULV Psy.D. students for practica is done in consultation with the PC/DCT. Psy.D. students may obtain their own placements, in consultation with the PC/DCT, but they are not permitted to contact sites or change site assignments without the approval of the PC/DCT. Practicum begins in the second year of the program.

The following information outlines the general process for practicum placement. Specific details (i.e. specific dates, availability of practicum advisors, etc) are updated annually by the PC/ DCT and provided to students in the Practicum Orientation for that year.

A. Students applying for their first practicum experience are advised by the PC/DCT prior to beginning practicum experiences and should submit a

curriculum vitae (CV) to PC/DCT for review prior to the practicum orientation and should meet with the PC/DCT to determine suitable placements before applying to any sites. Students applying for their second or third practicum experiences may request an advising meeting with the PC/DCT but are not required to do so. No student may apply to any restricted practicum site without the approval of the PC/DCT.

B. All students are responsible for applying to practicum sites approved by the PC/DCT and for arranging interviews with those sites.

C. ULV permits students to apply to and accept offers from both SCAPTP and non- SCAPTP sites. However, ULV abides by SCAPTP policies for site notification of students and for students’ acceptance of offers. SCAPTP policies permit

notification of students applying to non-SCAPTP sites prior to the

SCAPTP Uniform Notification Day. The SCAPTP UND is the second Monday in April. Any student who accepts an offer from a non-SCAPTP site prior to the SCAPTP UND must immediately withdraw application from all SCAPTP sites. ULV adheres to SCAPTP guidelines on students’ acceptance of offers (regardless of whether such offers are made by SCAPTP or non-SCAPTP sites). According to SCAPTP guidelines, an applicant must respond immediately to an offer in one of three ways; the offer may be accepted, the offer may be rejected, or the offer may be “held.” Holding an offer means that the student is asking the agency to wait for a final decision because the student is waiting to hear from another agency that the student finds more desirable. Only one offer may be held at a time and it can only be held for 30 minutes. If the agency has not heard from the invited student in 30 minutes, the site is free to make an offer to another student. Students are encouraged to call and relieve a “hold” and inform the agency that they have accepted another position.

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D. Students who do not match through the SCAPTP process must work with the PC/DCT to secure a practicum placement. Students have until July 1st to obtain a practicum placement for the fall. Any student not securing placement for required practica (i.e. Psy 635/636 or 655/656) by July 1st will be required to “sit out” practicum for the training year and will subsequently be forced “off track” which will delay that student’s program of study and time to completion.

VII. Professional, Ethical And Legal Conduct

Students are responsible for behaving in a professional, ethical, and legal manner at their practicum placements. To fulfill this requirement, students are expected to be familiar with the APA Code of Ethics and the California Laws and Regulations Relating to the Practice of Psychology.

Students may not engage in any unprofessional, unethical, or illegal practices at their practicum sites even if such practices are condoned, expected, or encouraged by agency supervisors and/or staff. Students must promptly notify their supervisors of any such practices that they observe at the agency by staff or other trainees. The PC/DCT must be notified immediately regarding these issues. In cases where the supervisor is suspected of unprofessional, unethical, or illegal practices, the student must notify the PC/DCT immediately.

Students who feel they would be in jeopardy or punished for reporting unprofessional, unethical, or illegal behavior to the agency itself, must report these concerns to the PC/DCT.

VIII. Professional Liability Insurance

Students are required to purchase/renew professional liability insurance for each year they are enrolled in practicum training and before seeing clients. The program recommends the APAIT maximum coverage policy of $1,000,000/3,000,000 at a cost of $35.00 annually. Students may purchase this insurance at this link (http://www.apait.org/apait/).

IX. Sexual Harassment

Students are advised that sexual harassment is a violation of federal law and may violate the civil and criminal laws of the State of California. The following behavior may constitute sexual harassment: lewd remarks, whistles, or personal reference to one’s anatomy; unwanted physical contact such as patting, pinching, or constant brushing against a person’s body; subtle or overt pressure for sexual favors; persistent and offensive sexual jokes and comments.

X. Multiple Relationships

Students must avoid multiple relationships including those stated below. Infractions will be considered inappropriate to their status as trainees and appropriate action will be taken. Students may not have held a paid or unpaid staff position within the previous year at any agency where they are placed for practicum, unless they are given a different experience.

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Further, they may not hold such a position during the time they are in training there without the approval of the PC/DCT. Students who are unclear about their status as trainee or staff member should discuss this issue with the PC/DCT.

Students may not be supervised by the following:

1. Anyone for whom they have served as a paid psychological assistant 2. Student’s current or past psychotherapist

3. Anyone with whom they have, or have had in the past a business relationship with outside the agency.

4. Anyone with whom they have, or have had in the past a sexual relationship or an emotional relationship

5. A relative

It is imperative that each student consults with the PC/DCT in any and all relationships where there is a lack of clarity.

XI Clinical Training Guidelines-Practicum

A. Introduction

An emphasis on the development of clinical skills and competencies and the application of theoretical knowledge to real-life issues and problems are the hallmarks of the Psy.D. training model. Consistent with this tradition and the University’s commitment to community service, the primary objective of the practicum training sequence of the Psy.D. program at ULV is to provide students with a structured sequence of practicum experiences where they can begin to develop and apply their clinical skills and competencies. Consistent with a developmental model, the practicum training sequence begins with entry-level placements and progresses gradually to increasingly challenging and more demanding positions where students will assume greater clinical responsibility as they consolidate their skills and develop a professional

identification with the practice of psychology. The Psy.D. Program at ULV follows the recommendations of the American Psychological Association (APA), the National Council of Schools and Programs in Professional Psychology (NCSPP), the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) and the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) pertaining to Practicum and Internship training.

B. Practicum Defined

Practicum training is field experience taken for academic credit that provides students with experiences with client/patient problems and learning of relevant psychological skills under

supervision. The goal of this training is to develop the student’s clinical competencies to the levels necessary for the clinical predoctoral internship in year 5 of the program. Students must complete a minimum of 1500 hours of supervised training at the practicum level before they are eligible to apply for internship. An advanced practicum experience in the 4th year of the program (Psy 657A & Psy 657B) is optional. Possible reasons for an advanced practicum experience include students

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desiring to gain specialized experiences not obtained during their first two practica, or students earning additional practicum hours in order to increase their likelihood of securing a pre-doctoral internship.

C. Definition of Practicum Hours

1. Direct service hours are defined as actual clock hours in face-to-face services to patients/clients (may be “45-50 minute” hour). Direct services should constitute at least 50% of a student's practicum time. Direct service hours include:

(a) Direct treatment/intervention with clients by format (i.e., individual, couples, families, groups);

(b) Assessment activity including the administration,

interpretation and writing of psychological tests and reports; the use of diagnostic systems and tools; and the use of clinical interviews and observations;

(c) Formal consultation and prevention services rendered, which includes outreach and psychoeducational activities.

2. Indirect service hours are defined as time spent outside direct service hours, but focused on the client. Indirect services constitute about 25% of a student's practicum time, and include:

(a) Activities such as report writing, progress notes or tape review, in- service activities and time spent planning interventions. 3. Supervision constitutes about 25% of a student's practicum time. At each

students’ placement, the agency, through its clinical supervisors, will provide each student with a minimum of one hour of individual supervision. Ideally, sites will also provide students with two hours of group supervision during each week that students claim hours of experience. Time spent in practicum courses may also be considered group supervision as indicated in (b) below. Students in their first practicum experience are also required to participate in the program’s peer supervision requirement as indicated in (c) below.

(a) Individual supervision is defined as regularly scheduled face-to-face supervision with the specific intent of dealing with psychological services rendered by the student to clients/patients.

(b) Group supervision includes actual hours of focus on specific cases in a group context either at the practicum placement or within the practicum class. Group didactic activities, such as grand rounds or in service training on specific topics, do not count as group supervision because they do not focus on providing supervision on

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the assessment or management of specific clinical cases. These hours should be recorded as support activities (indirect services). (c). Participation in peer supervision is a program requirement that is completed in years two and four of the program. Year 2 students must enroll in both the Year 2 practicum class (Psy 635/636) and the accompanying supervision labs (Psy 635L & Psy 636L). Year 4 students must enroll in both the Year 4 supervision class (Psy 670/671) and the accompanying supervision labs (Psy 670L & Psy 671L). Year 2 students must meet all of the peer supervision requirements in order to receive a Credit grade for Psy 635/636 and the accompanying supervision labs (Psy 635L/Psy 636L). Likewise, Year 4 students must meet all of the peer supervision requirements in order to receive a Credit grade for Psy 670/671 and the accompanying supervision labs (Psy 670L & Psy 671L). Peer Supervisor-Peer Supervisee matches are made by the instructor for Psy 670/671 (Advanced Supervision Skills). The instructor for Psy 670/671 also monitors students’ progress in meeting the peer supervision requirement.

4. Students typically spend 15-20 hours per week at their practicum site. Any exceptions to these requirements must be requested in writing to the PC/DCT. Failure to satisfy these conditions may require additional experience at another agency. Students must use the program’s system for tracking practicum hours (currently time 2 track). A summary of these hours is to be turned in to the PC/DCT at the completion of the practicum.

D. Standards for Supervisors

1. For each practicum site, the following supervisory minimums are required: at least one hour weekly of supervision shall be regularly scheduled, individual, face-to-face supervision.

2. At least one hour of weekly supervision hours with a licensed psychologist (or Postdoc accruing hours toward licensure) is required. Secondary supervision may be provided by other licensed professionals (i.e.., MFT, LCSW) with approval of the PC/DCT.

3. The primary supervisor must be a licensed psychologist (or Postdoc accruing hours toward licensure)

4. Each supervisor must have clinical responsibility for the clients for which the student is being supervised. This usually means that the supervisor is an employee of the

practicum setting, not an independent contractor. Exceptions are possible, however, and these exceptions must be approved by the PC/DCT.

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5. Supervision from professionals (i.e., MFT, LCSWs, Psychiatrists) in other disciplines is both permitted and encouraged so long as the minimum supervision by licensed

psychologists referred to above is maintained.

E. Personal Psychotherapy Requirements

Each student is required to complete a minimum of 20 hours of personal psychotherapy during the program and prior to the pre-doctoral internship. Personal therapy provides students with the capacity for self-awareness and an appreciation of the psychotherapeutic process that contributes to the individual's development as a psychologist. It is the student's responsibility to locate a

therapist and meet the cost of their personal psychotherapy. Personal psychotherapy is not to be confused with supervision, and as such, students shall not receive supervision hours for personal psychotherapy.

Each student is required to provide verification that they have completed their personal psychotherapy requirement to the PC/DCT using the program’s personal psychotherapy

verification and hours tracking form. Students must complete a minimum of 10 hours of personal psychotherapy during each year of required practica (Psy 635-636, 655-656). Students must complete their 20 hours of personal psychotherapy by the end of Psy 656. Students must provide verification they have completed their personal psychotherapy in order to be permitted to sit for the exam.

F. Credit for clinical hours from other disciplines

Students who are employed by mental health agencies may not use these hours to fulfill the Program’s practicum requirement. These hours may be included in a student’s application for internship under the following circumstances: (1). Students must have received supervised training that was a different professional experience from their regular employment duties. (2) Students must provide evidence to the PC/DCT that this experience was equivalent in nature to program sanctioned practicum experiences. (3). Students must also provide evidence that a training agreement was in place at the beginning of the employment experience.

Experience and hours earned during and/or after an MFT program will not be credited toward experience hours in the Psy.D. practicum. Psy.D. practicum hours may be applied towards MFT licensure experience hours under the following conditions:

(a) The PC/DCT is informed of the student's intent to do so; (b) The clinical supervisor and agency are willing to do so;

(c) Hours from the Psy.D. practicum that are applied to the MFT licensure are within the scope of practice for MFT's;

(d) This will be permitted as long as it does not interfere with the Psy.D. practicum experience.

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G. Standards for Practicum Settings

1. The setting has a clear commitment to training. The training activity of staff professionals is recognized as a legitimate employment related activity. Good evidence of this is that the setting has a history of providing supervision and other training activities for psychology trainees and/or trainees in other disciplines. 2. There is at least one licensed psychologist who is competent to supervise the training experiences specified in the student’s practicum training agreement.

3. The setting should serve a variety of clients in terms of ethnicity, age, gender, and DSM diagnosis, as well as health related disturbances (i.e., HIV/AIDS).

4. The student must be clearly identified to both staff and patients as a psychology practicum student.

5. The student must not have any dual role or conflict of interest relationship within the setting.

H. Practicum Requirements

1. Course Prerequisites: Students must successfully complete (B- or better in letter grade classes and “Cr” in Cr/NCR classes) all required Year 1 courses in order to participate in their first practicum experience and enroll in Psy 635/636. Any exceptions to this must be requested in writing to the PC/DCT. Occasionally students may decide to postpone starting Psy 635/636 because of scheduling conflicts or personal situations. Postponing Psy 635/636 will delay a student’s program of study and time to completion. Any decision concerning postponement of the practicum must be made in consultation with the Program Chair/Director of Clinical Training.

2. Practicum Settings: Students are required to have at least two different practicum experiences in the course of their practicum sequence.

3. Practicum Courses: Students must enroll in Psy 635/635L & 636/636L during the first practicum and Psy 655 & 656 during the second practicum. Students who elect to complete an optional advanced third practicum in their fourth year of training must enroll in Psy 657A & 657B. In addition, regardless of whether students elect to complete a third advanced practicum, they must enroll in Psy 670/670L & 671/671L and Psy 672 & 673 in their fourth year of the program as part of their curriculum requirement. Students must comply with all course requirements before these

courses are considered completed, or an IP will be given. These requirements include turning in relevant practicum documents to the PC/DCT in a timely manner.

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4. Practicum hours on site: A student is expected to spend a minimum of 15 hours and a maximum of 25 hours per week in practicum activities. Professional psychology practice does not conform to the usual academic calendar of classes, vacations, and examinations, so students may be expected to meet with clients during interterm and holidays. Schedules are coordinated with on-site supervisors,

and should be resolved to the mutual satisfaction of both the agency and the student. 5. Duration of Practicum: Each student must remain in his/her practicum placement

setting for a length of time designated by the agency (not to exceed 1 calendar year). 6. Mutual expectations: Students are expected to fulfill the terms of the agreement with

the agency, to be there the stipulated number of hours each week, and to perform the duties specified in the contract as well as those which are reasonably requested by the agency. Students should not attempt to perform duties unless they are physically and emotionally prepared to do so.

Students who are unable to fulfill the obligations of the training must inform their primary supervisor and PC/DCT immediately, and obtain consent for a leave due to illness or other reasons (i.e., personal problems and conflicts pertaining to their work at the agency).

The agency is also expected to fulfill its contract with students. If any circumstances arise which threaten or significantly alter or disrupt the training of ULV students as specified in the contract, these circumstances should be communicated to the PC/DCT immediately.

I. When Problems Arise

The following guidelines are designed to facilitate open communication about practicum trainee difficulties and effective problem-solving in response to them.

1. When significant problems arise that are resolvable and/or resolved at the practicum site the PC/ DCT must be informed.

2. The Practicum Training Director of the agency must communicate to ULV’s PC/DCT in a timely manner when problems arise with a practicum trainee that are not readily resolvable at the practicum site, that are recurrent, or that may lead to the institution of due process procedures or an alteration in the practicum trainee’s program. The mode of communication will vary to suit the circumstance, but may include formal letters or emails, phone or conference calls, and on-site

communication between them. This communication should include:

(a) A clear statement of the problem, remediation plan, and expected outcomes needed to resolve the problem(s);

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(c) What role, if any, the practicum program would like the graduate program to play in addressing the problem.

The Practicum Training Director of the agency should also consult Section XII of this handbook for identifying and dealing with problem trainees. This will assist in handling and documenting problems that arise in the practicum to facilitate the graduate program’s dealing with the trainee’s problems.

3. Once communication about a problem is initiated, the graduate and practicum programs must maintain ongoing contact until the problem is resolved. This contact will include discussions of the remediation plan and plan for monitoring and

evaluating the practicum trainee’s performance.

4. The practicum trainee may request and should receive copies of all formal communications regarding her or his performance.

XII. EVALUATION Introduction

The Psy.D. Program at the University of La Verne(ULV) is committed to maintaining practicum placements that facilitate learning and professional growth for its students. Training sites that place a high premium on clinical training and community service, and that are professionally stimulating, open to change, and sufficiently flexible to accommodate individual needs and requirements, are selected for student placements.

Broadly, the practicum training experience is designed to provide the student with the opportunity (in terms of setting, experience, and supervision) to gradually assume the professional roles of a professional psychologist consistent with the scholar/practitioner model. These roles entail the integration of previous training and a further development of the scientific, professional, and ethical bases involved in professional functioning. The integration of clinical research and clinical practice is a core emphasis of the Psy.D. clinical training program.

This section outlines the Psy.D program’s evaluation, grievance, and due process procedures for supervised clinical training experiences, issues related to student impairments, and procedures to remediate identified student impairments based on the guidelines of the Council of Chairs of Training Councils (2003) and the National Council of Schools and Programs in Professional Psychology (NCSPP)(Peterson, 2002).

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Domain A: Due Process General Guidelines

Due process ensures that decisions made by programs about students are not arbitrary or personally biased, requires that programs identify specific evaluative procedures which are applied to all trainees, and have appropriate appeal procedures available to the student so he/she may challenge the program's action (Mitnick, Kaslow, & Baker, 2003; Stevens, 1999). General due process guidelines include:

1. Presenting students with a written document which contains the program's expectations related to professional functioning;

2. Stipulating the procedures for evaluation, including when and how

evaluations will be conducted. Such evaluations should occur at meaningful intervals;

3. Articulating the various procedures and actions involved in making decisions regarding a problem;

4. Communication from training sites, early and often, with Psy.D. programs about any suspected difficulties with students, seeking input from these academic programs about how to address such difficulties;

5. Training sites instituting, with the input and knowledge of the Psy.D. program, a remediation plan for identified inadequacies, including a time frame for expected remediation and consequences of not rectifying the inadequacies; 6. Providing a written procedure to the student that describes how the student may

appeal the program's action;

7. Ensuring that students have sufficient time to respond to any action taken by the Psy.D. program or training site;

8. Using input from multiple professional sources when making decisions or recommendations regarding the student's performance, and;

9. Documenting, in writing and to all relevant parties, the action taken by the Psy.D. program and/or training site and its rationale.

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Domain B: Communication between ULV and Placement Site

The following guidelines are designed to enhance communication between the ULV Psy.D. program and placement sites regarding students on practicum

Shortly after students are selected, the PC/DCT will communicate by letter with the placement sites that accepted ULV students. At a minimum, this letter will indicate (a) the faculty

member in the Psy.D. program with whom the placement site should communicate regarding the student (i.e., the PC/DCT); and (b) any additional information about the training needs of the student, especially information not covered in the student’s application and letter of recommendation. In addition to the sharing of formal evaluations, the PC/DCT and the placement site Training Coordinator may have informal (telephone or email) contacts about the student in this transitional phrase. The placement site Training Coordinator may initiate one of these contacts shortly after the beginning of the practicum. It is expected that if there is a change in the contact person at either site, that the corresponding contact person will be notified and provided with a new contact person.

The placement site Training Coordinator will send formal written evaluations of the student to the PC/DCT at least semi-annually during the practicum. This communication will occur at regular intervals (i.e., at the end of the semester) and at the completion of the practicum. Concurrent with this, practicum staff/faculty will meet in person with the student to provide detailed feedback and formal evaluation. Additionally, the placement site Training Coordinator will provide the student a copy of the formal evaluation sent to the PC/DCT.

The PC/DCT and the placement site staff/faculty will share any communications they have about a student with the student via face-to-face contacts, emails, telephone contacts, or copies of written correspondence, etc. Student input will be solicited regarding these communications (as appropriate) throughout the practicum years. The intent here is to enhance the climate of openness and support for professional development in the training of the student.

When major changes in the structure of the practicum occur (i.e., alterations in rotations or available placements), placement site staff/faculty will inform the PC/DCT.

Domain C: The Evaluation Process

Fundamental to a successful training experience is the provision of ongoing feedback to students that facilitates professional and personal growth. The evaluation process is designed to assess both the professional growth of the student and the placement site as a training institution. Because students receive ongoing feedback from the on-site training staff (including the Training Coordinator, and individual and group supervisors in various core areas), and other professionals with whom they have significant contact, a student should have "no surprises" resulting from the formal evaluation procedures. Students are evaluated by their individual supervisor(s) and given feedback at the end of each semester. This evaluation is designed to assess the student’s progress on meeting specific objectives or goals, competence in the delivery of psychological services, and exhibition of professional behavior. The evaluation of the

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those recommendations and suggestions that are relevant for the next semester as well as future needs of the student. Evaluation documents are returned to the PC/DCT and are stored in the student’s file.

Student Evaluations of the Supervisor(s) and Placement Site

It is also important that students evaluate both their supervisor and the placement site. This allows students to provide constructive and effective feedback about the quality of training they received, and to provide the program with critical information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the placement site. Student evaluation forms of the placement site will be completed by students at the end of each academic semester and forwarded to the PC/DCT. These forms are not submitted to the placement site, and it is expected that should a placement site receive a poor rating, these issues have been addressed early on in the training. The student evaluations of their supervisor will be completed each semester and shared with their primary supervisor and the ULV PC/DCT.

Supervisor Evaluations of the Student

The primary supervisor at the placement site evaluates the student at the end of each semester on the evaluation forms provided by the ULV PC/DCT. The evaluation of the student’s

performance is documented and discussed with the student individually and the primary

supervisor makes those recommendations and suggestions that are relevant for the next semester as well as future needs of the student. Evaluation documents are returned to the ULV PC/DCT and are stored in the student’s file.

Program Evaluation of Students

Consistent with Domain E of the American Psychological Association’s Guidelines and Principles of Accreditation, students in the University of La Verne’s Psy.D. Program are to receive annual written feedback on the extent to which they are meeting the program’s requirements and expectations.

The Psy.D. program provides its students written evaluation regarding their performance in 8 areas: (1) Coursework, (2) Professional Behavior & Development, (3) Practicum, (4) Clinical Competency Examination, (5) Dissertation Progress, (6) Internship, (7) Extracurricular Activities, and (8) Self Evaluation.

Students also receive feedback each year in a ninth area concerning (a) any problems identified by the program faculty, (b) steps to remediate those problems (if remediable) and (c) the extent to which corrective actions have/have not been successful.

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Guidelines for Communication when problems arise about a student

Students occasionally have difficulties beyond what is expected of those in clinical training. Placement sites are strongly encouraged to provide mid-semester evaluations when there are concerns about the student's performance and suitability for their site, and to contact the

PC/DCT at any time to discuss concerns relative to a student's progress. A student who believes the placement site has evaluated him/her unfairly should first attempt to discuss it directly with the placement site supervisor. If that is unsuccessful, they should then discuss it with the

PC/DCT. The following guidelines are designed to facilitate open communication about student trainee difficulties and effective problem solving in response to them:

1. When significant problems arise that are resolvable and/or resolved at the training site, the PC/DCT must be informed of the nature of the problem and its resolution.

2. The Training Coordinator at the placement site must communicate to the PC/DCT in a timely manner when problems arise with an student trainee that are not readily resolvable at the training site, that are recurrent, or that may lead to the institution of due process procedures or an alteration in the student trainee’s program. The mode of communication will vary to suit the circumstance, but may include formal letters or emails, phone or conference calls, and on-site communication between them. This communication should include:

(a) A clear statement of the problem, remediation plan, and expected outcomes needed to resolve the problem(s);

(b) What the placement site’s response has been to date; and (c) What role, if any, the placement site would like the Psy.D.

program to play in addressing the problem.

3. Once communication about a problem is initiated, the PC/DCT and placement site(s) must maintain ongoing contact until the problem is resolved. Such contact will include discussions of the remediation plan and plan for monitoring and evaluating the trainee’s performance. 4. The student trainee may request and should receive copies of all formal

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Defining Deficiencies in a Student’s Performance

The evaluation process is designed to assess the student’s progress on meeting specific objectives or goals, competence in the delivery of psychological services, and exhibition of professional behavior. The outcomes of the evaluation process represent graded indicators of each student’s developmental progression across a continuum from novice to expert (Wehrly, 1995). As such, these graded indicators are used, in part, to determine each student’s readiness to advance in the practicum sequence. That is, students are expected to make adequate progress in the above areas and students will achieve a level of competency by the completion of their practicum placements that will allow them to enter the predoctoral internship.

Students whose performance gives cause for concern will receive ratings that are inconsistent with the student’s expected developmental level as assessed on the Practicum Evaluation Form.

Ratings lower than that expected for the student’s developmental level are explored as deficiencies in that student’s performance.

If the student is believed to have the capability to remediate difficulties and successfully complete training, as determined by their supervisor, the PC/DCT will discuss the evaluation with the student, and help the student to devise a plan for improvement. However, in the case of serious concern expressed by a supervisor, or as a result of a violation by a student of field placement policy, and/or unethical behavior, the PC/DCT will make recommendations regarding the student’s needs and completion of the training requirements (Sokolow & Antieau, 2002). A faculty member’s or training supervisor’s written report of performance deficiencies must clearly define the behaviors of concern.

Although behaviors rarely fit into a single definition, the following are offered as general

guidelines for determining the severity of the problem. These guidelines are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive (Douglas & Palm, 1998; Mitnick, Kaslow, & Baker, 2003).

Problematic Behaviors

Problematic behaviors are behaviors, attitudes, or characteristics that may require remediation, but are perceived as not excessive or unexpected for professionals in training. Performance anxiety, discomfort with clients’ diverse lifestyles and ethnic backgrounds, and lack of appreciation of a training site’s norms are examples of problematic behaviors that are usually remedied and not likely to progress into impairment status (Bemak, Epp, & Keys, 1999; Elman, Forrest, Vacha-Haase, & Gizara, 1999; Johnson, & Huwe, 2002).

Incompetence

Incompetence is manifested as a lack of ability, which may include either professional or interpersonal skills, or academic deficiency. Moreover, when students continue to provide psychological services beyond their current level of competency, they are committing an ethical violation (Bemak, Epp, & Keys, 1999; Elman, Forrest, Vacha-Haase, & Gizara, 1999; Johnson, & Huwe, 2002).

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Impairment

An impairment manifests as an interference in professional functioning reflected in one or more of the following ways: (1) an inability and/or unwillingness to acquire and integrate professional behaviors and ethical standards, (2) an inability to acquire the level of professional skills necessary to reach an acceptable level of competency, and/or (3) an inability to control personal stress, psychological problems, and/or excessive emotional reactions which interfere with professional functioning. This definition of impairment applies to all behaviors and attitudes associated with the completion of a practicum placement and are incorporated into evaluation procedure described above.

While it is a professional judgment as to when a student's behavior becomes more serious (i.e., impairment) rather than just of concern, for purposes of this document, an impairment refers to trainees' behaviors, attitudes, or characteristics which, while of concern and which may require remediation, are perceived to be unexpected or excessive for professionals in training. Impairments typically include one or more of the following characteristics (Bemak, Epp, & Keys,1999; Elman, Forrest, Vacha-Haase, & Gizara, 1999; Johnson, & Huwe, 2002):

1. The student does not acknowledge, understand, or address the problem when it is identified;

2. The problem is not merely a reflection of a skill deficit that can be rectified by further supervision, academic or didactic training;

3. The quality of the student's service delivery is negatively affected and may be considered to be unhelpful or detrimental to clients;

4. The problem is not restricted to one area of professional functioning; 5. A disproportionate amount of attention by training personnel is required,

compared to other students in the group;

6. The trainee's behavior does not change as a function of feedback, remediation efforts, and/or time;

7. Multiple and similar observations are made by more than one supervisor; 8. The problematic behavior has potential for ethical or legal ramifications if

not addressed;

9. The student's behavior negatively impacts the public view of the training site; 10. The problematic behavior negatively impacts the student’s class.

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Behaviors Warranting Expulsion

1. Ethical and legal violations; 2. Inappropriate dual relationships 3. Poor academic performance

I. Initial Procedures for Responding to Deficiencies in a Student’s Performance (i.e.

Student Problem)

If it is evident from the Clinical Skills Assessment form that a student is not exhibiting competencies consistent with her or his developmental level, the following procedures will be initiated:

A. The PC/DCT will discuss the rating and determine what action needs to be taken to address the issues reflected by the rating.

B. In discussing the identified deficiencies and the student's response, the PC/DCT may adopt any one or more of the following methods or may take any other appropriate action. She or he may issue:

(1) An "Acknowledge Notice" which formally acknowledges (a) that the faculty is aware of and concerned with the rating, (b) that the rating has been brought to the attention of the student, (c) that the faculty will work with the student to specify the steps necessary to rectify the problem or skill deficits addressed by the rating, and (d) that the behaviors associated with the rating are not significant enough to warrant serious action.

(2) A notice of “Provisional Status” which defines a relationship such that the faculty, through the supervisors and PC/DCT, actively and systematically monitor, for a specific length of time, the degree to which the student addresses, changes and/or otherwise improves the behavior associated with the inadequate rating. The provisional status is a written statement to the student and includes:

(a) The fact of the provisional status;

(b) The actual behaviors associated with the inadequate rating; (c) The specific recommendations for rectifying the problem;

(d) The time frame for the provisional status during which the problem is expected to be ameliorated; and

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(e) The procedures designed to ascertain whether the problem has been appropriately rectified or not.

(3) A recommendation to the program faculty that the student be placed on Suspension

(4) A recommendation to the program faculty for the dismissal of the student. (5) Other appropriate action.

C. The PC/DCT will then meet with the student to review the action taken. If

"Provisional status", the student may choose to accept the conditions or may choose to challenge the action. The procedures for challenging the action are presented in sections two and three below.

(1) If the Provisional Status action occurs, the PC/DCT meets with the student to inform him/her of the provisional status and any accompanying

conditions. The student may choose to accept the status and conditions or may choose to appeal the action. The procedures for appealing the action are presented in the next section. The student shall receive written

notification of the action taken and any conditions attached. A copy of the written notification will be placed in the student's permanent file

maintained at the University of La Verne.

(2) A review of the provisional status will occur no later than the limits identified in the provisional status statement, usually within four to six weeks.

(3) If the impairment has been rectified to the satisfaction of the PC/DCT, the student and other appropriate individuals will be informed, no further action will be taken, and the provisional status will be removed.

D. If a notice of Provisional Status is issued, the PC/DCT will inform the student's placement site, indicating the nature of the inadequate rating, the rationale for the action, and the action taken by the faculty. The student shall receive a copy of the letter to the placement site.

E. Once the Acknowledgment Notice or Provisional status is issued by the PC/DCT, it is expected that the status of the rating will be reviewed no later than the next formal evaluation period or, in the case of provisional status, no later than the time limits identified in the provisional status statement. If the rating has been rectified to the satisfaction of the faculty, the student and other appropriate individuals will be informed and no further action will be taken.

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F. The PC/DCT may recommend to the program faculty a "Temporary Suspension" of the student. For example, if a student is charged with violating the APA Code of Ethics, he/she may be temporarily suspended from engaging in any or all-clinical or direct services. All temporary suspensions become effective immediately upon notifying the student of the suspension (in writing and orally). The written notification (including the reasons) for the suspension is expected to be sent to the student within one working day.

(1) A date will be set for a special review meeting at which time the PC/DCT will review the special conditions imposed and progress made toward remediation of the violation. This review will typically occur no later than the limits identified in the temporary suspension statement, usually within four to six weeks.

(2) If the impairment has been rectified to the satisfaction of the PC/DCT, the student and other appropriate individuals will be informed, no further action will be taken, and the suspended status will be removed.

G. If the PC/DCT determines that there has not been sufficient improvement in the student's behavior to remove the inadequate rating under the conditions

stipulated in the Temporary Suspension, the following will occur. The PC/DCT will communicate, in writing, to the student that the conditions for revoking the Temporary suspension have not been met. The PC/DCT may then adopt any one of the following methods or take any other appropriate action. She or he may issue a (1) continuation of the suspension whereby the student is not allowed to continue engaging in certain professional activities until there is evidence that the behavior in question has improved; (2) communication which informs the student that the PC/DCT is recommending to the Graduate Office that the student will not, if the behavior does not change, successfully complete the practicum placement; and/or (3) communication which informs the student that she or he will be terminated immediately from the practicum placement program.

II. Situations in which grievance procedures are initiated

There are three situations in which grievance procedures may be initiated:

A. When the student challenges the action taken by the Clinical Training Committee (Student Challenge)

B. When the Clinical Training Committee is not satisfied with the student's action in response to remediating deficiencies (Continuation of the Inadequate Rating); or C. When a member of the placement site’s staff or faculty initiates action against a

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Each of these situations, and the course of action accompanying them, is described below.

A. Student Challenge: If the student challenges the action taken by the Clinical Training Committee as described above, s/he must, within 10 days of receipt of the decision, inform the PC/DCT, in writing, of such a challenge.

(1) The PC/DCT will then convene a Review Panel consisting of two ULV faculty members selected by the PC/DCT and two ULV faculty members selected by the student. The student retains the right to hear all facts with the opportunity to dispute or explain his or her behavior.

(2) A review hearing will be conducted, chaired by the PC/DCT in which the challenge is heard and the evidence

presented. Within15 days of the completion of the review hearing, the Review Panel submits a written report to the student and to the Graduate Appeals Committee, including any recommendations for further action. Decisions made by the Review Panel will be made by majority vote. The student is informed of the recommendations

(3) A practicum student may, within ten days of the communication of a Provisional status or Temporary Suspension, submit a letter to the Graduate Appeals Committee: An appeal may be requested on the following grounds

(a) Denial of the described due process granted to the student in any part of the evaluation procedure;

(b) Denial of the opportunity to fairly present data to refute conclusions drawn in the evaluation.

B. Continuation of Inadequate Rating: If the faculty determines that there has not been sufficient improvement in the student's behavior to remove the inadequate rating under the conditions stipulated in the provisional status, then a formal Review Panel will be convened.

(1) The PC/DCT will communicate, in writing, to the student that the conditions for revoking the provisional status have not been met. The faculty may then adopt any one of the following methods or take any other appropriate action. It may issue a:

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(a) Continuation of the provisional status for a specific time period; (b) Communication that informs the student the PC/DCT is

recommending his or her suspension to the program faculty whereby the student is not allowed to continue engaging in certain

professional activities until there is evidence that the behavior in question has improved;

(c) Communication that informs the student the PC/DCT is

recommending to the program faculty that the student will not if the behavior does not change, successfully complete practicum

placement; and/or

(d) Communication that informs the student that the PC/DCT is recommending to the program faculty that the student be

terminated immediately from the practicum placement program. (2) Within 5 working days of receipt of this determination, the student may respond to the action by (a) accepting the action or (b) challenging the action.

(3) If a challenge is made, the student must provide the PC/DCT, within 10 days, information as to why the student believes the action is unwarranted. A lack of reasons by the student will be interpreted as complying with the sanction. (4) If the student challenges the action, a Review Panel will be formed

consisting of the PC/DCT, two ULV faculty members selected by the PC/DCT and two ULV faculty members selected by the student.

(5) A Review Panel hearing will be conducted, chaired by the PC/DCT in which the challenge is heard and the evidence presented. Within 10 days of the completion of the review hearing, the Review Panel shall communicate its recommendation to the student and to the Graduate Appeals Committee. Decisions by the Review Panel will be made by majority vote.

C. Faculty/Staff Challenge: Any faculty member or staff at the training site may file, in writing, a grievance against a student for any of the following reasons: a) unethical or legal violation of professional standards or laws, b) professional incompetence, or c) infringement on the rights, privileges or responsibilities of others.

(1) The PC/DCT will review the grievance with 2 members of the ULV faculty and determine if there is reason to proceed and/or if the behavior in question is in the process of being rectified.

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(2) If the PC/DCT and the other two faculty members determine that the alleged behavior in the complaint, if proven, would not constitute a serious violation, the PC/DCT shall inform the faculty member who may be allowed to renew the complaint if additional information is provided.

(3) When a decision has been made by the PC/DCT and the other two faculty members that there is probable cause for deliberation by the Review Panel, the PC/DCT shall notify the faculty member and request permission to inform the student. The faculty member shall have five days to respond to the request and shall be informed that failure to grant permission may preclude further action. If no response is received within 5 days or permission to inform the student is denied, the PC/DCT and the two members shall decide whether to proceed with the matter.

If the student is informed, a Review Panel is convened consisting of the PC/DCT, two members selected by the faculty member, and two members selected by the student. The Review Panel receives any relevant

information from both the student and/or faculty member as it bears on its deliberations.

(4) A review hearing will be conducted, chaired by the PC/DCT in which the complaint is heard and the evidence presented. Within

10 days of the completion of the review hearing, the Review Panel shall communicate its recommendation to the student and to the Graduate Appeals Committee. Decisions by the Review Panel shall be made by majority vote.

III. Situations where students raise a formal complaint or grievance about a supervisor, staff member, trainee, or program regarding the evaluation process: There may be situations in which the student has a complaint or grievance against a supervisor, staff member, other trainee, or the training program itself and wishes to file a formal grievance. The student should:

A. Raise the issue with the supervisor, staff member, other trainee, or Training Coordinator in an effort to resolve the problem.

B. If the matter cannot be resolved, or it is inappropriate to raise with the other individual, the issue should be raised with the Training Coordinator. If the Training Coordinator is the object of the grievance, or unavailable, the issue should be raised with the ULV PC/DCT.

C. If the PC/DCT cannot resolve the matter, the student is

encouraged to submit the complaint or grievance to the Graduate Appeals Committee.

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Domain D: Other Complaint Procedures

In order to protect the needs and rights of all students, a formal complaint procedure has been developed for any situation not covered in the above appeals process. While it is hoped that any concerns or complaints can be discussed and resolved informally, a formal mechanism is appropriate in light of the power differential between supervisory staff and students.

In general, students are encouraged to work actively to create training experiences that fit their needs and interests and to work with the PC/DCT to ensure that their needs are met. Giving feedback (both positive and negative) to staff members/supervisors or the practicum placement by the student is encouraged and welcomed. Complaints may be submitted to the PC/DCT in relation to the following situations:

1. When a student disagrees with a standard evaluation by a supervisor (not an evaluation of an "impairment");

2. When a student has a complaint concerning a staff member/supervisor regarding a situation other than evaluation;

3. When a student has a complaint concerning another student;

4. When a student disagrees with actions taken by the practicum placement Training Coordinator.

Complaints Regarding Training Issues

1. The student is to speak directly with the staff member/supervisor or other students involved for a resolution.

2. If the situation is not resolved, or if the student prefers not to speak directly to the staff member/supervisor, the student may discuss the complaint with the Training Coordinator of practicum placement.

3. If the complaint is not resolved in the meeting with the student, staff member/supervisor, and practicum placement Training Coordinator, and/or primary supervisor, the PC/DCT will request the student to submit a written complaint to the Clinical Training Committee. 4. If the complaint remains unresolved, following the actions of the PC/DCT, the student

should appeal to the Graduate Appeals Committee. Complaints Regarding Non-Training Issues

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Domain E: Other Areas of Formal Review

A formal complaint may be submitted to the PC/DCT at any time by the student, by staff, by trainees, or by secretarial/support staff of the placement site. The list below is suggestive of, but not limited to, the types of behaviors and events that may arise separately from the official evaluation procedures previously discussed (Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights, 2001):

 Sexual harassment;

 Unlawful discrimination;

 Violation of the APA Code of Ethical Principles of Psychologists, and Guidelines for the Delivery of Services;

 Unprofessional behavior;

 Insubordinate behavior;

 Exploitative behavior; and

 Other behaviors not listed elsewhere in this document but which represent

infringement on the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of students, professional and secretarial/support staff, and other trainees/employees of The University of La Verne and/or training site.

Domain F: Due Process Remediation Considerations

It is important to have meaningful ways to address a problem once it has been identified. Several possible, and perhaps concurrent courses of action designed to remediate problems include but are not limited to:

1. Increasing supervision, either with the same or other supervisors; 2. Changing in the format, emphasis, and/or focus of supervision;

3. Recommending and/or requiring personal therapy in a way that all parties involved have clarified the manner in which therapy contacts will be used in the student evaluation process;

4. Reducing the student's clinical or other workload and/or requiring specific academic coursework; and/or

5. Recommending, when appropriate, a leave of absence and/or a second practicum placement.

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When a combination of the above interventions do not, after a reasonable time period, rectify the problem, or when the trainee seems unable or unwilling to alter his/her behavior, the PC/DCT may need to take more formal action, including such actions as:

1. Giving the student a limited endorsement, including the specification of those settings in which he/she could function adequately;

2. Communicating to the student and program faculty that the student has not successfully completed the practicum placement, with the possibility of continuing the year as a practicum placement;

3. Recommending to the program faculty a career shift for the student; and/or 4. Recommending to the program faculty the termination of the student from

the clinical training placement.

All the above steps need to be appropriately documented and implemented in ways that are consistent with due process procedures.

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References

American Psychological Association (APA). (2002). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights. (2001). Revised Sexual Harassment Guidance:

Harassment of Students by School Employees, Other Students, or Third Parties. Title IX. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved February 9, 2003, from http://www.ncherm.org/docs/rshguide.pdf.

Bemak, F., Epp, L. R., & Keys, S. G. (1999). Impaired graduate students: A process-model of graduate program monitoring and intervention. International Journal for the

Advancement of Counseling, 21, 19-30.

Elman, N., Forrest, L., Vacha-Haase, T., & Gizara, S. (1999). A systems perspective on trainee impairment: Continuing the dialogue. The Counseling Psychologist, 27, 712-721.

Douglas, T. J., & Palm, R. L. (1998). The academic administrator and the law: What every dean and department chair needs to know. ERIC Digest. Retrieved February 9, 2003 from http://www.ericfacility.net.ericdigests/ed427627.html

Johnson, W. B., & Huwe, J. M. (2002). Toward a typology of mentorship dysfunction in graduate school. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, & Practice, 39, 44-55.

Mitnick, M. K., Kaslow, N., & Baker, J. (2003, February). Legal issues in managing problem students and developing effective interventions for problem situations in psychological training. Presentation at the APPIC meeting held in Chicago. Retrieved February 22, 2003, from

http://www.appic.org/downloads/ProblemStudentLegal.doc

Peterson, R. L. (2002) NCSPP Model and standards for education in professional psychology. Retrieved December 28, 2002, from http://www.ncspp.info/model.stm

Stevens, E. (1999). Due Process and Higher Education: A Systematic Approach to Fair Decision Making. ERIC Digest. Retrieved February 9, 2003 from

http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed435311.html

Sokolow, B.A., & Antieau, M. L. (2002). Hearing Conduct Appeals: Elaborating a Risk Management Framework for Senior Student Affairs Officers. Association for Student Judicial Affairs (ASJA) 2002 Conference: Concurrent Session. The National Center For Higher Education Risk Management (NCHERM). Retrieved February 9, 2003 from http://www.ncherm.org.whitepapers.cfm

Wehrly, B. (1995). Pathways to multicultural counseling competence: A developmental journey. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

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References