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(1)

Robert Holzmann

World Bank, CMI, IZA, CES

Portability of Pension, Health,

and other Social Benefits: Facts, Concepts, Issues

Facts, Concepts, Issues

International Organization for Migration International Seminar Series - June 10, 2010

1 1

(2)

Background and Motivation

Background and Motivation

„

„ Labor mobility increasesLabor mobility increases

• Domestically across sectorsDomestically across sectors •

• Internationally across regions and countries: SouthInternationally across regions and countries: South- -South, North

South, North--North, SouthNorth, South--North, and SouthNorth, and South--SouthSouth •

• Stock of migrants low (3% in world Population) still small Stock of migrants low (3% in world Population) still small but many more will spend some time abroad

but many more will spend some time abroad

„

„ Concerns with portability of social benefits and Concerns with portability of social benefits and key considerations in favor

key considerations in favor

• Economic Economic – – labor mobilitylabor mobility •

• Social policy Social policy – – social risk managementsocial risk management •

• Human rights Human rights – – access to social protectionaccess to social protection

„

„ BiBi--/multi/multi--lateral agreements considered best lateral agreements considered best

practice? We may be able to do better! Requires

practice? We may be able to do better! Requires

to bring economics into discussion.

(3)

Road Map

Road Map

I.

I.

Facts on Migration and Portability Regimes

Facts on Migration and Portability Regimes

II.

II.

A Conceptual Framework of Portability to

A Conceptual Framework of Portability to

Assess and Improve Policy Design

Assess and Improve Policy Design

III.

III.

Benefit Design and Portability

Benefit Design and Portability

Arrangements

Arrangements

Pensions

Pensions

IV.

IV.

Benefit Design and Portability

Benefit Design and Portability

Arrangements

Arrangements

Health Care

Health Care

V.

V.

Key Issues for Better Understanding

Key Issues for Better Understanding

Portability

Portability

VI.

VI.

Main Conclusions

Main Conclusions

3 3

(4)

I. Facts on Migration and

I. Facts on Migration and

Portability Regimes

Portability Regimes

„

„

4 broad types of portability regimes

4 broad types of portability regimes

I. Access to social security and portability through bi

I. Access to social security and portability through bi-

-lateral

lateral agreementsagreements

II. Access to social security and exportability by

II. Access to social security and exportability by

national

national legislationlegislation

III. Formal labor market participation, but

III. Formal labor market participation, but no access no access

and not contributions to social insurance

and not contributions to social insurance

IV.

IV. Informal Informal labor market participation and hence labor market participation and hence no access and portability

no access and portability

„

„ Estimation: Estimation: Linking multiLinking multi--country migration matrix country migration matrix

with information on bi

with information on bi--lateral agreements, etc allows lateral agreements, etc allows estimation of migrants by regime for sending and

estimation of migrants by regime for sending and

receiving countries

receiving countries

4 4

(5)

5 5

Table 2 Global emigrant stock estimates by origin country income-group and Portability Regime (2000)

Origin country income-group

Regime I (Agreement)

Regime II (National)

Regime III (No Access)

Regime IV

(Informal) Total % global

stock Low-income

countries 850,985 36,720,832 5,293,338 10,757,086 53,622,241 29%

% total 2% 68% 10% 20% 100%

Lower middle-income

countries 11,312,511 47,224,671 3,476,163 14,473,805 76,487,150 41%

% total 15% 62% 5% 19% 100%

Upper middle-income

countries 3,521,212 10,724,671 189,357 7,203,975 21,639,215 12%

% total 16% 50% 1% 33% 100%

Non-OECD high-income

countries 2,063,914 3,534,415 192,987 57,809 5,849,125 3%

% total 35% 60% 3% 1% 100%

OECD high-income

countries 24,778,310 3,658,850 291,007 189,802 28,917,969 16%

% total 86% 13% 1% 1% 100%

Total 42,526,932 101,863,439 9,442,852 32,682,476 186,515,699 100%

(6)

6 6 Table 3: Global migrant stock estimates of Regime IV migrants only (undocumented migrants) by origin and host income-group (2000)

Host country income-group Origin country

income-group

Low-income countries

Lower middle-income countries

Upper middle-income countries

Non-OECD high-income countries

OECD high-income

countries Total Low-income

countries 3,775,249 3,681,516 781,597 561,591 1,957,132 10,757,086 Lower

middle-income

countries 779,250 6,156,610 1,471,782 970,669 5,095,494 14,473,805 Upper

middle-income

countries 111,890 531,205 234,206 288,799 6,037,875 7,203,975 Non-OECD

high-income

countries 1,949 12,663 3,319 2,052 37,825 57,809 OECD

high-income

countries 11,442 26,805 17,160 8,563 125,833 189,802

(7)

II. A Conceptual Framework

II. A Conceptual Framework

for Portability

for Portability

Key Tenants

Key Tenants

„

„ Portability issues emerge from tensions between Portability issues emerge from tensions between

domestic social policy objectives re risks and

domestic social policy objectives re risks and

international objectives re labor mobility

international objectives re labor mobility

„

„ Critical for portability is disentangling of the 3 Critical for portability is disentangling of the 3

components of social benefits in design

components of social benefits in design

• Insurance (risk pooling)Insurance (risk pooling) •

• PrePre--funding across lifefunding across life--cycle (actual or notional)cycle (actual or notional) •

• Redistribution (interRedistribution (inter--personal)personal)

„

„ 2 key options to establish portability2 key options to establish portability

• Change in benefit design and disentangling 3 componentsChange in benefit design and disentangling 3 components •

• Use of Use of uniuni--, bi, bi--lateral and multilateral arrangementslateral and multilateral arrangements

7 7

(8)

Elements of the Framework

Elements of the Framework

„

„

Migration and Social Risk

Migration and Social Risk

Management

Management

„

„

Domestic Objectives and Instrument

Domestic Objectives and Instrument

Design of Social Protection

Design of Social Protection

„

„

Mobility Objectives of Portability and

Mobility Objectives of Portability and

Results Criteria

Results Criteria

„

„

Defining Portability: Scope and Issues

Defining Portability: Scope and Issues

„

„

Establishing Portability: Options and

Establishing Portability: Options and

Issues

Issues

(9)

Migration and Social Risk Management

Migration and Social Risk Management

„

„ Oldest, most widespread and most important SRM Oldest, most widespread and most important SRM

instrument of mankind

instrument of mankind

„

„ While emergence of formal SRM instruments (public While emergence of formal SRM instruments (public

and private) have reduced importance of migration in

and private) have reduced importance of migration in

HICs

HICs, remains important informal and formal SRMI in , remains important informal and formal SRMI in MICs

MICs and and LICsLICs

• Migration creates new risks for migrants for which they Migration creates new risks for migrants for which they do not have instruments

do not have instruments

• Labor migration has critical impact on formal and Labor migration has critical impact on formal and informal SRMI in low and high income countries

informal SRMI in low and high income countries

• Access to formal SRMI by migrants influences migration Access to formal SRMI by migrants influences migration flows

flows

• For migrants portability is interface between social For migrants portability is interface between social services in home and host countries

(10)

Domestic Objectives and Instrument

Domestic Objectives and Instrument

Design of Social Protection

Design of Social Protection

„

„ Original social benefit design geared toward Original social benefit design geared toward domestic domestic

objectives

objectives of immobile labor force that is still aliveof immobile labor force that is still alive

„

„ Social policy objectives can also be achieved with Social policy objectives can also be achieved with

different benefit design

different benefit design that allow disentangling of that allow disentangling of insurance,

insurance, prefundingprefunding and redistributing componentand redistributing component

Old

Old--age pensions: age pensions: Has separated accumulation and Has separated accumulation and disbursement phase plus redistribution

disbursement phase plus redistribution

Health care benefits:

Health care benefits: Has integrated accumulation Has integrated accumulation and disbursement phase through back

and disbursement phase through back--loaded loaded

expenditure plus redistribution in both phases

expenditure plus redistribution in both phases

Other social (cash) benefits, e.g.

Other social (cash) benefits, e.g.

• Sick pay Sick pay * Unemployment benefits* Unemployment benefits •

(11)

„

„

Single period budget constraint w/o saving

Single period budget constraint w/o saving

c(a) = b(a) p(a) = E[b(a)]

c(a) = b(a) p(a) = E[b(a)]

„

„

Single period budget constraint with saving

Single period budget constraint with saving

c(a

c(a

)

)

E[b(a

E[b(a

)] =

)] =

s(a

s(a

)

)

„

„

Accumulated the individual savings till an age

Accumulated the individual savings till an age

ã

ã

„

„

Future benefits and contributions

Future benefits and contributions

„

„

Introducing Redistribution

Introducing Redistribution

11 11 ã) ( ) ã ( ) 1 )]( ( b ) ( [ ) ( ) ã ( ã ã 1 e ã 1 B C r a a c a s S a a a − = + − = = − = =

( ) ( )

ã

ã

(

ã

1)

-

C

(

ã

1)

B

-ã)

(

)

ã

(

)

ã

(

+

R

=

C

+

R

=

B

e

+

e

+

S

1)

ã

(

C

-1)

ã

(

)

1,

ã

(

)

1

(

)

(

)

1,

ã

(

)

1

(

)

(

)

(

)

ã

(

a-ã 1 e

a 1 ã 1 ã -a a 1 ã d d

+

+

=

+

+

+

+

=

+ + = + + =

e a a

B

a

r

a

c

a

r

a

p

a

b

(12)

Mobility Objectives of Portability

Mobility Objectives of Portability

and Results Criteria

and Results Criteria

„

„

2 key objectives for labor mobility

2 key objectives for labor mobility

Fairness (at individual and country level)

Fairness (at individual and country level)

Efficiency considerations (neutrality with

Efficiency considerations (neutrality with

regard to mobility decisions)

regard to mobility decisions)

„

„

Results criteria (

Results criteria (

Holzmann

Holzmann

et al.,

et al.,

2005)

2005)

No benefit (

No benefit (

dis

dis

-

-

)advantage because of

)advantage because of

mobility

mobility

Fiscal fairness for home and host country

Fiscal fairness for home and host country

(13)

Defining Portability: Scope and Issues

Defining Portability: Scope and Issues

„

„

Ability to preserve, maintain and transfer

Ability to preserve, maintain and transfer

vested social security and private rights or

vested social security and private rights or

rights in the process of being vested,

rights in the process of being vested,

independent of profession, nationality and

independent of profession, nationality and

country of residency, with 2 elements

country of residency, with 2 elements

• The full receipt of vested and eligible social security rights aThe full receipt of vested and eligible social security rights as s well as rights under private sector arrangements (benefits in

well as rights under private sector arrangements (benefits in

disbursement, health care coverage) based on acquired

disbursement, health care coverage) based on acquired

rights through prior contributions/premiums or residency

rights through prior contributions/premiums or residency

criteria in any chosen residency

criteria in any chosen residency

• The full transfer of social security rights as well as rights The full transfer of social security rights as well as rights

under private sector arrangements that are in the process of

under private sector arrangements that are in the process of

being vested before eligibility has been established based on

being vested before eligibility has been established based on

acquired rights through prior contributions/premiums or

acquired rights through prior contributions/premiums or

residency criteria in any chosen residency

(14)

Issues (1/2) Acquired rights and

Issues (1/2) Acquired rights and

transfers

transfers

„

„

Actuarial value of contributions or accrued to

Actuarial value of contributions or accrued to

date liability

date liability

redistributive component and

redistributive component and

sustainability

sustainability

„

„

Backward and forward looking approach

Backward and forward looking approach

equivalence, difference and implications

equivalence, difference and implications

„

„

Transfer of acquired rights in PAYG schemes

Transfer of acquired rights in PAYG schemes

reserve fund and GDP bonds

reserve fund and GDP bonds

„

„

Occupational schemes and HR features

Occupational schemes and HR features

„

„

Basic provisions (

Basic provisions (

demogrant

demogrant

) and transfers

) and transfers

„

(15)

Issues (2/2): Benefits to be considered?

Issues (2/2): Benefits to be considered?

„

„

Old age benefits

Old age benefits

„

„

Disability benefits

Disability benefits

„

„

Survivors benefits

Survivors benefits

„

„

Workers accident

Workers accident

and occupational

and occupational

diseases (invalidity

diseases (invalidity

benefits)

benefits)

„

„

Sick pay and

Sick pay and

maternity benefits

maternity benefits

„

„

Severance pay

Severance pay

„

„

Unemployment

Unemployment

benefits

benefits

„

„

Family benefits

Family benefits

(such as

(such as

children/family

children/family

allowance)

allowance)

„

„

Health care benefits

Health care benefits

„

„

Long

Long

-

-

term care

term care

benefits for the

benefits for the

elderly

elderly

„

„

Income replacement

Income replacement

benefits for the care

benefits for the care

of children, sick or

of children, sick or

old people

old people

15 15

(16)

Establishing Portability:

Establishing Portability:

2 key Options and Issues

2 key Options and Issues

„

„

Change in benefit design

Change in benefit design

, e.g.

, e.g.

Old

Old

-

-

age pensions (from DB to DC)

age pensions (from DB to DC)

Disability benefit

Disability benefit

Unemployment benefit (from DB to USA)

Unemployment benefit (from DB to USA)

Health care benefit

Health care benefit

„

„

Portability arrangements

Portability arrangements

Unilateral Actions

Unilateral Actions

Bilateral Agreements

Bilateral Agreements

Multilateral Agreements

Multilateral Agreements

(17)

III. Benefit Design and Portability

III. Benefit Design and Portability

Arrangements

Arrangements

Pensions

Pensions

„

„

Application in Analytical Framework

Application in Analytical Framework

„

„

Application in Multi

Application in Multi

-

-

pillar Pension

pillar Pension

Framework

Framework

• Basic pillar (Basic pillar (demograntdemogrant, social pension), social pension) •

• Mandated and earningsMandated and earnings--related (funded and related (funded and unfunded) pillar

unfunded) pillar

• Voluntary and funded pillarVoluntary and funded pillar

„

„

A Regional Framework for Pension

A Regional Framework for Pension

Portability

Portability

• NDC at core and social pension and voluntary NDC at core and social pension and voluntary pension at the wing (

(18)

18 18 Pillars (and Benefit Types)

Portability constraints Potential individual loses Unilateral Action (UA) Bilateral Agreements (BA) Multilateral Arrangements (MA) Multinational Providers (MP) Basic pension: Demogrant and

minimum income guarantee

Not exportable Loss in basic pension

Make demogrant exportable on pro-rata basis

Reciprocity; Totalization of residency & benefit recalculation

Reciprocity; Totalization of residency & benefit recalculation

Mandated earnings-related benefits (first & second pillar)

No access to social security in host country (NDB, DC)

From none to access to any pension

Contribution in home country

Contribution to MP

Voluntary access, not exportable (NDB, NDC)

From non to access to any pension

Contribution in home country; Reimbursement of contributions Reciprocity; totalization; benefit recalculation Reciprocity; totalization; benefit recalculation Contribution to MP

Access but not exportable (NDC, NDB)

Loss in contribution payment/pension benefit Make exportable Reimbursement of contributions Totalization; benefit recalculation Totalization; benefit recalculation

Access, exportable with penalties (NDB, NDC)

Loss at the level of penalty

Eliminate penalties Totalization; benefit recalculation

Totalization; benefit recalculation

Vesting period (NDB) From non (if not binding) to loss f any pension

Move to NDC Totalization Totalization

Last salary formula (NDB) Back-loading gains Move to NDC Benefit recalculation

Benefit recalculation

Non-linear accrual rates (NDB) Loss or gain depending on accrual rate scale

Move to NDC Benefit recalculation

Benefit recalculation

Top-ups not exportable Loss of top-ups Grant export Reciprocity Reciprocity

Taxation policy From gains to non to double-taxation

Reciprocity Harmonized tax treatment (EET, TTE)

Voluntary funded benefits

Vesting period (FDB) From non to full loss in pension

Move to FDC Contribution to MP

Last salary formula (FDB) Loss in back-loading gains

Move to FDC Contribution to MP

Non-linear accrual rates (FDB) Loss or gain depending on accrual rate scale

Move to FDC Contribution to MP

Taxation policy (e.g. different taxation rules; no tax deduction for premium paid abroad)

From gains to non to double-taxation

Allow tax deduction for contributions paid to abroad

Reciprocity Harmonized tax treatment (EET, TTE); deductbility

(19)

NDC+ System as Regional Portability

NDC+ System as Regional Portability

Framework

Framework

„

„ Emulating ValueEmulating Value--Added Tax scheme of production Added Tax scheme of production

and consumption neutrality for labor mobility

and consumption neutrality for labor mobility

„

„ Proposal: NDC pillar plus basic and voluntary pillarsProposal: NDC pillar plus basic and voluntary pillars

„

„ Transforming divers national schemes in NDCTransforming divers national schemes in NDC

„

„ Portability of acquired rights Portability of acquired rights –– leaving in home or leaving in home or

transferring to host country

transferring to host country

„

„ CountryCountry’’ autonomy of decision on contribution rate autonomy of decision on contribution rate

(NDC/FDC) and level of basic pillar preserved

(NDC/FDC) and level of basic pillar preserved

„

„ Basic pillar portability: ReciprocityBasic pillar portability: Reciprocity

„

„ Voluntary pillar portability: Coordinated design (FDC) Voluntary pillar portability: Coordinated design (FDC)

and taxation approach (EET or TTE, with caps)

and taxation approach (EET or TTE, with caps)

19 19

(20)

IV.

IV.

Health Care Benefit Design and

Health Care Benefit Design and

Portability

Portability

Similarities and Differences between Pension

Similarities and Differences between Pension

Benefits and Health Care Benefits

Benefits and Health Care Benefits

Key Similarities:

Key Similarities:

„

„ PrefundingPrefunding

„

„ RedistributionRedistribution

„

„ Differences in Benefit Cost in Host and Home Differences in Benefit Cost in Host and Home

Country

Country

Key Differences:

Key Differences:

„

„ Complexity of Benefit PackageComplexity of Benefit Package

„

„ Complexity in Risk ProfileComplexity in Risk Profile

„

(21)

Issues for Discussion

Issues for Discussion

„

„

Application of Analytical Framework

Application of Analytical Framework

„

„

Some Illustrations and Issues

Some Illustrations and Issues

„

„

Current Arrangements

Current Arrangements

„

„

New Way Forward

New Way Forward

21 21

(22)

Application of Analytical Framework

Application of Analytical Framework

„

„

Why pre

Why pre

-

-

funding in health?

funding in health?

„

„

Health care benefits and portability with

Health care benefits and portability with

simple actuarial approach and environment

simple actuarial approach and environment

S(ã

S(ã) = ) = C(ãC(ã) ) – – B B ((ãã) = B) = Bee(ã+1) (ã+1) CCee(ã+1)(ã+1)

„

„

Introducing complications, e.g.

Introducing complications, e.g.

• Different risk profilesDifferent risk profiles •

• Different contribution profile and redistributionDifferent contribution profile and redistribution •

• Different price of health care packageDifferent price of health care package •

• Family benefitsFamily benefits 2222

) 1, ã ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ã

( a-ã 1

a 1 ã d a r a p a b S a + + = + + =

σ

(23)

Health expenditures and

Health expenditures and

contributions over the lifecycle

contributions over the lifecycle

23 23

(24)

Health care as a saving scheme

Health care as a saving scheme

(25)

But: how can this work between

But: how can this work between

different countries?

different countries?

25 25

(26)

Should migrants pay a joining fee when they bring

Should migrants pay a joining fee when they bring

not enough switching subsidy from previous

not enough switching subsidy from previous

country

country

(27)

Winners and losers

Winners and losers

„

„ Migrant from low to highMigrant from low to high--income country at age of 30income country at age of 30

• HI lowHI low--income: indifferent (receives switching subsidy)income: indifferent (receives switching subsidy) •

• HI high income: winner (receives more than pays)HI high income: winner (receives more than pays) •

• Migrant: loser (pays more than he/she consumes)Migrant: loser (pays more than he/she consumes)

„

„ Migrant from low to highMigrant from low to high--income country at age of 40income country at age of 40

• HI lowHI low--income: indifferent (pays switching subsidy)income: indifferent (pays switching subsidy) •

• HI high income: loser (pays more than receives/switching subsidy HI high income: loser (pays more than receives/switching subsidy not not enough)

enough) •

• Migrant: winner (consumes more than he/she pays)Migrant: winner (consumes more than he/she pays)

⇒ Age at which migration happens is decisive to determine Age at which migration happens is decisive to determine

winners and losers

winners and losers

„

„ Alternative: make the migrants liable for paying shortfalls, Alternative: make the migrants liable for paying shortfalls,

but also entitle them for payouts

but also entitle them for payouts ⇒

⇒ Actuarial fairness, no winner and losersActuarial fairness, no winner and losers

27 27

(28)

(29)

Current arrangements

Current arrangements

„

„

Tradeoff between migrant

Tradeoff between migrant

s welfare and

s welfare and

actuarial considerations

actuarial considerations

„

„

In reality:

In reality:

„

„ Few examples where treatments abroad are coveredFew examples where treatments abroad are covered

„

„ Only within EU: for tourists and retireesOnly within EU: for tourists and retirees

„

„ But: no actuarial considerationsBut: no actuarial considerations——one and only one one and only one

HIF pays it all

HIF pays it all

„

„ Has been extended to some bilateral agreementsHas been extended to some bilateral agreements

„

„ Could be extended to include expenditureCould be extended to include expenditure--sharing sharing

arrangement?

arrangement?

29 29

(30)

New ways forward

New ways forward

„

„ Health insurance is arguably an intrinsic part of migration Health insurance is arguably an intrinsic part of migration

decision (especially at older age)

decision (especially at older age)

„

„ What can be done:What can be done:

„

„ Unilaterally: extend coverage abroadUnilaterally: extend coverage abroad

„

„ Bilaterally: negotiate expenditureBilaterally: negotiate expenditure--sharing agreementssharing agreements

„

„ Private sector: develop Private sector: develop ““mobility insurance for health caremobility insurance for health care””

• Option to Option to lock in premiums lock in premiums for private health care insurance at younger agefor private health care insurance at younger age •

• All preAll pre--existing conditions that occur after option is bought are includexisting conditions that occur after option is bought are included in ed in insurance

insurance

• When moving from one country to another, option can be executed When moving from one country to another, option can be executed and private and private HI that guarantees high quality in new country of residence can

HI that guarantees high quality in new country of residence can be bought at be bought at

affordable price

affordable price

• Set up as supplementary insurance, maybe even subsidizedSet up as supplementary insurance, maybe even subsidized

„

(31)

VI. Key Issues for Better

VI. Key Issues for Better

Understanding Portability

Understanding Portability

„

„

Data need

Data need

„

„

Details on portability arrangements

Details on portability arrangements

„

„

Corridor studies on portability of social

Corridor studies on portability of social

benefits under arrangements

benefits under arrangements

„

„

Empirical evidence that portability

Empirical evidence that portability

matters

matters

„

„

Expanding the formal analytical

Expanding the formal analytical

framework

framework

31 31

(32)

VII. Summing

VII. Summing

-

-

Up and Conclusions

Up and Conclusions

„

„

Labor mobility increases: Economic,

Labor mobility increases: Economic,

social policy and human rights

social policy and human rights

considerations all point to portability

considerations all point to portability

„

„

Proposed definition of portability linked

Proposed definition of portability linked

to acquired rights and mobility across

to acquired rights and mobility across

profession and borders

profession and borders

„

„

Portability issues emerge from tensions

Portability issues emerge from tensions

between domestic benefit objectives

between domestic benefit objectives

and international labor mobility

and international labor mobility

objectives

(33)

Summing

Summing

-

-

up (2/3)

up (2/3)

„

„

Current approach to address tensions through

Current approach to address tensions through

bi

bi

-

-

lateral agreements with unknown coverage,

lateral agreements with unknown coverage,

rules and impact

rules and impact

„

„

Proposed approach to disentangle risk pooling,

Proposed approach to disentangle risk pooling,

saving and redistributive component:

saving and redistributive component:

• Portability through full transfer of/access to saving Portability through full transfer of/access to saving component (in accumulation and disbursement)

component (in accumulation and disbursement)

• Portability of redistributive component Portability of redistributive component – – case case specific and for discussion (arrangements)

specific and for discussion (arrangements)

• Open issues re differences in risk profile, benefit Open issues re differences in risk profile, benefit price, family benefits, etc

price, family benefits, etc

33 33

(34)

Summing

Summing

-

-

up (3/3)

up (3/3)

„

„

Benefit redesign and bi

Benefit redesign and bi

-

-

/multilateral

/multilateral

arrangements are likely to reinforce

arrangements are likely to reinforce

each other

each other

„

„

Disentangling of the 3 components is

Disentangling of the 3 components is

facilitated in individual account

facilitated in individual account

-

-

type

type

approaches. Domestic reforms move

approaches. Domestic reforms move

in this direction (pensions,

in this direction (pensions,

unemployment, health?)

unemployment, health?)

„

„

Proposed conceptual framework is just

Proposed conceptual framework is just

the beginning of a journey

(35)

„

„

THANK YOU

THANK YOU

„

„

AND LOKING FORWARD TO A GREAT

AND LOKING FORWARD TO A GREAT

DISCUSSION WITH GREAT INPUTS

DISCUSSION WITH GREAT INPUTS

AND SUGGESTIONS

AND SUGGESTIONS

„

„

AND STAY TUNED FOR THE REVISED

AND STAY TUNED FOR THE REVISED

PAPER

PAPER

SHOULD REACH YOU IN

SHOULD REACH YOU IN

JULY

JULY

35 35

Figure

Table 2 Global emigrant stock estimates by origin country income-group and Portability Regime (2000)
Table 3: Global migrant stock estimates of Regime IV migrants only (undocumented migrants) by origin and  host income-group (2000)

References

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