RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

Full text

(1)

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN

SECONDARY SCHOOL

TEACHERS OCCUPATIONAL

COMMITMENT AND

ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

(2)

ABSTRACT

(3)

SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

3

(4)

SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

4

- Hoy & Miskel (1987) defined school climate as the

relatively enduring quality of the school environment

that is experienced by participants, affects their

behavior, and is based on their collective perception

on behavior in school.

(5)

SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

5

The main propositions for this model is that

organizational climate consists of:

1. Supportive principal behavior

2. Directive principal behavior

3. Engaged teacher behavior

4. Frustrated teacher behavior

5. Collegial teacher behavior

(6)

OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT

6

- One of the more common definitions of

occupational

commitment

states

that

occupational commitment refers to a person’s

belief in and acceptance of the values of his

chosen occupation or line of work, and

willingness to maintain membership in the

occupation (Ritzer & Trice, 1969; Vandenberg &

Scarpello, 1994).

(7)

OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT

7

Affective

occupational

commitment

(AOC)

measured teachers’ desire to remain in the

teaching

profession,

identification

with,

involvement in the teaching profession, and

emotional attachment to teaching profession.

Continuance occupational commitment (COC)

measured teachers’ recognition of the costs

associated with leaving the teaching occupation,

and sacrifice in the profession.

Normative

occupational

commitment

(NOC)

(8)

8

Supportive principal behavior is directed towards

both social needs and task achievement of the

faculty. The principal is helpful, genuinely concerned

with teachers, and attempts to motivate them by

using constructive criticism and by setting an

example through hard work.

Directive principal behavior is rigid and domineering.

The principal maintains close and constant

monitoring of all teachers and school activities down

to the smallest detail.

Engaged teacher behavior reflects a faculty in which

(9)

9

Frustrated

teacher

behavior

depicts a faculty that feels

burdened with routine duties,

administrative

paperwork

and

excessive assignments unrelated

to teaching.

Intimate teacher behavior reflects

(10)

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

10

This study endeavored to answer the

following research questions:

1.What is the level of overall occupational

commitment of public secondary schools

teachers?

2.What are the levels of public secondary

school teachers’ occupational commitment

as measured by affective, continuance and

normative occupational commitment?

(11)

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

11

4. Is there a significant relationship between

occupational commitment (affective, continuance

and overall occupational commitment) and age,

teaching experience, years in the present school

and number of children?

5. Is there a significant difference regarding teachers

occupational commitment (affective, continuance

and overall occupational commitment) based on

their gender, marital status, academic qualification

and ethnic group?

6. Is there a significant relationship between teachers’

perceptions

of

organizational

climate

and

(12)

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

12

- This is a descriptive-correlational study.

- The sample of the study were full time public

secondary school teachers in Kuala Lumpur,

Malaysia. A list of teachers’ names was

obtained from the State Department of

Education.

- The sample was 510 teachers who had at least

one year of teaching experience in their

current school.

(13)

RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS FOR THE STUDY

Measurement

Measurement

Scale/Component

Scale/Component

Alpha

Alpha

Coefficient

Coefficient

Occupational Occupational Commitment Commitment Questionnaire Questionnaire (OCCQ) (OCCQ) 1.

1. Affective Occupational Affective Occupational

Commitment

Commitment

2.

2. Continuance Occupational Continuance Occupational

Commitment

Commitment

3.

3. Normative Occupational Normative Occupational

Commitment Commitment .88 .88 .75 .75 .85 .85 Organisational Organisational Climate Climate Questionnaire Questionnaire (OCDQ-RS) (OCDQ-RS) 1.

1. Supportive Principal BehaviorSupportive Principal Behavior

2.

2. Directive Principal BehaviorDirective Principal Behavior

3.

3. Engaged Teacher BehaviorEngaged Teacher Behavior

4.

4. Frustrated Teacher BehaviorFrustrated Teacher Behavior

5.

5. Intimate Teacher BehaviorIntimate Teacher Behavior

(14)

INTERPRETATION ON THE STRENGTH OF

THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS

r

r

Strength of

Strength of

Relationship

Relationship

r

r

2 2

(% of

(% of

Variance

Variance

Explained)

Explained)

.75-1.00

.75-1.00

.50-.74

.50-.74

.25-.49

.25-.49

.00-.24

.00-.24

Strong

Strong

Moderate to High

Moderate to High

Low to Moderate

Low to Moderate

Weak

Weak

56% to 100%

56% to 100%

25% to 55%

25% to 55%

6.3% to 21%

6.3% to 21%

0.0% to 5.8%

0.0% to 5.8%

(15)

TABLE 1:RESPONDENTS’ DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO AGE, NUMBER OF CHILDREN, TEACHING EXPERIENCE AND YEARS IN THE

PRESENT SCHOOL.

Variable

Variable FrequencyFrequency PercentPercent Mean (SD)Mean (SD) RangeRange

Age (Years) Age (Years) < 30 < 30 30-45 30-45 >45 >45 82 82 308 308 43 43 18.3 18.3 71.2 71.2 9.9 9.9 35.7 (6.7)

35.7 (6.7) 21-5421-54

Number of children

Number of children

0 0 1-2 1-2 >2 >2 101 101 165 165 167 167 23.3 23.3 38.2 38.2 38.5 38.5 2.1 (1.7)

2.1 (1.7) 0-100-10

Teaching Experience Teaching Experience (Years) (Years) <6 <6 6-20 6-20 21 21 128 128 255 255 50 50 23.9 23.9 58.9 58.9 11.5 11.5 10.9 (7.3)

10.9 (7.3) 2-342-34

Years in a Current

Years in a Current

School School <5 <5 5-14 5-14 >14 >14 232 232 169 169 32 32 53.6 53.6 39.0 39.0 7.4 7.4 6.0 (4.8)

6.0 (4.8) 2-302-30

(16)

LEVELS OF OCCUPATIONAL

COMMITMENT

 More than half of the respondents (55.4%) indicated

a moderate level of

affective occupational

commitment

and more than one-third of the

respondents (43%) reported a high level. A great percentage of the respondents (70.4%) reported a moderate level of continuance occupational commitment while nearly one-third of respondents (29.1%) reported a high level.

For

normative occupational commitment

,

almost two-thirds of the respondents (66%) showed a moderate level and about one-third of them (33.5%) showed a high level.

 Furthermore, less than two-thirds of the respondents

(62.8%) indicated a moderate level of

overall

occupational commitment

; whereas just above

one-third of the respondents (35.1) showed a high level of overall occupational commitment.

(17)

LEVEL OF

ORGANIZATIONAL

CLIMATE

More than one-half of the respondents (60.7)

indicated

that

their

principals

were

moderately

supportive

and just over

30% of the respondents indicated their

principals were lowly supportive.

Related to

directive

principal behavior,

more than half of the respondents (59.6%)

perceived that their principals practiced a

moderate level of directive principal

behavior while more that one-third of the

respondents

(35.3%)

perceived

their

principals practices a low level of directive

(18)

The results revealed that

supportive

principal

behavior positively and significantly correlated with

each dimension of occupational commitment;

affective, continuance, normative and overall

occupational with r = .14, .20, .13 and .17, p ≤ .05

respectively.

These results showed that the magnitude of

correlations between

supportive

principal behavior

and all dimensions of occupational commitment

were week.

In relation to

directive

principal behavior, the

results in Table 1 show that no significant

relationship

existed

between

respondents’

perception of directive principal behavior and each

of affective, continuance, normative and overall

occupational commitment.

(19)

For the relationship between

frustrated teacher

behavior and occupational commitment, it was

found in table 2 that there was a negative and

significant relationship between respondents’

perception of frustrated teacher behavior and

each dimension of occupational commitment,

affective occupational commitment (r = -.23, p

≤ .01), continuance occupational commitment

(r=-.13, p ≤ .01) and overall occupational

commitment (r=-.21, p ≤ .01). the data

inferred

that

the

relationship

between

perception of frustrated teacher behavior and

each of affective, continuance, normative and

overall occupational commitment was weak.

(20)

The results showed that respondents’ perception of

intimacy

teacher

behavior

correlated

positively with each of affective, continuance,

normative and overall occupational commitment.

The relationship of perceptions of

intimacy

teacher behavior with affective occupational

commitment was significant but weak with r=.10 (p

≤ .05), whereas the relationship between

perceptions of intimacy teacher behavior and

continuance, normative and overall occupational

commitment were not- significant.

(21)

TABLE 2: THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS OF OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT WITH PERCEPTIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL

CLIMATE

Variable

Variable AOCAOC COCCOC NOCNOC Overall OCOverall OC

Supportive Principal

Supportive Principal

Behavior (SPB)

Behavior (SPB)

.14**

.14** .20**.20** .13**.13** .17**.17**

Directive Principal

Directive Principal

Behavior (DPB)

Behavior (DPB)

-.06

-.06 .02.02 -.02-.02 -.04-.04

Engaged Teacher

Engaged Teacher

Behavior (ETB)

Behavior (ETB)

.26**

.26** .26**.26** .22**.22** .28**.28**

Frustrated Teacher

Frustrated Teacher

Behavior (FTB)

Behavior (FTB)

-.23**

-.23** -.13**-.13** -.18**-.18** -.21**-.21**

Intimacy Teacher

Intimacy Teacher

Behavior (ITB)

Behavior (ITB)

.10*

.10* .08.08 .06.06 .09.09

21

n =433 * Significant at p .05 ** Significant at p.01 Note: AOC =Affective Occupational Commitment,

(22)

IMPLICATION

 Teachers’ level of occupational commitment is at a

moderate level. The practitioners should find means to improve the level of occupational commitment as teachers are facing more challenges to carry out more responsibilities during this era of frequent educational reforms. Particularly, more improvement is required on continuance and normative occupational commitment. Furthermore, commitment to occupation is a multidimensional construct and each dimension has its factors that are associated with it.

 From this, it is recommended that practitioners understand

the distinctions of these forms of commitment (affective, continuance and normative occupational commitment) and factors associated with each of them in order to focus on whether they want to establish a policy of teachers’ commitment to their occupation. The practitioners should make clear which form of commitment teachers lack most and which form exists abundantly

(23)

IMPLICATION

Supportive principal behavior, engaged teacher

behavior and frustrated teacher behavior have

indicate their significant correlations with

occupational commitment and its components.

Principals in the schools should have a

supportive approach to leadership in schools.

The Ministry should focus on giving roles that are

relevant to the teaching profession and avoid

giving work that teachers consider as irrelevant

to their teaching occupations. Furthermore, to

have teachers with a positive identification with,

attachment to and involvement in their school,

teachers’ intimacy should be given due

(24)

IMPLICATION

School organization are an important place

for teachers to become committed to their

occupation because teachers practice their

profession in schools, i.e. their working

places.

Therefore,

principals

and

practitioners are required to make schools a

place where teachers can become committed

(25)

KEPEMIMPINAN DAN IKLIM

ORGANISASI SEKOLAH

IKLIM ORGANISASI SEKOLAH

Iklim organisasi ialah jumlah kualiti persekitaran

dalam sesebuah organisasi. Iklim boleh

dikategorikan kepada dua iaitu iklim terbuka

dan iklim tertutup (Halpin & Croft, 1963). Iklim

organisasi bermula dari bidang psikologi. Ia

boleh

digambarkan

sebagai

‘personaliti’

sesebuah sekolah. Apabila kita melawat

mana-mana sekolah kita akan merasa wujud kelainan

antara sekolah tersebut dengan sekolah lain.

(26)

IKLIM TERBUKA

 Menggambarkan sebuah sekolah yang

bertenaga, hidup dan sentiasa bergerak ke hadapan untuk mencapai matlamat. Iklim ini menyediakan rasa kepuasan dalam kalangan ahli sekolah. Tindakan kepemimpinan dilihat lebih mudah dan sesuai untuk kedua-dua pemimpin dan pengikut. Ciri utama iklim terbuka ialah tingkahlaku tulen ditonjolkan oleh ahli sekolah. Ciri-ciri iklim sekolah terbuka menggambarkan wujud kadar rintangan dan kadar terpisah yang rendah antara ahli, tidak menekankan pengeluaran, serta kadar kepercayaan dan pertimbangan yang tinggi diamalkan oleh

(27)

IKLIM TERTUTUP

 Sikap tidak peduli dalam kalangan staf

menggambarkan iklim tertutup. Organisasi sekolah tidak bergerak. Semangat staf berada di aras rendah kerana ahli organisasi tidak mencapai kepuasan dalam prestasi bekerja serta kepuasan dalam keperluan sosial mereka. Tingkahlaku ahli boleh ditafsirkan sebagai tidak tulen, dan organisasi dalam keadaan pergerakan mendatar. Jadi ciri-ciri iklim tertutup dicirikan oleh suasana di mana wujud kadar rintangan, pengasingan dan pemisahan antara ahli yang tinggi. Terdapat hubungan yang tidak mesra dalam kalangan guru dan guru tidak mempunyai semangat yang tinggi. Pemimpin pula memberi tekanan kepada pengeluaran.

(28)

MENGUKUR IKLIM SEKOLAH

Walaubagaimanapun,

sebenarnya

darjah keterbukaan iklim sekolah

adalah hasil daripada interaksi antara

ahli organisasi yang berkualiti. Hoy

et.al, (1991) telah menjelaskan iklim

sekolah

melalui

instrumen

yang

mengukur enam tingkahlaku seperti

berikut: yang dipanggil OCDQ-RE

(

Organizational Climate Description

Questionnaire

) untuk sekolah rendah.

(29)

1.

Tingkah laku Pengetua yang Menyokong

Tingkahlaku ini menggambarkan pertimbangan

terhadap guru. Pemimpin mendengar pandangan

dan cadangan guru. Pujian diberikan dengan

jujur dan kerap. Kritikan diberikan secara

membina, kecekapan guru dihormati, dan

pemimpin menunjukkan minat secara peribadi

dan profesional kepada guru.

2.

Tingkah laku Pengetua yang Direktif

Tingkahlaku ini berbentuk ‘rigid’, penyeliaan rapi,

pemimpin

mengamalkan

pemantauan

dan

kawalan yang berterusan terhadap kerja dan

(30)

3. Tingkah laku pengetua yang ‘restrictive’

 Tingkahlaku ini menghalang, dan bukan membantu

guru dalam melaksanakan tugas. Pengetua membebankan guru dengan menyediakan kertas kerja, menulis keperluan jawatankuasa, tugas rutin, dan keperluan tugas lain yang mengganggu tanggungjawab pengajaran mereka.

4. Tingkah laku guru yang ‘collegial’

 Tingkahlaku ini menyokong interaksi terbuka dan

profesional antara guru. Guru merasa bangga terhadap sekolah, seronok bekerja dengan rakan setugas, bersemangat, menerima dan menghormati rakan sekerja.

(31)

5. Tingkah laku guru yang mesra

 Tingkahlaku ini menggambarkan hubungan sosial

yang kohesif antara guru. Guru-guru mengenali satu sama lain, menjadi rakan peribadi yang rapat, selalu bergaul bersama, dan menyediakan sokongan antara satu sama lain.

6. Tingkah laku guru yang tidak mesra

 Tingkahlaku ini menggambarkan aktiviti profesional

(32)

MENGUKUR IKLIM SEKOLAH

MENENGAH

Hoy et.al (1991) juga telah membentuk satu

laagi instrumen untuk mengukur iklim

sekolah menengah yang dipanggil OCDQ-RS.

Lima

tingkahlaku

digunakan

untuk

menjelaskan

iklim

organisasi

sekolah

menengah seperti berikut:

(33)

1.

Tingkah laku Pengetua yang

Menyokong

(

Supportive Principal

Behaviour

)

Tingkahlaku

ini

menggambarkan

usaha

pengetua untuk memotivasikan guru-guru

dengan menggunakan kritikan yang konstruktif

dan memberi contoh melalui kerja kuat. Pada

masa yang sama pengetua akan membantu dan

memberi perhatian sebenar terhadap kebajikan

peribadi dan profesional guru. Tingkahlaku ini

terarah untuk mencapai keperluan sosial dan

(34)

2. Tingkah laku Pengetua yang direktif (Directive Principal Behaviour)

 Tingkahlaku yang ‘rigid’ dan mempraktikkan penyeliaan

yang menindas. Pengetua tetap mengekalkan kawalan yang rapi dan berterusan terhadap guru dan aktiviti sekolah dengan terperinci.

 

3. Tingkah laku guru yang “engaged” (Engaged Teacher Behaviour)

 Tingkahlaku ini digambarkan oleh semangat guru yang

tinggi. Guru bangga terhadap sekolahnya, seronok bekerja dengan rakan, dan menyokong rakan sekerja. Mereka bukan sahaja memberi perhatian terhadap satu sama lain, tetapi komited terhadap kejayaan pelajar mereka. Mereka mesra dengan pelajar, percayakan pelajar dan optimistik dengan keupayaan pelajar untuk berjaya.

(35)

4. Tingkah laku guru yang kecewa (Frustrated Teacher Behaviour)

 Tingkahlaku ini menggambarkan pola umum di

mana wujud campurtangan pihak pentadbiran dan rakan sekerja yang menganggu tugas pengajaran yang asas. Tugas rutin, kertas kerja pentadbiran, dan terlalu banyak tugasan bukan pengajaran. Guru-guru berasa marah dan akan mengganggu antara satu sama lain.

5. Tingkah laku guru yang mesra/intimate (Intimate Teacher Behaviour)

 Tingkahlaku ini menunjukkan jaringan dan

hubungan sosial antara guru yang kohesif dan kuat. Mereka mengenali dengan baik satu sama

(36)

HUBUNGAN STAIL

KEPEMIMPINAN DAN IKLIM

SEKOLAH

Kuadran III Kuadran II

 Pertimbangan tinggi

 Penstrukturan tugas rendah

 Pertimbangan tinggi

 Penstrukturan tugas tinggi

Kuadran IV Kuadran I

 Pertimbangan rendah

 Penstrukturan tugas rendah

 Pertimbangan rendah • Penstrukturan tugas

tinggi

36

Penstrukturan Tugas

Rendah Tinggi

Rendah Tinggi

(37)

Kuadran 1 :

 Pemimpin ini rendah dalam pertimbangan tetapi tinggi dalam

penstrukturan tugas. Beliau berorientasikan tugas dan hanya berminat dengan perlaksanaan tugas, lupa bahawa ia berurusan dengan manusia yang ada perasaan.

 

Kuadran II :

 Pemimpin ini tinggi dalam pertimbangan dan tinggi juga dalam

menstrukturkan tugas. Beliau berjaya memimpin dengan cekap dan berkesan, mampu mengurus kakitangan dan kerja dengan baik.

Kuadran III :

 Pemimpin ini tinggi dalam pertimbangan tetapi rendah dalam

menstrukturkan tugas. Beliau mengekalkan hubungan mesra dengan pekerja dan memberi sepenuh perhatian terhadap kebajikan kakitangan, tetapi tidak efektif dalam penyempurnaan tugas.

 

Kuadran IV :

 Pemimpin ini rendah dalam pertimbangan dan penstrukturan tugas.

(38)

SCHOOL

CULTURE AND

SCHOOL

(39)

INTRODUCTION

Culture of efficacy is defined as the extent to which the school teachers have mutual perception that their collective effort will positively impact students.

Culture of trust can be interpreted as the extent to which there is mutual trust between the principal and the teachers, the teachers abd the colleagues, the school personnel, parents and students.

Culture of control means the extent to which students are controlled in relation to the structure and norms of the school. TWO cultures of control: 1. A custodial culture resulting in rigid and highly controlled setting that places

too much importance on maintaining order.

2. Humanistic culture of control which encourages students to learn through

cooperative interaction and experience.

(40)

STRONG CULTURE, OPEN AND HEALTHY CLIMATE

Open climate share several characteristics:

1) First and foremost, these principals are reflective in nature. They use information gathered from reports, teachers, parents, and community members to develop reasoned approaches for action and help generate new meanings about the changes ahead.

2) Second, they are collaborative. They share leadership with staff at al levels of the organisation because they know that teams of people who share the same goals are more effective than principals who work alone. These principals create time for teams to meet, plan, and teach together.

(41)

4) Fourth, they are not afraid to take risks and are willing to try something different. They tend to be actively engaged in pursuing innovative solutions that can help include the minorities, whether due to abilities, culture, language, or ethnic origin.

5) Fifth, they place great importance on relationships. They “go to the extra mile” to work with staff, parents and community members to solve differences and find workable solutions. These principals work hard to build trust and promote changes by sharing information honestly with all involved.

(42)

UNHEALTHY CULTURE AND CLOSE

CLIMATE

 The culture is unhealthy when there is no

passion and commitment among the school citizens and when the leadership of the school does not lead or enable interactions which lead to higher efficacy among the school citizens.

 Toxic culture can also develop when school

leadership ignores or neglects changes in the school which should be address.

 Failure to address unhealthy school culture can

(43)

THANK YOU

Figure

TABLE  1:RESPONDENTS’  DISTRIBUTION  ACCORDING  TO  AGE,  NUMBER  OF  CHILDREN,  TEACHING  EXPERIENCE  AND  YEARS  IN  THE  PRESENT SCHOOL .

TABLE 1:RESPONDENTS’

DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO AGE, NUMBER OF CHILDREN, TEACHING EXPERIENCE AND YEARS IN THE PRESENT SCHOOL . p.15

References

Updating...