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Executive Summary

This project focuses on the following areas:

1.

Unilever’s Philosophy

2.

Unilever’s Corporate Purpose

3.

Unilever’s History

4.

Market Overview for Cooking Oil Industry

5.

PEST analysis for Cooking Oil industry

6.

Unilever’s Analysis

7.

Current Product Range Of Unilever

8.

Internal Audit of DALDA

9.

External Audit of HABIB as competitor

10. SWOT analysis of HABIB

11. Customer Audit

12. Market Segmentation

13. Assumptions

14. Marketing Objectives & Strategies for new product

15. Setting Marketing Objectives

16. Characteristics Of Products

17. Target Marketing & Market Segmentation

18. Market Potential

19. Market Positioning

20. Marketing Mix Strategies

21. Alternative Marketing Plan

22. Important activities of promotional plan

23. Objective of each promotional activity

24. Measurements, Review & control

25. References

(3)

This project is an application of the marketing concepts used as a business function by the oils,

divisions of Unilever Pakistan. The goal of Marketing is to create customers’ satisfaction profitably by building value- laden leaderships

with important customers. It calls on the organizations to think “customer” and regard him

as a King.

We as students require an in depth insight into creative world of marketing. We need to know

how vital role marketing plays in any organization as they all reach out to satisfy

citizen and customer needs, providing them values resulting in profits. Our aim was to launch a complete new product in oil division of

Unilever and to design the strategies for the introduction and promotion of this newly launched cooking oil. The aim was also to objectively analyze these principles as applied in

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Our heartiest gratitude to every 1 who

has helped us in carrying out this study

Special thanks to Sir. Sohail Kamran for

his much needed guidance. We are deeply

thankful to him for his value able

assistance

(5)

UNILEVER’S PHILOSOPHY

“Success depends upon providing the

rite mix of international and local

brands for the local consumers.”

“International expertise means

we can focus relevant experience

and people on new markets-fast.”

“Research must be consumer

focused and technology

driven-a worldwide

commitment.”

(6)

UNILEVER’S CORPORATE

PURPOSE:

“Our purpose in Unilever is to meet

everyday needs of people everywhere to

anticipate the aspirations of our

consumers and customers and to respond

creatively and competitively with branded

products and services which raise the

quality of life.

“Our deep roots in local cultures and

markets around the world are our

unparalleled inheritance and the

foundation of our future growth. We will

bring our wealth of knowledge and

international expertise to the service of

local consumers-a truly multi-local

multinational.

“Our long term success requires a total

commitment to exceptional standards of

performance and productivity, to working

together effectively and to a willingness

(7)

continuously.

“We believe that to succeed requires the

highest standards of corporate behavior

towards our employees, consumers and

societies and world in which we live.”

“This is Unilever’s road to sustainable,

profitable growth for our business and

long-term value creation for our

shareholders and employees.”

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Marketing Project

Submitted to:

SIR SOHAIL KAMRAN

Submitted By:

RABIA

MADIHA

SEHRISH

TABASSUM

(10)

Unilever Pakistan limited is a largest consumer products company in Pakistan. It was

born out of dream to Set-up in Pakistan an industry of excellence in 1948 as Lever

Brothers Pakistan Limited. Unilever Pakistan Limited is Manufacturing & Marketing its

Detergents, Personal Products, Tea, SCC Products & Ice Cream over 50 brands.

In line with global alignment strategy and in order to leverage the synergies of Unilever’s International brand strength, market edge and corporate image, Lever Brothers

Pakistan Limited has change its name to Unilever Pakistan Limited, in August 2002

VISION STATEMENT

Touching Hearts,

Changing Lives”

MISSION STATEMENT OF UNILEVER

• We are the leading consumers Products Company in Pakistan, a multination with deep roots in the country.

• We attract and develop highly talented people who are excited, empowered and committed to deliver double-digit growth.

• We serve the everyday needs of all consumers every where for foods, Hygiene and Beauty through branded products and services that deliver the best quality and value.

• We strive to remain an ever simple and enterprising business

• We use our superior consumer understanding to produce break through innovation in brands and channels.

• Our brands capture the hearts of consumer’s through outstanding communication.

• Through managing a responsive supply chain, we maximize value from suppliers to customers.

CURRENT PRODUCT RANGE

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SSC

1. BRANDS

- DALDA BNASPATI - DALDA COOKING OIL - PLANTA COOKING OIL - BLUE BAND MARGARINE

- INDUSTRIAL AND BAKERY FATS - MELANGE

2. BEVERAGES

- PEARL DUST - RED ROSE

- A-1 KARAK CHAP - KENYA MIXTURE - RICHBRU

- HOTEL CHAI - LIPTON

3. HOME AND PERSONALCARE

a) Skin Cleaning:

(12)

c) Home Care:

- Vim Scorer - Vim Bar - VIM BAR - MAGIC WHEEL

4. Personal Care

- FAIR AND LOVELY - PONDS CREAM - PONDS TALC - SUNSILK SHAMPOO - LIFEBUOY SHAMPOO

5. Oral Care

- CLOSE UP 12

(13)

MISSION STATEMENT REGARDING EMPLOYEES

:

We believe in trust, truth and outstanding teamwork. We value a creative and

fun environment.

- Over Rs. 20 billion of sales with household items - More than 50 brands

- Over 2500 hundred employees

-

Lever brothers is a part of Unilever , which is a Global company

UNI-LEVER IS COMMITTED TO TRAIN & DEVELOP ALL ITS

EMPLOYEES THROUGH

- Performance development planning - Emphasizes on professional skills - Managerial competencies

(14)

Per Share Income to shareholders:

OFFICERS

Musharaf hai (Chairman & chief executive)

Amar naseem ( seceratary)

TABLE 1.1

Earnings / Dividends (as of 9/30/02)

Earnings Dividends

Most Recent Qtr 76.86 59.00

Last 12 Months 132.7 96.50

Ratio Analysis

Price / Earnings Ratio 9.80 Dividend Yield 7.42%

Price / Sales Ratio 0.89 Payout Ratio 72.73%

Price / Book Ratio 14.46 % Held by Insiders N/A

Address

Fatima Jinnah Road Karachi 75530 Pakistan

Recent stock performance

1 Week 4.0%

4 Weeks 18.2% 13 Weeks 38.3% 52 Weeks 69.9%

(15)

Market Overview For Cooking Oil &Ghee Industry

Market share and number of customers:

The Corporation sells products in over 150 countries and has annual sales of approximately $ 46 billion (£31,5bn). Unilever controls subsidiaries in at least 90 countries and employs 295,000 (in 2000) people

Demographic elements:

Unilever has products in all product lines for all age groups like confectioneries for kids, beauty product for both male and female.

Unilever has products depending upon the regional/geographical differences for the countries in which it is serving.

Market Trends:

Market trend for cooking oil:

(16)

CURRENT MARKET SITUATION:

Current Market Situation:

Dalda is an imported stuff that’s why it cannot be calculated in terms of rupees.Total market size is 1.5 million tons annually.Total market size is not growing as it should be,but total market size/growing rate of Dalda is 5% per year.

Total Market Size of Dalda in previous years:

TABLE 1.2

Years

Growth rate

(thsd.tons)

2003 51 2004 63 2005 71 2006 80 2007 89 2008 97 16

(17)
(18)

Goal

Unilever goal is to add Vitality to life. We meet everyday need of nutrition, hygiene and personal care with brands that help people to feel good, look good and get more out of life.

-Culture

Our deep roots in local culture and in markets give us our strong relationship with consumers and are the foundation for our future growth. We will bring our wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers.

Strength

- Unilever is a multinational organization - It deals with highly differential products - Always provides innovative products - Strong customer relationship

Weaknesses

- Its less focus on reshaping product

(19)
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Number

In the fiscal year of 2001 the estimates were 180000 metric tons. Imports were expected to grow to 200000 metric tons for the following year. Imports were of US$ 1 billion annually. The average annual growth rate for edible oil industry is 12.5% per annum for several years.the demand for cookong oil is estimated to be grow at 5 % per annum

Type

- Home consumers - Hotels - Organizations - Industries

Value drivers

We provide the best packing option by the following manner; - Plastic bottles

- Steal coded seals - Convenient to use

Decision Process

The decision process is very simple because of - Simple decision

- Daily use product

- More frequently purchase

(21)

INTERNAL AUDIT FOR

DALDA

(22)

We will discuss 4 Ps of marketing mix for DALDA

PRODUCT

BRAND NAME:

DALDA cooking oil QUALITY:

DALDA is providing excellent quality followed by ISO

The enterprise operates under the quality control system in compliance with the international standard requirements of quality management system ISO 9001

PACKAGING:

DALDA introduced plastic bottles.

DALDA has also introduced different sizes of bottles for cooking oil packing.

(23)

PRICE

We are offering competitive introductory price which is mentioned below

• 750 for 5 litre cane

DISCOUNT:

We are offering discount 10 Rs each cane in order to capture maximum attention of our target market

PAYMENT TERM AND FINANCE POSITION

• Not available

LEASING OPTION;

• Not available

PLACE

DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL:

AVAILABLE SIZES PRICES

1 LITER 250

2.5 LITER 450

(24)

PROMOTION

ADVERTISING PLANS: • Print Media • Electronic Media • Radio FM PROMOTIONAL PROGRAMMES:

DALDA has survived over a long period of time by reaching its customers through different promotional plans

• Superior marketing

• Advance communications

• Innovative radio programs

• Effective press usage

• Cinema

• DALDA’s cook book (VOL 1& 2)

• DALDA ka Dastarkhawan

• DALDA Cooking competition

• DALDA Food Show

• Free sampling

(25)

External Audit

Main competitors

:

HABIB

SEASONS

RAFHAN

SOYA SUPREME

Competitor analysis-HABIB COOKING OIL

Market Position:

TABLE 1.3

HABIB

FREQUENCY PERCENT VALID

PERCENT COMMULATIVE PERCENT

VALID PRICE 4 13.3 13.3 13.3

QUALITY 6 20.00 20.00 33.3

NUTRITION 9 30.00 30.00 63.3

(26)

GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF DATA LISTED ABOVE

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 VALI D PRIC E QUAL ITY NUTR ITIO N AVAI LABI LITY PACK AGIN G TOTA L FREQUENCY PERCENT VALID PERCENT COMMULATIVE PERCENT

Explanation of graph:

The respondents on various attributes also favour HABIB as a strong competitor of DALDA.13.3% purchase for its price, 20% for its quality , 30% for its nutrition 13.3 % purchase it for DALDA’s unavailability and 23.3% for its packaging

STRENGTH:

- Second largest oil brand - Asli ghee smell

WEAKNESS:

- Less innovative - Less sales

(27)

SWOT Analysis for HABIB

Strength

• Hygienic oil

• High volume or sale

• Number one brand

• New idea of packaging

Weaknesses

• Concentrate on economy pack

• Target on the housewives

• Ignore industrial consumer

Opportunities

• Large market share

• High profit

• New investment

• New innovation

(28)

Market Segmentation

(29)

Description

 Premium

 Females between the ages of (25-35) years

 Mothers playing an influential role in decision making  A household of four and more

 Target personality include low income segment as well (loose and mid-price)

Table 1.4

Pest

s a le s p r o p o rtio n

5 3 % 2 4 % 2 3 % tin s p o u c h e s lo o s e

(30)

Political Factors:

• Democracies are under pressure to show that they can protect the health of their population.

• Global society is under pressure to demonstrate it can mobilize resources to effectively tackle global social problems.

• Tackling health problems requires long term thinking, complex partnerships and innovative forms of organization.

• Health suffers more in wars and other complex consequences.

Economical Factors:

• Rising price of palm oil

• Purchasing power is affected by the inflation

• Import of palm oil is affected by dollar exchange rate

Social factors:

• Health is important to people-consistently regarded by rich or poor

• There is a complex interaction between the right of an individual good health; the right of community to protect itself against health threats; and its responsibility to provide for the health of its members.

• Health protection requires across the society professions organizations etc. public health relies on public support of its “licenses to operate” and its ability to change behavior.

P

E

S

T

(31)

• Health problems are always dynamic and sometimes this change is unpredictable. Health interventions can lead to new health hazards.

• Without knowledge about health, there can be no response to health threats.

• Technology is poorly distributed in areas where people are unable to create demand for it effectively.

• New technologies are the result of increasingly sophisticated processes and currently seem to be of decreasing cost effectiveness.

• New technologies pose poorly-understood risks as well as offering hard to qualify benefits

• Information technology has a potential to revolutionize the disseminations of knowledge about health.

(32)

ASSUMPTIONS:

It is assumed that the political, economical, and social condition will remain same during the whole year in which the product is launched e-g market price of palm seeds.

(33)

MARKETING OBJECTIVES

& STRATEGIES FOR NEW

(34)

activities

.

2. Profitability Objective:

To earn profit of 10% of sales initially.

3.

Market Share Objective:

To attain 05-10% market share for initial one year.

4. Customer Satisfaction:

We plan to provide our customers with the best of quality, health and convenience, at low

and affordable prices.

Ways

Planned To

Adopt To Help Improve Our Customer Service:

1. Stay in contact with customers on a regular basis

2. Create a customer focus group by inviting 10 to 20 loyal customers to meet regularly.

(35)

4. Resolve customer complaints quickly and completely. Answer all e-mail and phone calls

within a few hours.

5. Not to make customers or visitors hunt for contact information. Make it easy for them to

contact us.

6. Give our employees bonuses or incentives to practice excellent customer service. Tell

employees to be flexible with each individual customer, each one has different concerns, needs and wants.

7. Give your customers more than they expect.

(36)

BRAND AWARENESS

COMPANY NAME: UNILEVER

(37)

ALGAE

COOKING OIL

CATEGORY: COOKING OIL

AVAILABLE SIZES:

1 LITER

2.5 LITER

5 LITER

PACKAGING:

PLASTIC BOTTLES

MAJOR CITIES INITIALLY TARGETED:

LAHORE

ISLAMABAD

KARACHI

PESHAWAR

RAWALPINDI

MARKET SEGMENTATION

(38)

Country –wise

Province-wise

City-wise etc

DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION:

(a) AGE:

Under 25, 25-45,over 45

(b)Gender:

Male, Female

(c) Income:

A-F households with class A households having the highest

income and class F having the lowest.

(d)Education:

Uneducated, Primary

school,Matriculation,Intermediate,Bachlors,Masters ,PhD

PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION:

(a) SOCIAL CLASS:

A-F households –A being upper class and F being the lower

class

BEHAVIORAL SEGMENTATION:

(a) Purchase Occasion:

Regular occasion

Special occasion

(b) Benefits Sought:

Quality

Service

Economy

(c) User Status:

Nonuser

Ex-user

Potential user

Regular user

(d) Loyalty Status:

38

(39)

Medium

Strong

Absolute

(40)

TARGET MARKET

:

GEOGRAPHIC

(a)

Region:

Algae cooking oil will be a nation-wide brand and it will target all areas in urban Sindh, Punjab and N.W.F.P

(41)

DEMOGRAPHIC

(a) AGE:

• 25-45

(b) GENDER;

• Traditional female house wives

(c) INCOME:

• Households A with income range..20000 and above

• Households B* with income range…10000-15000

• Households C** with income range….7000-10000

(d) EDUCATION:

• Atleast Matriculatio

PSYCHOGRAPHIC

(a)

Social Class:

• Households A & B*

(b) LIFE STYLE & PERSONALITY:

• ALGAE cooking oil will be targeted to those households who are more or less in 25 -45 age group .This women is traditional but educated at least Matriculation and loves to take care of her family. She is quality conscious and health

(42)

EAT HEALTHY LIVE HEALTHY

EAT HEALTHY LIVE HEALTHY

42

(43)

Improve your quality of life

Feel great

Look great

Have healthy smooth skin

A strong immune system

A positive out look on life

Have more get up and go than you have ever had

Have thick healthy hair

(44)

The four elements of the Mix are, of course the Product ITSELF; the Price at which it is offered for sale in the market; the Place or how the product is distributed; and the

Promotion which brings the product to the attention of the customers, arouses his/her

interest, builds up the desire for the product and finally moves him/her to act /purchase the product.

The following section of this project will deal the Marketing Mix used by UNILEVER for its new brand ALGAE COOKING OIL.

PRODUCT

(45)

Anything that can be offered to the market for attention,

acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a want or need

PRODUCT

PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION:

(46)

Algae Cooking Oil

offers two new best features for the new millennium; the power

of algae

and the omega 3.

Omega 3 algae oil is nutritionally identical to fish oil. It contains DHA and EPA. But it is not an animal product. It conserves fish resources while providing us with an excellent source of omega 3 essential fatty acids. Algae oil could replace both fish oil and flaxseed oil as an omega 3 supplement now

The algal-oil feed stock that is used to produce bio diesel can also be used for fuel directly as Straight Vegetable Oil(SVO)

The algal-oil feedstock that is used to produce biodisel can also be used for fuel directly as "Straight Vegetable Oil", (SVO). The benefit of using the oil in this manner is that it doesn't require the additional energy needed for transesterification,

PRODUCT SERVICES PERSONNEL IMAGE TOTAL CUSTOMER VALUE Packs/tins of omega 3 algae oil Cookery program Advisory service Social and Esteem needs met

Product Design:

Unilever has once again compliance with its customer oriented policy by

introducing a new brand; omega 3 cooking oil in its current product line, that’s a

unique product with enriched features. It is altogether a new product, packaged in a

one liter polyjar.

Attributes

Effects & Ingredients

consistency

light

vitamins

A,D,E

Fatty acids

EPA Omega 3

Energy power

Algae(Chlorella)

Color of the Product

Dark

Packaging:

(47)

packaging is of the highest standards; at least in the local market. Omega 3 Algae oil is available in tins, bottles and poly-bags. All packages are clearly and legibly labeled as to contents and ingredients. All packages are easy and safe to use. The omega 3 cooking oil packaging color is transparent with green and black labels.

Branding:

There are typically four levels of meaning conveyed by Unilever about its new product in cooking oil range.

Levels

Brand –Omega 3

algae Cooking oil

Attributes

Premium quality, high

prestige

Benefits

Tasty food, cooking

ease

Values

Motherly love, tradition

Personality

Cooking

expert

mother,housewifes

(48)

PRICE

(49)

sum of the values that consumers exchange for the benefits of

having or using the product or service.

PRICE

Unilever’s marketing objective is primarily to tap the upper middle class and upper class segments.For this Unilever has to achieve Product Quality Leadreship in doing so they have to incur more R&D costs.To cover these costs Umilever has to follow the Value Based Pricing

and Premium Based Strategies.

(50)

PLACE

(51)

a product as the product moves from producer to ultimate

consumer or business user

PLACE:

UNILEVER PAKISTAN believes in synergy, that is a perfect blend of all the

components of marketing mix. Proof lies in it having the most efficient and the

largest distribution (networks) system in our country

Multiple distribution channels are to be used for omega 3 algae cooking oil.

Channel Levels:

Multiple distribution channels are used by Unilever are as follows

Factory

Depot

Distributor

wholeseller

(52)

Sales Setup:

Sales Controller

GSM

TMM

Branch Manager

Sales Category

Area Manager

LDM or Territory Managers & JMs

PROMOTION

(53)

inform, persuade and remind the market of a product and

the organization selling it.

Unilever being the market –oriented and the customer-oriented company its

marketing efforts are relatively the most.

The most concentrated promotion techniques used are television and

advertisements

For omega 3 Algae cooking oil the marketing used will be Visibility marketing and

Media marketing.

(54)

loving mothers are watching TV. The ads also run at different times of the day

specially between 6.30 to 7.30

It reads: Eat Healthy Live Healthy

The message concentrates on aroma, taste, healthy and happy cheerful life.The

theme wsas image building. It informs about the product and persuades the

consumers to buy it.

The color of the omega 3 cookimg oil is lightened as buyers prefer light oil.It will

get little support due to strong competition from the likes of corn oil, canola oil,etc

therefore not much of the advertising budget, rather promotional efforts are

allocated towards it. These ads emphasize lighteness and the strong energy source

i.e algae as a main ingredient of the omega 3 algae cooking oil .

SALES PROMOTION:

Unilever will also play its role in promoting omega 3 algae cooking oil by

arranging different events like cooking contests games and shows

PERSONAL SELLING:

Unilever will adopt personal selling in order to introduce and promote omega 3

algae cooking oil. It will also try to come up with consumer promotion by giving

trade off to the retailers.

OTHER MEDIUMS:

Print ads in magazines such as Women’s Own, She, etc, and those read by average

but literate house wives. Buntings, posters, trade flags(hung at the retailers)

inducing consumers to try the latest taste for omega 3 algae cooking oil.

Besides this the cookery programs shown on TV will be a good promotion tactic as

these programs will show omega 3 algae cooking oil use in different Pakistani as

well as other countries’ popular dishes. In this way the viewers will remember the

brand name through the message “gift for the new millennium; eat healthy live

healthy”.

The symbol and the color of the bottle of omega 3 algae cooking oil is also a good

way to communicate to the consumer who can’t read but can easily recognize the

bottle by the algae symbol or the green and black color scheme.

The unique and attractive design of the bottles is also a way of consumers’

persuasions for new omega 3 algae cooking oil.

Different sizes (plastic bottles of 5, 2.5 & 1 liter) are available for the convenience

of consumers and target all segments of the market

(55)

Alternative marketing plan:

If Omega 3 Algae cooking oil does not go well in market than the alternative market plan to reintroduce Omega 3 Algae Cooking Oil will be:

(56)

Price

Discount offerings:

Unilever can offer discunt to its customers in order to attract more number of customers.

Reduction in prices:

Unilever can go for market penetration strategy by offering less prices.

Promotion

Tokens and Gift hampers:

Unilever can offer tokens on purchasing Omega 3 Algae Cooking Oil and also give gift hampers by a lucky draw to its customers.

Place

Wide Distribution:

Unilever can adopt wide distribution by franchising. .

Important Activities of Promotional Plan:

Following are the activities of the promotional plan for the

Algae cooking

oil.

Sr.No Starting Date Ending Date Activity Budget Responsible Personnel Department 01. Jan 01,10 Jan 15,10 Finance

arrangement

7000000 Mr.Aziz Mirza finance

(57)

advertisements 03. April 05 June 30,10 Billboards and hoardings 1500000 Miss.Rabia Marketing

04. July 02,10 Sep 15,10 Free sampling of the 50 ml oil bottle

500000 Mr.Amir Marketing

05. Sep 11,10 Nov

20,10 Live cooking shows in different cities

650000 Miss.Madiha Marketing

06. Nov 25,10 Dec

31,10 Personnel Selling 1250000 Miss.Tabassum Marketing

Objective of each Promotional activity:

(58)

and print media

Advertisement

cooking oil. People will be able to get to know about the new oil, its qualities and better health ingredients.

03. Billboards and

Hoardings

It’s also the part of marketing campaign where hug\e billboards are installed at signals and places where people can view the Algae cooking oil’s advertisements.

04. Free sampling

Free sampling is to introduce the Algae cooking oil to the local markets by asking people to check the taste of the Algae cooking oil.

05. Live cooking shows in different cities

This activity is also for the introduction of Algae cooking oil to those customers which do not have the facility to watch advertisements on TV or those who are illiterate.

06. Personal selling

It is to sale at cost by the company for the introduction of the Algae cooking oil initially in market.

(59)

CONTROL

In case there are certain deviations in the market situation then the organization has

to take certain precautionary steps in order to control and manage those immediate

(60)

Discussion and agreement between salesperson and manager. 2. To sell the required range and quantity to individual customers Achievement of specified range and quantity of sales to a particular customer or group of customers within a time period Analysis of individual customer record of potential and present sales. Discussion and agreement between salesperson and manager. Scrutiny of individual customer records. Observation of selling in the field.

Failure to achieve agreed objectives. Complacency within range of sales made to individual customers. 3. To plan

journeys and call frequencies to achieve minimal practicable selling cost To achieve appropriate call frequency on individual customers. Number of live customer calls during a given time period Analysis of individual customers potential. Analysis of order/call ratios. Discussion and agreement between salesperson and manager. Scrutiny of individual customer records. Analysis of order/ call ratio. Examination of call reports.

High ratio of calls to an individual customer relative to that customers yield. Shortfall on agreed total number of calls made over an agreed period of time. 4. To acquire new customers Number of prospect calls during a time period. Selling new products to existing customers. Identify total number of potential and actual customers that could produce results. Identify opportunity areas for prospecting. Examination of call reports, records of new accounts opened, ratio of existing to potential customers. Shortfall in number of

prospect call from agreed standard. Low ratio of existing to potential customers. 60

(61)

5. To make a sales approach of the required quality To exercise the necessary skills and techniques required to achieve the identified objective. Continuous use of sales material. Standard to be agreed in discussion between manager and salesperson related to company standards. Regular observations of field selling using a systematic analysis of performance in each stage of the sales approach. Failure to identify objectives of each stage of sales approach, identify specific areas of skill weakness, use of support

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