The 16PF Fifth Edition is Designed to Be Administered to Adults

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THE 16 PF 5TH EDITION

The 16PF Fifth Edition is designed to be administered to adults (aged 16 and older), individually or in a group setting. The test offers paper-and-pencil, computer software and online administration formats. The test has an overall readability estimated at the fifth grade level.

Normative data for the 16PF are based on an age range of 16 through 82 years. Whether the test is appropriate for an individual younger than 16 is a decision that should be based on professional consideration of the client’s maturity level. Usually the adolescent version of the 16PF – the 16PF Adolescent version of the 16PF – the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (APQ) – is most appropriate for ages 11 through 22

ADMINISTRATION

Although the 16PF Fifth Edition is virtually self-administrable, the test administrator is advised to take time to establish a comfortable rapport with examinees, since the creation of a favourable test-taking attitude is worth as much or possibly more in the production of accurate data as any number of response style indices. With this in mind, the administrator should give thoughtful attention to examinees’ questions and should reinforce the test objectives by telling examinees that, in the long run, they will do the most good for themselves by being frank and honest in their self-descriptions

Response Format

Test questions have a three-choice response format. Except for the Factor B items, the middle response choice is always a question mark (?). The 15 Factor B items which assess reasoning ability are grouped together at the end of the test booklet following the personality items this arrangement not only allow continuity in item content but also enables separate assessment of reasoning ability from that of personality in those instances when this may be desirable

Test-Completion Time

The test is untimed, but examinees should be encouraged to work at a steady pace About 10 minutes into the testing session the administrator may want to discourage examinees from agonizing over possible responses by reiterating this caution included in the test direction, “Remember, don’t spend too much time thinking over any one question. Give the first, natural answer as it comes to you “Average test- completion time is 35 to 50 minutes by pencil and 25 to 35 minutes by computer

Computer Administration

The 16PF Fifth Edition can be administered via personal computer using IPAT OnSite System software or online using NetAssess or 16PFworld.com services. These systems feature item-by-item test administration, routines that allow examinees to change the previous answer, and the capabilities of immediately scoring tests and

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processing reports. Research has demonstrated that scores obtained from computerized administration are equivalent to scores obtained via paper-and-pencil administration for untimed tests like the 16PF questionnaire (Mead & Drasgow, 1993).

Paper-And-Pencil Administration

Testing materials include the fifth edition test booklet and the corresponding answer sheet, which may be hand- or computer- scored. Simple and clear instructions for examinees are printed in the test booklet The administrator may either read aloud the instructions or request examinees to read the instructions silently, responding to their questions as necessary. Briefly the instructions advise examinees not to make any marks in the test booklet which is reusable examinees also are cautioned to avoid skipping any questions and to choose the first response that comes to mind rather than spending too much time on any single question

Before starting the test, examinees are asked to complete the grids for name and gender on the left hand side of the answer sheet (see Figure 1 ). If confidentiality is desired for tests to be computer scored, the grid for I, D, number should be completed in lieu of the name grid

During testing, the administrator should check that examinees are marking responses appropriately. Response circles must be darkened completely with a No. 2 or softer lead pencil, particularly if the test is to be computer scored

At the conclusion of testing, the administrator should review each answer sheet to ensure that the name (or I.D. number) and gender grids have been completed and that all responses are scorable Examinees should be asked to erase any extraneous marks, to fix incomplete erasures to complete missing answers, and to correct multiple answers to a single item

SCORING

Before being handscored or computer –scored each answer sheet should be verified for completeness:

1. That the identification grid information has been provided: name (or I.D. number and gender)

2. That all 185 items have been answered although completion of all items is desirable an answer sheet having 12 or fewer incomplete items is till scorable by hand or by computer. An answer sheet having 13 or more incomplete items must be completed before it can be hand- or computer-scored.

3. That the norm grid has been completed this grid includes two choices, combined-sex norms and combined-sex-specific norms. (Refer to Table 39 in Appendix B.) When combined –sex norms are chosen, the examinee’s scores for all 16 personality factors are compared to the normative group containing both men and women When sex-specific norms are selected, the examinee’s scores for 13 of the personality factors are compared to the combined-sex normative group and his or her scores on the 3 personality factors of a A (Warmth), I (Sensitivity), and O

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(Apprehension) are compared only to the normative group compatible with his or her gender. Sex-specific norms are available for the latter 3 factors because their score distributions are different for men and women In relation to these 3 factors selection of sex-specific versus combined-sex norms depends o professional judgement and the testing application (e.g., combined sex norms for all 16 factors may be preferable in job selection applications)

Handscoring

These materials are needed for handscoring the 16PF: set of four scoring keys norm table and an Individual Record Form.

As mentioned previously an answer sheet having 13 or more unanswered items must be complete before it can be handscored

Although completion of all items is desirable an answer sheet is still scorable if 12 or fewer items remain unanswered in this situation the full scale score can be estimated for any affected scale by averaging item scores on the scale the procedures are as follow

1. Using the appropriate scoring key, obtain the total raw score of the items in the scale that have been completed. (Directions for using the scoring keys are given in the section that follows, “Step 1: Score the test. “)

2. Divide the total raw score by the number of items completed

3. Multiply the quotient obtained in procedure 2 by the total number of items in the scale

4. Round the product obtained in procedure 3 to the nearest whole number which becomes the estimated full scale score

The sections that follow describe the steps involved in handscoring the 16PF’Fifth Edition: (1) obtain raw scores for the 16 personality factors and the impression management (IM) index, (2) convert personality factor-raw scores into the sten scores and convert the IM raw score into a percentile,

(3) calculate the 5 global factor sten scores and (4) profile sten scores for the global factors and primary factors personality factors

Step 1: Score the Test

A sample scoring key is also shown in Figure 1. Each of the first three scoring keys in the set of four is used to score five of the primary personality factors; the fourth key is used to score Reasoning (Factor B) and the Impression Management (IM) index, which is a response style scale that reflects social desirability

Detailed instructions for obtaining raw scores for the 16PF are provided on the scoring keys. This is a summary of the handscoring procedures using the first scoring key as an example

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1. Align the left edge of the first scoring key over the answer sheet making sure that the stars on the right side of the answer sheet appear through the corresponding holes on the right side of the key

2. Count the marks visible through the holes in the area labelled “Factor A,” allowing 1 or 2 points as indicated by the number adjacent to each hole. Total the points and enter the total the points and enter the total in the space for the Factor A raw score (as indicated by an arrow on the scoring key)

3. Continue Scoring the remaining four factors that correspond with the first key following procedures 1 and 2

Raw scores for the other personality factors are determined in the preceding manner, using the next two keys in sequence. The IM and Factor B raw scores are obtained by using the fourth answer key; Factor B responses are scored as 0 (incorrect) or 1 (correct)

There is no key for scoring the response style indices of Infrequency (INF) and Acquiescence (ACQ), for which the scoring routine is somewhat laborious. Appendix C provides instructions for handscoring the indices when they are needed.

Step 2: Convert Raw Scores to Sten Scores

Raw scores are converted into standardized (sten) scores by using the norm table included with the set of handscoring keys Stens are based on a 10-point scale with a mean of 5.5 and a standard deviation of 2 and are described in the next chapter. The raw scores are printed in the body of the table, and their corresponding sten scores are located at the top of each column. This table is reproduced as Table 39 in Appendix B of this manual

These are the procedures to follow in converting raw scores into stens, using Factor A as an example:

1. Determine whether combined-sex or sex-specific norms for Factor A are more appropriate for the testing application. (Recall that both types of norms are available for Factor A [Warmth], Factor I [Sensitivity], and Factor O [Apprehension] because gender differences exist on this Scale. )

2. Locate the examinee’s raw score for Factor A in the row that corresponds to norms selected: the A row (combined-sex norms), Male row, or Female row. 3. Draw your finger up the column which the raw scores appear. The score at the

top of the column is the sten for Factor A. For example, if a male examinee A, his sten score would be 2 using male six-specific norms, and his sten score would be 1 using combined –sex norms. Sten scores for the remaining factors are determined in the preceding manner

The norm table also is used in converting the raw score for the Impression Management (IM) index; however, the IM score is converted into a percentile rather than a sten.

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Step 3: Calculate Global Factor Sten Scores

This step involves calculating sten scores for the five global factors of personality: Extraversion, Anxiety, Tough-Mindedness, Independence, and Self-Control. Since these global factors are comprised of combinations of related primary factors, the describe personality in broader, more general terms than do the primary factors.

Global factor sten scores can be calculated by following the instructions at the top of side 1 of the Individual Record Form (Figure 2), or by using the equations listed in Table 13 in Chapter 5. The instuctions that follow correspond to those printed on the Individual Record Form:

1. Transfer the examinee’s primary factor sten scores from the answer sheet to the left-hand column labelled “Sten” on the Individual Record Form.

2. Begin by scoring Factor A, which is the first row. Follow the dashed line to the right, and each time you reach a decimal in a black box, multiply the examinee’s Factor A sten score by that decimal. Inter the resultant product in the empty box adjacent to the clack box.

3. Repeat prodedure 2 for each factor. Note that you calculate and record only one product in some boxes are clear whereas others are shaded.

4. After you have calculated and recorded the products for all 16 factors, add the numbers ineacy pair vertical columns (clear and shaded) separately. When you total the decimals, be sure to include any given constant appearing in the first empty box at the base of the column pair. Enter the sum of the decimals from the shade column in the shaded box at the base of the column pair.

5. After you have totaled all the columns, subtract each sum in a shaded box from the sum in a clear box. Enter the remainder (a decimal) in the empty box that follows. This decimal represents the sten score to the nearest tenth of a sten for the global factor indicated

Step 4: Profile Sten Scores

Sten scores for the 5 global factors and the 16 primary factors can be graphed to achieve a pictorial representation, or profile, of the examinee’s over all personality pattern. Such a profile is quite helpful in interpretation.

The grid for developing the profile is on side 2 of the Individual Record Form (Figure 2). These are the procedures to be followed:

1. Write the examinee’s primary and global factor sten scores in the Sten column at the left of the profile sheet. You will need to round the examinee’s decimal sten score for each global factor to the nearest whole number. (Decimal sten scores are determined by completing the global factor scoring worksheet on side 1 of the Individual Record Form.)

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2. In the appropriate spaces on the grid, mark a dot that corresponds to each rounded global factor sten score and to each personality facto sten score

3. Connect the dots using a series of short straight lines. Computer Scoring

As an alternative to handscoring the 16PF answer sheet can be scored and interpreted via computer using IPAT’s mail=in scoring service, OnFax service, OnSite System software , or online via Net Assess or 16PF world .com services. Computer scoring and interpretation of the 16PF Questionnaire has several important advantages over hand scoring such as

1. quick turnaround of results 2. less possibility for error, and

3. the ability to report additional administrative indices and other composite scores that enrich test results

In order to be scored at IPAT or scanned into the OnSite system, an answer sheet must be marked with a No. 2 or softer lead pencil; responses marked with ballpoint or felt tip pens cannot be scanned accurately. As mentioned previously, an answer sheet having 13 or more unanswered items must be completed before it can be computer-scored. Although completion of all items is desirable, an answer sheet is still computer scorable if 12 or fewer items is remains unanswered.

Prior to being submitted for computer scoring, the answer sheet’s demographic grids must be completed: name (or I.D. number of examinee, sex of examinee and norm choice. The sex of examinee should be indicated so that the appropriate pronouns will appear in the interpretative report. If combined sex norms are selected, the test will be processed using combined sex norms for all 16 personality factors. If sex-specific norms are selected, the test will be processed using sex-specific norms for factors A, I and O and combined sex norms for the remaining factors. If neither norm choice is selected, the test will be processed using combined-sex norms .

Answer sheets mailed to IPAT for scoring should be accompanied by a red and white processing request forma and payment, such as processing certificate. The information necessary to complete this form includes the professionals name and address, the type of interpretative reported desired and method of return shipment desired.

16PF Fifth edition answer sheets can also befixed to IPAT; reports are returned within minutes. Users must sign up for the service and an OnFAX cover sheet must accompany faxed answer sheets. Full instructions are provided at the time of signing up.

The 16PF test also can be administered and scored on personal computers using IPAT OnSite System software or one of the online services (Net Assess of 16PFworld.com).

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