Economic efficiency of agricultural enterprises and its evaluation 

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(1)Economic efficiency of agricultural enterprises and its evaluation Ekonomická efektivnost zemìdìlských podnikù a její hodnocení E. ROSOCHATECKÁ Czech University of Agriculture, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Agriculture as a sector of national economy shows a permanent loss (except the year 1995 and 2000). The investment volume and number of workers decreases. The necessary resources for businesses development are not created at the general level. Introducing of new technologies for restructuring appears as problematic from this point of view. The stated results of the sector of agriculture stem from the average data of the monitored set of enterprises collected by the RIAE. Evaluation objectivity of the agricultural enterprises economic results is influenced by the quality of the database and of the used evaluation method. In the contribution, the method of the financial analysis indices, economic normal and the indicators of the enterprise financial situation prediction were utilised for evaluation. For the analysis, own set of monitored enterprises is used and also its comparison with the selected results of the RIAE. Key words: value added, business, economic normal, profit, loss Abstrakt: Zemìdìlství jako sektor národního hospodáøství vykazuje trvale ztrátu (kromì roku 1995). Dochází k poklesu objemu investic, snižuje se poèet pracovníkù. Potøebné zdroje pro rozvoj podnikù se v obecné rovinì nevytváøí. Zavádìní nových technologií pro potøebnou restrukturalizaci se z tohoto pohledu jeví jako problematické. Pøesto zemìdìlské podniky existují a mìly by dále existovat. Vykazované výsledky zemìdìlských podnikù VÜZE vychází z prùmìrných hodnot sledovaného souboru. Pøi porovnání v delší èasové øadì lze upozornit na nepøesnosti v návaznosti údajù jednotlivých let. Cílem pøíspìvku je najít objektivní hodnocení ekonomických výsledkù zemìdìlských podnikù a vymezení faktorù, které tyto výsledky nejvíce ovlivòují. Pro hodnocení jsou použity pomìrové ukazatele finanèní analýzy, ekonomický normál a ukazatele predikce finanèní situace podniku. Pro rozborovou èinnost je využit vlastní soubor sledovaných podnikù a jeho srovnání s vybranými vykazovanými výsledky VÚZE. Klíèová slova: pøidaná hodnota, podnik, ekonomický normál,zisk, ztráta. INTRODUCTION Agriculture as a sector of national economy shows a permanent loss (except the year 1995 and 2000). The volume of investment has declined, as well as the number of workers. The necessary resources for development of enterprises are not created at the general level. The introduction of new technologies for restructuring appears as problematic. The presented results regarding agriculture stem from the average data of the monitored RIAE set of enterprises. The objectivity of the agricultural enterprises economic results evaluation is influenced by the quality of the database and by the used evaluation method. Methods of economic value of entrepreneurial subjects evaluation gain importance at present, when it is necessary to objectivise the distribution of subsidy means from both sources: own and those arising in the frame of the EU structural funds. Unsuitable allocation of resources. would influence the future development of the sector negatively. AIMS AND METHODS The aim of the contribution is to evaluate the method of economic normal for the evaluation of intensive or extensive development of agricultural enterprises and to compare the results with the selected indicators of profitability and productivity. Further, the aim was to verify whether the unfavourable development of economic situation in agriculture influences the very predicative ability of this method. The evaluation is a part of the NAZV research project No. QC0110/2000 which is, as a whole, focused at the evaluation of the structure and quantification of factors affecting the intensity of agricultural production, their characteristic features, impacts and their economic evaluation.. The contribution presented at the conference Agrarian Perspectives X – Sources of Sustainable Economic Growth in the Third Millennium: Globalisation Versus Regionalism (CUA Prague, September 18–19, 2001).. AGRIC. ECON., 48, 2002 (3): 97–101. 97.

(2) I ER total. >. I AV. >. I of reserves ∧ I of revenues ∨ I IC tot.. >. I EIP. >. I pers. costs. Figure 1. The ideal relation of the economic normal Source: Sùvová at al. 1999 I ER total = Index of economic result in total I IC tot. = Index of intermediate consumption total I pers. c. = Index of personal costs. I AV = Index of value added I EIP = Index of economic investment property. The economic normal arises from a system of indices non-equations. For a successful intensive development of an enterprise, it is necessary that: – the growth of costs is slower than the growth of assets – the growth of investment property is slower than the growth of revenues – the growth of reserves is slower than the growth of revenues – the growth of intermediate consumption is slower than the growth revenues – the growth of value added is faster than the growth of revenues – the growth of profit is faster than the growth of value added.. RESULTS To verify the suitability of the economic normal method, four enterprises were chosen from the monitored set. By the methods of financial situation prediction (Øezbová 2001), there were evaluated as good the enterprises No. 5 and 4 and as enterprises with problems, the enterprises No. 13 and 1 for the time period 1997–1999. In following tables, databases and indexes (Table 1 and Figure 2) calculations necessary for setting the economic normal are shown.. Table 1. Input data for the calculation of economic normal; index calculations Enterprise 5 1997 V 060. ER total. V 011. add. value. V01+V05 revenues. 1998. Enterprise 13. 1999. 98/97. 99/98. 1997. 1998. 1999. 98/97. 99/98. 2 583. 3 656. 5 838. 1.415. 1.597. –7 417. –4 932. 140. 0.665. –0.028. 49 853. 48 590. 45 100. 0.975. 0.928. 25 971. 29 079. 24 673. 1.120. 0.848. 238 188 106 748. 1.816. 0.448. 48 624. 50 597. 45 450. 1.041. 0.898 0.963. 131 164. R 012. EIP. 89 072. 96 231. 95 147. 1.080. 0.989. 70 745. 68 088. 65 550. 0.962. V 012. person.c.. 31 925. 31 358. 27 603. 0.982. 0.880. 24 777. 25 468. 22 879. 1.028. 0.898. R 029. reserves. 39 272. 41 871. 44 797. 1.066. 1.070. 29 851. 33 100. 31 923. 1.109. 0.964. V 008. Int.cons.. 80 311. 76 092. 67 400. 0.947. 0.886. 27 696. 29 983. 27 850. 1.083. 0.929. 98/97. 99/98. Enterprise 4 1997 V 060. ER total. V 011. add. value. 1998. 1999. Enterprise 1 98/97. 99/98. 1997. 1998. 1999. 567. 2 448. 1 767. 4.317. 0.722. –2 597. –2 185. –5 181. 0.841. 2.371. 56 718. 60 184. 60 048. 1.061. 0.998. 10 405. 10 024. 5 535. 0.963. 0.552 0.898. V01+V05 revenues. 135 275. 163 585 144 000. 1.209. 0.880. 54 080. 49 863. 44 763. 0.922. R 012. EIP. 147 852. 145 089 163 073. 0.981. 1.124. 45 817. 59 350. 56 049. 1.295. 0.944. V 012. person.c.. 1.093. 0.977. 9 615. 7 551. 6 302. 0.785. 0.835. 36 321. 39 704. 38 777. R 029. reserves. 56 569. 53 611. 59 839. 0.948. 1.116. 17 747. 18 231. 14 333. 1.027. 0.786. V 008. Int. cons.. 73 498. 90 834. 77 698. 1.236. 0.855. 34 543. 30 916. 28 892. 0.895. 0.935. Source: Research report QC0110/2000. 98. AGRIC. ECON., 48, 2002 (3): 97–101.

(3) Enterprise 5. 1.415. >. Enterprise 4. 4.317. >. Enterprise 13. 0.665 1.504. < >. Enterprise 1. 0.841 1.189. < >. 0.975. 1998/97 1.066 ∧ < 1.816 > ∨ 0.947. 1998/97 0.948 ∧ 1.061 < 1.209 > ∧ 1.236. 1998/97 1.109 ∨ 1.120 > 1.041 > ∧ 1.083. 1998/97 1.027 ∨ 0.963 > 0.922 < ∧ 0.895. Enterprise 5. 1.080. >. 0.982. 1.597. >. 0.928. Enterprise 4. 0.981. <. 1.093. 0.722. <. 0.998. Enterprise 13. 0.962. <. 1.028. –0.028 1.028. < >. 0.848. Enterprise 1. 1.295. >. 0.785. 2.371 0.422. > <. 0.848. 1999/98 1.070 ∨ > 0.448 < ∧ 0.886. 1999/98 1.116 ∨ > 0.880 < ∨ 0.855. 1999/98 0.964 ∨ < 0.898 < ∧ 0.929. 1999/98 0.786 ∧ < 0.898 < ∧ 0.935. 0.989. >. 0.880. 1.124. >. 0.977. 0.963. >. 0.898. 0.963. >. 0.898. Figure 2. Economic normal for the individual enterprises. DISCUSSION In the monitored enterprises, the economic results were different during the time development. There were shown sustained positive values (enterprise 4 and 5) and sustained negative values (enterprise 1). In the case of the enterprise 13, negative values changed into positive values. Another possibility is the opposite development, i.e. that the positive value of economic result changes in the negative one in the next year. If the enterprises reach a sustained profit in the time series, the method of economic normal can be used for the evaluation of enterprise development without other modifications. If the enterprises reach a sustained loss in longer time series, the method of economic normal with a modification can be used. It means, that the index of economic result development has to be introduced in its reciprocal value – e.g. for the enterprise 1, value 0.841 → 1/0.841→ 1.189. A more disputable is the interpretation in case of the changes of positive values into negative and vice versa. The problematic of calculation and interpretation of the economic normal is shown in the enterprise 13. In the year 1999, profit of 140 thous. CZK was reached in comparison with the previous year when a high loss was. AGRIC. ECON., 48, 2002 (3): 97–101. noticed (–4.932 thous. CZK). In this case, for the calculation of the index of economic result change, it is at first necessary to express the absolute difference between the values of economic result in the monitored years. The absolute difference (e.i. the value of 5.072 thous. CZK) has to be related to the base, as which the value of economic result from the start period (1998) can be considered. This value has to be expressed in the denominator in its absolute value. The index 99/98 of the enterprise 13 then has the following calculation algorithm: 5 072/ I – 4 932 I → 1.028. This procedure enables to eliminate the influence of positive and negative signs in the mathematical calculation of indices; then the method of economic normal can be used even in enterprises which have an unstable development and fall in a loss and vice versa. The method of economic normal issues only from the accounting statements; it does not respect the base production factor in agriculture – land; the influence of labour is not included, either. With regard to that, we suggest completing the evaluation of enterprises by economic normal with other productivity indicators. The suggested indicators for the monitored enterprises are shown in following tables (Table 2–5), including the comparative basis of the RIAE Prague.. 99.

(4) Table 2. Economic sindicators per 1 ha (in CZK) Enterprise 5. Enterprise 13. 1997. 1998. 1999. 1997. 1998. 1999. V 011/ha. AV per ha. 16 928. 16 499. 15 314. 13 734. 15 378. 13 048. V 029/ha. ER op./ha. 699. 2 078. 2 553. –2 089. –2 551. –437. V 060/ha. ER total/ha. 877. 1 241. 1 982. –3 922. –2 608. 74. Enterprise 4. Enterprise 1. 1997. 1998. 1999. 1997. 1998. 1999. V 011/ha. AV per ha. 18 590. 19 726. 19 681. 12 711. 12 245. 6 762. V 029/ha. ER op./ha. 666. 1 110. 327. –977. –1 234. –5 114. V 060/ha. ER total/ha. 185. 802. 579. –3 172. –2 669. –6 329. Table 3. Comparative basis (in CZK) Enterprises set values maximum AV/ha. ER op./ha. Total ER/ha. median. average. RIAE values minimum. agr.co-op. bussiness comp.. total. 1997. 20 262. 13 734. 14 216. 7 959. 11 263. 9 240. 10 339. 1998. 21 811. 14 187. 14 420. 10 196. 13 200. 10 842. 12 069. 1999. 20 301. 11 912. 12 671. 6 786. 10 870. 9 682. 10 270. 1997. 2 325. 419. –461. –4 180. –434. 33. –261. 1998. 4 156. 660. 637. –3 159. 722. 271. 509. 1999. 2 553. 339. –510. –5 132. –129. –222. –160 –681. 1997. 877. 74. –1 176. –5 078. –848. –403. 1998. 1 973. 219. –1 760. –26 830. 175. –247. –23. 1999. 1 982. 226. –1 076. –7 165. –611. –664. –621. Table 4. Economic indicators per 1 worker (in CZK) Enterprise 5 1997. 1998. Enterprise 13 1999. 1997. 1998. 1999. V 011/PS. AV per ha. 275 431. 268 453. 249 171. 150 121. 168 087. 142 618. V 029/PS. ER op./ha. 11 381. 33 807. 41 541. –22 838. –27 879. –4 780. V 060/PS. ER total/ha. 14 271. 20 199. 32 254. –42 873. –28 509. 809. Enterprise 4 1997. 1998. Enterprise 1 1999. 1997. 1998. 1999. V 011/PS. AV per ha. 242 385. 257 197. 256 615. 179 397. 172 828. 95 431. V 029/PS. ER op./ha. 8 688. 14 484. 4 261. –13 793. –17 414. –72 172. V 060/PS. ER total/ha. 2 423. 10 462. 7 551. –44 776. –37 672. –89 329. Table 5. Area in hectares per 1 worker Enterprise. 5. 4. Ha/labour. 16.27. 13.04. ER op. = Economic result – operational AV = Added value. 100. CONCLUSION 13 10.93. 1 14.11. An agricultural enterprise cannot be evaluated only on the base of one method which utilises only the business statements (balance, profit and loss statement). In evaluation, it is necessary to respect also the influence of production factors – land and labour. The indicator of AGRIC. ECON., 48, 2002 (3): 97–101.

(5) value added per one worker and per hectare is a sufficient distinctive criterion which suitably proves the difference between a good and a problematic enterprise. This opinion is supported by the research results, part of which is presented in the Tables 2–5. REFERENCES Sùvová H. at al. (1999): Financial analysis in enterprise management, in bank and on computer (Finanèní analýza. v øízení podnikù, v bance a na poèítaèi). Bank Institut, Prague. Øezbová H. (2001): Criteria of entrepreneurial subjects evaluation in agriculture (Kritéria hodnocení podnikatelských subjektù v zemìdìlství). [PhD thesis], CUA Prague. Rosochatecká E. at al. (2000): Evaluation of structure and quantification of factors influencing agricultural production intensity (Hodnocení struktury a kvantifikace faktorù ovlivòujících intenzitu zemìdìlské výroby). Research report NAZV, project QC0110/2000. Arrived on 12th February 2002. Contact address: Doc. Ing. Eva Rosochatecká, CSc., Èeská zemìdìlská univerzita Praha, PEF, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol, Èeská republika tel. + 420 2 2438 2284, e-mail: rosoch@pef.czu.cz. AGRIC. ECON., 48, 2002 (3): 97–101. 101.

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