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IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR

HIGHWAY AND BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION AND

MAINTENANCE, PHASE II

PHILIPPINE HIGHWAY

MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT

MANUAL

2014

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IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR

HIGHWAY AND BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION AND

MAINTENANCE, PHASE II

PHILIPPINE HIGHWAY

MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT MANUAL

SEPTEMBER 2014

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS

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Republic of the Philippines

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS AND HIGHWAYS

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY

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Philippine Highway Maintenance Management Manual 2nd Edition -ii-

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) together with the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) improved and updated the Highway Maintenance Management Manual during the implementation of the Technical Cooperation Project (TCP) for the Improvement of Quality Management for Highways and Bridge Construction and Maintenance, Phase II (2011-2014). Special Thanks to the following individuals who contributed to the improvement of this very important manual:

Mr. Hideo Nagao JICA Team Leader/ Bridge Expert Mr. Ryoichi Yamasaki JICA Co-Team Leader/ Road Expert

Ms. Judy F. Sese, PhD Project Manager, Bureau of Research & Standards Ms. Carolina S. Canuel Deputy Project Manager, DPD, Planning Service Mr. Aristarco M. Doroy TWG Member, Bureau of Construction

Mr. Adriano M. Doroy TWG Member, Bureau of Design Ms. Edna F. Meñez TWG Member, Bureau of Maintenance

Mr. Felipe S. Ramos TWG Member, Bureau of Research & Standards Ms. Elsa T. Naboye Regional Project Manager, CAR

Ms. Ramie B. Doroy Regional Project Manager, Region VII Ms. Rowena P. Jamito Regional Project Manager, Region XI Elsa G. Grumo CWG Member, DPWH-Region XI Alex R. Tamondong CWG Member, Bureau of Maintenance Ernante S. Antonio CWG Member, Bureau of Maintenance Ruth S. Duyo CWG Member , CAR

Fitzgerald R. Icamen CWG Member, Region VII

Ms. Mary Ann T. Bautista TCP Coordinator, Planning Service Mr. Feliciano Carpio JICA Team, Asst. Engineer Mr. Rodrigo A. Yago JICA Team, Asst. Engineer

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No.

FOREWORD………. i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……… ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS………. iii

DEFINITION OF TERMS………... vi

CHAPTER 1 – MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ………. 1-1

1.1 Introduction……… 1-1 1.2 Activities………. 1-2 1.3 Organization………... 1-3 1.4 Planning……….. 1-3 1.5 Scheduling……….. 1-3 1.5.1 Maintenance Needs………. 1-4 1.5.2 Quincenal Schedule……… 1-4 1.5.3 Work Assignment……… 1-4 1.6 Directing………. 1-4 1.7 Reporting……… 1-4 1.7.1 Activity Cards………. 1-5 1.7.2 Activity Summary Work Sheets………. 1-5 1.7.3 Monthly Reports………. 1-5 1.7.4 Monthly Data Summary………. 1-5 1.7.5 Quarterly Performance Summary……….. 1-6 1.8 Control……… 1-6

CHAPTER 2 - ACTIVITIES………... 2-1

2.1 Activity List……… 2-1 2.2 Activity Standard……… 2-1 2.2.1 Name and Number……….. 2-2 2.2.2 Description……….. 2-2 2.2.3 Purpose……… 2-2 2.2.4 Authorization………... 2-2 2.2.5 Work Control Category……… 2-2 2.2.6 Scheduling Criteria……….. 2-3 2.2.7 Typical Crew………... 2-3 2.2.8 Typical Equipment………. 2-3 2.2.9 Typical Material……….. 2-3 2.2.10 Typical Work Method……… 2-3 2.2.11 Daily Production Range……….. 2-3 2.2.12 Notes……… 2-3 2.3 Activity Number………. 2-4 CHAPTER 3 – ORGANIZATION……….. 3-1 3.1 Crew Organization………. 3-1 3.2 District Organization……….. 3-1 3.3 Regional Organization……… 3-2 3.4 Management System Responsibilities……… 3-2 3.4.1 District Maintenance Foreman……… 3-2 3.4.2 District Maintenance Area In-Charge………. 3-2

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3.4.3 District Maintenance Engineer……… 3-2 3.4.4 District Engineer……….. 3-3 3.4.5 Regional Maintenance Engineer………. 3-3 3.4.6 Regional Maintenance Management Engineer……… 3-3 3.4.7 Regional Maintenance Inspectorate Engineer……… 3-4

CHAPTER 4 – PLANNING………. 4-1

4.1 Planning Concepts……….. 4-1 4.2 Department Objectives………... 4-1 4.3 Planning Limitations……….. 4-2 4.4 Maintenance Feature Inventory………. 4-3 4.5 Compilation……… 4-4 4.6 Annual Updating……… 4-7 4.7 Inventory Instructions……… 4-7 4.8 Annual Maintenance Work Program/Performance Budget (AMWP/PB)………. 4-7 4.9 Work Program……… 4-7 4.10 Performance Budget………... 4-8 4.11 Routine Maintenance……….. 4-15 4.12 Monthly Crewday Distribution……….. 4-22

CHAPTER 5 – SCHEDULING………... 5-1

5.1 Maintenance Needs……… 5-1 5.2 Quincenal Schedules……….. 5-1 5.2.1 Available Man-Days……… 5-2 5.2.2 Activities and Locations……….. 5-2 5.2.3 Workdays, Crew Sizes and Man-Days……… 5-2 5.2.4 Scheduled Dates……….. 5-2 5.2.5 Scheduled Equipment and Materials……….. 5-3 5.2.6 Area-In-Charge……… 5-3 5.2.7 Remarks………... 5-3 5.2.8 Alternate Work……… 5-3 5.3 Work Assignment………... 5-3 CHAPTER 6 – DIRECTING……….. 6-1 CHAPTER 7 – REPORTING………. 7-1 7.1 Reporting System………... 7-1 7.2 TAD 1.1 – Highway Maintenance Activity Card………. 7-3 7.3 TAD 2.1 – Activity Card Summary Worksheet……… 7-3 7.4 TAD 2.2 – Activity Data Summary……… 7-3 7.5 TAD 2.3 – Activity Performance Summary……….. 7-3 7.6 TAR 2.1 – TAN 3.1 - Activity Data Summary Worksheet……… 7-5 7.7 TAR 2.2/3.2 – TAN 3.2 - Activity Data Summary……….... 7-5 7.8 TAR 2.3/3.3 – TAN 3.3 - Activity Performance Summary Worksheet……… 7-5 7.9 TAR 2.4/3.4 – TAN 3.4 - Activity Performance Summary……….. 7-5

CHAPTER 8 – CONTROL……….. 8-1

8.1 Procedure……… 8-1 8.1.1 Comparison with Plans and Standards……… 8-1 8.1.2 Identification of Significant Deviations………. 8-1 8.1.3 Investigation of Significant Deviations……….. 8-2

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8.1.4 Identification of Corrective Actions……….. 8-2 8.1.5 Implementation of Corrective Action……… 8-2 8.1.6 Follow-Up of Actions………. 8-2 8.2 Operational Control……… 8-14

8.2.1 Area-In-Charge……… 8-14 8.2.2 District Maintenance Engineers……….. 8-14 8.2.3 District Engineers……… 8-14 8.2.4 Regional Directors……….. 8-14 8.3 System Control………... 8-14 8.4 Management and Fiscal Control……… 8-15

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Management System Components Functional Relationships………. 1-2 Figure 2.1 Example of Activity Standard………. 2-4 Figure 4.1 Maintenance Features and Inventory Units……… 4-4 Figure 4.2 Maintenance Feature Inventory Worksheet……… 4-5 Figure 4.3 Maintenance Feature Inventory Summary………. 4-6 Figure 4.4 Workday Planning Value Worksheet………. 4-9 Figure 4.5 Performance Budget -Workday Standard Cost……….. 4-10 Figure 4.6 Average Daily Labor Cost……….. 4-12 Figure 4.7 Standard Unit Costs for Work Days – Resource Requirement

(Labor and Equipment)……….. 4-13 Figure 4.8 Standard Unit Costs for Work Days – Resource Requirement

(Materials)………. 4-14 Figure 4.9 Annual Maintenance Work Program Performance Budget……… 4-16 Figure 4.10 Annual Maintenance Work Program Performance Budget Summary……… 4-21 Figure 4.11 Monthly Crewday Distribution……… 4-23 Figure 5.1 Maintenance Needed Report………... 5-2 Figure 5.2 Semi-monthly Schedules………..……….. 5-4 Figure 5.3 Activity Card – Work Assignment………. 5-5 Figure 7.1 Activity Card Flow Chart……… 7-2 Figure 8.1 Control Chart – Workdays or Accomplishment Less than Planned……….. 8-3 Figure 8.2 Control Chart – Workdays or Accomplishment Greater than Planned……. 8-6 Figure 8.3 Control Chart –Accomplishment per Workday Less than Planned………… 8-9 Figure 8.4 Control Chart –Accomplishment per Workday Greater than Planned……… 8-12

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A-1 Activity List Appendix A-2 Activity Standards

Appendix B Instructions for Highway Maintenance Feature Inventory Appendix C Maintenance Equipment List

Appendix D Maintenance Materials List Appendix E Maintenance Management Forms

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

Maintenance Management System

Accomplishment Accomplishment is a quantity of work completed expressed in work units.

Activity An activity is a type of work performed with enough frequency to produce a significant impact on the resource requirements of a work program. An activity should not be so inclusive as to combine distinct types of work or resource requirements or so restrictive as to be limited to one step within an overall operation.

Activity List The activity list is the list of all of the activities in the management system. Each listing includes the activity number, activity name, work unit, inventory unit and quantity standard unit or planning basis.

Activity Groups Activities are organized in groups to facilitate program/budget and report summarization. The groups are:

• Road and Related Features • Roadside Features

• Traffic Services • Emergency Work

• Supervision, Support and Overhead • Maintenance Project

• Special Maintenance

Activity Standard An activity standard is developed for each activity and includes the following information:

• description • purpose • authorization

• work control category • scheduling

• typical crew • typical equipment • typical material

• typical work method; and • daily production range • notes

Work is both planned and performed according to the activity standard. Annual Maintenance

Work Program

(AMWP) The quantity of work for each activity app1ied to appropriate maintenance features during one year and expressed in work units, workdays and man-days. An AMWP is prepared for each district.

Average Average is used to describe a calculated average of a group of values. It should not be confused with the word "typical".

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Crew A crew is a group of workmen assigned to perform an activity at a given time and location. Crew members are assigned by number and classification as indicated on the "Activity Standard".

Crew Size Crew size is the number of workmen assigned to work on an activity and is reported as the number of man-days per workday.

Daily Production Daily production is work quantity per workday. Daily Production

Range The daily production range denotes the typical accomplishments per workday of an activity. Typical daily productions are expressed as a range to recognize the variations in conditions that occur in roadway maintenance and affect production. The activity standard for an activity shows the daily production range.

Emergency

Maintenance Emergency maintenance is work performed on the roadway system during and after storms, calamities and other emergency conditions to protect the travelling public and roadway system and provide temporary passage when possible.

Inventory Unit An inventory unit is the basic measurement unit of a maintenance feature. For example, unpaved roadways are measured in centerline kilometers. A maintenance feature is assigned an inventory unit which can be easily identified and counted.

Inventory Quantity The inventory quantity of a maintenance feature is number of inventory units occurring within specified boundaries (e.g., 1,000 centerline kilometers of unpaved roadway in a District).

Level of Service The level of service is the physical condition of the roadway or facility attained as a result of maintenance activities.

Maintenance Feature A maintenance feature is a distinct part of the roadway system that requires one or more activities to be performed on it.

Maintenance

Management System The maintenance management system is a group of interrelated concepts and procedures used to help make decisions about maintenance work. The system is concerned with the following major areas:

• planning; • scheduling; • reporting; • controlling, and • directing.

Man-day A man-day is a day of work by one person. The man-days planned and reported for an activity are the product of the crew size and number of workdays.

Monthly Distribution A monthly distribution is an allocation of an annual planned quantity to the various months. A monthly distribution can be made for workdays, man-days,

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resource quantities or pesos. The monthly workday distribution can be called a "long range schedule" or "work calendar". A monthly peso distribution can be called a "cash flow".

Performance Budget Performance budget is the annual work program expressed in pesos required for the resource needed to accomplish the program. An annual performance budget is prepared for each district by applying standard daily resource costs to the number of work days in the annual work program.

Planning Value A planning value is a numerical input to either a work program or performance budget. Examples of planning values are inventory quantities, quantity standards, planned daily production, planned crew sizes, standard unit costs for required resources of man-day, equipment day and material.

Quantity Standard A quantity standard is the annual work quantity planned per inventory unit. A quantity standard usually does not apply to each inventory unit-only the total inventory quantity. For example, a quantity standard of 200 linear meters of ditch cleaned per kilometer of ditch does not mean that in each kilometer of ditch 200 linear meters are to be cleaned. It means that the total planned work quantity averages 200 linear meters per kilometer.

"Other" Activity Activities that are not required frequently enough to require a separate "Activity Standard" are planned and recorded under an "other" group or sub-group Activity Number. (e.g. "Other" Unpaved Roadway Surface Maintenance or "Other" Roadside Maintenance). The type of maintenance work is described on the daily work card and is planned and reported in man-days.

Maintenance Project Maintenance project activities include: • resurfacing unpaved roads; • bituminous surface treatment; • redecking timber bridge decks; and • repainting steel bridge members.

Roadway System A roadway system includes roadway surfaces, shoulders, embankments, ditches, rights of way, bridges, drainage structures, signs, markers, lights, signalization, landscape works, guardrails, protective devices and related facilities.

Roadway Maintenance Roadway maintenance is the act if preserving and keeping the roadway system in, as near as possible, its originally constructed or subsequently improved state, to protect the investment in the roadway system and provide safety, comfort and convenience to the traveling public.

Routine Maintenance Routine maintenance is maintenance regularly performed throughout the year. Standard Cost A standard cost of a resource is the product of the resource quantity and the

standard unit cost of the resource.

Standard Unit Cost Standard unit cost is the planning value of one unit of measurement of a resource as used in the preparation of the AMWP and Performance Budget. For example, labor is expressed as pesos per man-day, equipment is based on peso per day per

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equipment type, material is pesos per unit, i.e. cubic meter, liter or accepted unit of measurement. Standard unit costs consist of weighted average costs of purchase, production, inflation, transporting and handling and are constant throughout the year for all planning, scheduling and reporting. Only major material items are listed and include the costs of accessories and hardware associated with their use.

Typical "Typical" is used to describe values or conditions that are representative of a type of work, resource, situation, etc. It should not be confused with the word "average". For example, data from an activity might indicate that 90 percent of the workdays have crew sizes of from 4 to 7, and the weighted average for all workdays is a crew size of 5.2. From 4 to 7 is typical, while 5.2 is average. Workday A workday is a crew performing an activity, according to the activity standard,

for one day. There may be more than one workday of an activity in a calendar day. For example, if three crews perform an activity for a day, three workdays of the activity were performed during the calendar day.

The annual planned number of workdays for an activity is found by dividing the annual planned work quantity by the planned daily production.

Work Quantity A work quantity of an activity is the amount of work expressed in work units. "Planned" or "scheduled work quantity" can be used for a work quantity prior to completion while "accomplishment" can be used for work completed. "Production" can be used to denote work rates, such as in the term "daily production". The annual planned work quantity for an activity is the product of the inventory quantity and the quantity standard.

Work Unit A work activity is assigned a work unit that is used to express planned and reported work quantities. An activity work unit remains the same throughout the year. Work units should be easy to identify in the field and should reflect the output expected from the activity.

Inventory Units

Centerline

Kilometers Centerline kilometers are the longitudinal measurement unit along the centerline of the roadway cross section. Readings on kilometer posts indicate centerline kilometers.

Lane

Kilometers Lane kilometers equal the product of the centerline kilometers and the number of lanes. A lane is a traveled lane or parking lane, approximately 3 meters in width. A paved shoulder may be considered a lane if it functions as a traveled lane and is of sufficient width.

Shoulder

Kilometers Shoulder kilometers equal the product of the centerline kilometers and the number of shoulders.

Ditch

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Kilometers Ditch kilometers equal the product of the centerline kilometers and number of ditches.

Linear Meters Linear meters are the longitudinal measurement in meters along the centerline of the feature cross section.

Maintenance Feature Inventory

Unpaved

Roadways Unpaved roadways have travelled ways of aggregate or earth. By definition unpaved roadways do not have shoulders.

Bituminous

Roadways Bituminous roadways have traveled ways with bituminous mix or bituminous treated surfaces. The base may be aggregate, aggregate stabilized with bituminous material or bituminous mix.

Roadway with bituminous surface and Portland cement concrete base -- over-laid concrete surfaces -- are classified as Portland cement concrete roadway.

Concrete

Roadways Concrete roadways have travelled ways with Portland concrete surfaces.

Concrete roadways that are overlaid with bituminous mix or treated with bituminous material are Portland cement concrete roadways.

Bituminous

Pavements Bituminous pavements are the traveled ways of bituminous roadways. They may include bituminous shoulders adjacent to either bituminous or Portland cement concrete pavement, if the shoulders functions as traveled lanes and are of sufficient width. They do not include bituminous shoulders that do not function as traveled ways or other areas paved with bituminous material.

Concrete Pavements Portland cement concrete pavements are the traveled ways of Portland cement concrete roadways. They do not include other areas paved with Portland cement concrete.

Unpaved Shoulders Unpaved shoulders are shoulders composed of aggregate or earth. By definition unpaved roadways do not have shoulders.

Shoulders are the portion of the roadway immediately adjacent to the pavement and designed to provide lateral support to the pavement and a safety lane for vehicles.

Ditches Drainage ditches are the channels designed to provide roadway drainage and for which DPWH highway maintenance has responsibility.

Drop Inlet, Catch

Basin, Manhole A receptacle or reservoir that receives surface water runoff or drainage. Typically made of precast concrete, brick, or concrete masonry.

Cross/Lateral

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Box Culvert Box culvert can be described as either a precast concrete or reinforced concrete structure in rectangular figure, facilitating water flow through an embankment of road, etc., as a similar function performed by concrete pipe culvert.

Roadside Structure Road slope protection works, retaining walls

Ferries A boat or ship for conveying passengers and goods, especially over a relatively short distance and as a regular service

Traffic Signs,

Km Post, Etc This feature includes the facilities in its name; culvert, markers, painted markers on bridge ends and district/city boundary signs are included. Kilometer posts are not included. One unit is counted for each installation, regardless of the number of sign faces, posts or reflectors.

Guardrails All types of guardrail are included. Guardrail adjacent to bridges is indicated; bridge railing is not included.

Steel Bridge This feature includes bridges with major structural components of metal; truss, composite I-beam and Bailey bridges are included. Bridge railings are not major structural components.

Concrete Bridge This feature includes bridges with no major structural components of metal; concrete and timber bridges are included.

Bailey Bridge A “through” type of steel Deck Girder; the roadway is being carried between the two main girders. The main girders are formed from modular elements 3m long pinned together end to end for quick assembly.

Timber Bridge A type of bridge made of wood.

Concrete Deck Top of bridge superstructure

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CHAPTER 1

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

1.1

Introduction

The management system provides a framework for making informed decision about highway maintenance. Specific objectives are to provide the following:

• uniform levels of maintenance service throughout the Philippines;

• means to use labor, equipment and material in manners appropriate to the Philippines; • objective basis to plan and execute maintenance work programs;

• direct relationships between programmed work and budgeted costs; • comparisons of actual with planned work performance; and • Guidelines and procedures to effect corrective action. Major management system components are as follows:

• planning; • scheduling; • directing; • reporting; and • control.

The components function together as shown in Figure 1.1

Planning serves to estimate annual work quantities, costs and resources requirements. Scheduling functions in the short term to identify maintenance needs and plan and assign work. Directing is necessary to carry out work assignments to achieve acceptable work results. Reporting serves to document work results and to provide information to managers in form suitable for comparing actual with planned performance. Control procedures help identify significant deviations from the plans and standards and provide guidelines needed to make corrections or adjustment required to improve performance.

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Figure 1.1

Management System Components Functional Relationships

The remainder of this chapter briefly explains the other chapters in this manual.

1.2

Activities

All types of work performed by maintenance field forces are described by activities. Activities are used throughout the management system—work is planned, schedule, directed, reported and controlled by activity.

The majority of work activities relate to the maintenance of distinct features of the roadway system. An annual work program of activity work units required to provide an acceptable level service on the roadway maintenance feature is combining work activities and road way maintenance features. To facilitate the preparation and understanding of the program, each activity is assigned easily identifiable units of measure which are compatible with the various work units.

Activity work units are used to measure planned, schedule and reported work, on distinct roadway maintenance features, as described by a work activity.

An activity standard is developed for each and includes the following information: • name and number;

• description ;

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• purpose; • authorization; • scheduling criteria;

• typical crew size and composition; • typical equipment;

• typical material;

• typical work method; and • daily production range;

Work activities and standards are detailed in Chapter 2.

1.3

Organization

Maintenance personnel and equipment are assigned by activity according to the work to be performed. Crews are not permanently assigned to any activity or location but are utilized in the most efficient and effective combinations for the work scheduled.

Districts are divided into geographical areas to help organize management activities. Personnel and equipment are assigned to areas for duration determined by the District/Maintenance Engineer. District Area In-Charge is assigned to share responsibility for managing maintenance in the areas.

Organization structures and responsibilities are in Chapter 3.

1.4

Planning

Planning serves to estimate the annual work quantities, resource requirements and standard costs needed to meet Department’s objectives for roadway maintenance. The annual maintenance work program/performance budget documents and communicates these objectives.

Annual work program/performance budgets are developed for each district and summarized into regional and national program/budgets.

The sequence for developing a district program/budget is as follows: 1. identify planning concepts;

2. summarize maintenance feature units;

3. prepare the work program and performance budget; 4. prepare the monthly workday distribution;

5. prepare other monthly distributions; 6. estimate resource requirements; and

7. compare with available resources and funds and revise as appropriate. The planning procedures outlined above are explained in detail in Chapter 4.

1.5

Scheduling

Successful performance of an annual maintenance work program is dependent on good scheduling practices which should be established and followed continually.

Work scheduling is composed of:

• identification of maintenance needed;

• determination of work activity and workday required;

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• preparation of quincenal schedule; and

• assignment of work activity and resources requirements.

1.5.1 Maintenance Needs

The District Area In-Charge is responsible for conducting routine inspections of all the roads in the area at least once a quincena. He identifies maintenance needs by comparing observed conditions with the description, purpose and scheduling criteria on activity standards or by engineering judgment.

1.5.2 Quincenal Schedule

Quincenal schedules are prepared each quincena for each district area. They are prepared by the District Area In-Charge during scheduling meetings.

During a scheduling meeting maintenance needs are compared with the work program, workday distribution, activity standards, available resources and other pertinent information to determine what activities are to be scheduled, when the activities are to be performed and the work methods ad resources to be used.

The schedule documents the following:

• the activities and locations schedule;

• the workdays, crew sizes and man –days scheduled; and

• the equipment and material scheduled; and the scheduled supervisor.

1.5.3 Work Assignment

The work assignment is made by the District Area In-Charge to the scheduled supervisor. Both written and verbal instructions are used. The important aspects of work assignment are that the scheduled supervisor understands what work is assigned, where, when how and how well it is to be performed and who is to perform it.

Written instructions are placed on an activity card, which authorizes the supervisor to perform one workday of the activity at the location assigned.

Details of scheduling procedures are discussed in Chapter 5.

1.6

Directing

Directing consists of the actions necessary to produce acceptable work results after the work assignment is received. A work assignment does not detail every aspects of the work. Numerous decisions must be made at the work site to produce acceptable results.

The activity standard is an important guide for producing acceptable work results. The work method, purpose and daily production range provide guidance.

Chapter 6 contains the details of Directing.

1.7

Reporting

District reporting consists of the following:

• all workdays are reported on activity card;

• the activity cards are summarized on activity card summary work sheet; and

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• the activity card summary work sheets and planning data are used to prepare monthly reports. Regional reports are summaries of district reports and are submitted to the Bureau of Maintenance for preparation of national performance reports.

1.7.1 Activity Cards

The assigned supervisor completes the activity card issued to him during the work assignment procedure. The following information is completed:

• time worked by the crew members; • time worked by the equipment; • the quantities of materials use; and • the accomplishments.

1.7.2 Activity Summary Work Sheets

A clerk or engineering assistant completes the activity card summary work sheets as the activity card is submitted. The work sheets are totaled at the end of the month and the following information is derived for each activity.

• total workdays; • total accomplishment; • total man-days;

• equipment and material types and quantities; and

• labor, equipment, fuel, material and total standard costs.

The standards costs are calculated by multiplying the resource quantities by the standard unit costs used for planning.

Monthly and year-to-date values are calculated for the following: • accomplishment per workday;

• man-days per workday; and

• total standard cost per accomplishment.

1.7.3 Monthly Reports

A monthly data summary and a monthly performance summary is prepared.

Monthly data summary lists the reported month and year-to-date totals for each activity. The data is used for in-depth analysis and for updating plans and standards.

1.7.4 Monthly Data Summary

The monthly performance summary lists reported and planned data for the month and year-to-date. The following data are included:

• workdays; • accomplishments,

• accomplishment per workday values, and • standard cost per accomplishment values.

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1.7.5 Quarterly Performance Summary

Regional and national performance summary reports are prepared quarterly. The reports are used by managers to help identify deviations from plans and standards to help discern trends.

Reporting details and formats are in Chapter 7.

1.8

Control

Control involves both operational and system control.

Operational control is continuous to ensure intelligent decisions about scheduling, directing and reporting. System control occurs at least annually to correct system guidelines, plans and standards. Both types of control employ the same procedure.

The procedure for controlling work is a follows:

• work performance and management actions are compared with plans and standards; • significant deviations are investigated to determine when they occurred;

• the most appropriate corrective actions are identified; • the corrective actions are implemented; and

• the corrective actions are followed up to ensure that they are effective. Chapter 8 contains full details on Control.

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CHAPTER 2

ACTIVITIES

The Annual Maintenance Work Program prepared by the Maintenance Management System is expressed in maintenance activity work units applied to roadway maintenance features.

The roadway maintenance features are assigned easily identifiable and measurable units for counting and summarizing into a convenient Maintenance feature inventory.

Maintenance work activities are described, names and numbered according to the maintenance feature on which they are performed. Units of work measure that is compatible with the maintenance feature unit measure are assigned to each activity.

2.1

Activity List

The Activity List includes all activities. Each activity listing includes the activity number, name, work units, maintenance feature, Inventory unit and quantity standard unit. The activities are grouped and numbered according to the general classification of expenditure.

Activities are numbered in sub-groups indicating the maintenance feature on which the activities are performed. These groups and sub-groups are formed to allow summarization and comparisons of program planning and accomplishments. The major groups and sub-groups of the revised activities are shown below:

o Group by Maintenance Features + 100 – Road and Related Features + 200 – Roadside Features

+ 300 – Traffic Services o Group by Expenditure Category

+400 – Emergency Work

+ 500 – Supervision Support and Overhead (Project) + 600 –Maintenance Projects

+ 700 – Special Maintenance The Activity List is shown in Appendix A-1.

2.2

Activity Standard

Maintenance work activities should be clearly defined in order that personnel responsible for planning, scheduling and reporting have a uniform understanding of their operation.

Major activities should not be inclusive as to combine distinctly different types of work or so restrictive as to include only a few steps in a work method. For example, pot-holes patching and bituminous surface treatment should not be combined in a single activity nor should be work step for compacting a patch be an activity separate from pothole patching.

Activities are used throughout the management system – work is planned, scheduled, directed, reported and controlled by activity. An Activity Standard is developed for each activity. It includes the following information:

• name and number; • description;

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• authorization;

• work control category; • scheduling criteria;

• typical crew size and composition; • typical equipment;

• typical materials; • typical work method; • daily production range; and • notes.

An example of an activity standard is shown in Figure 2.1 Details of the Activity Standards are shown in Appendix A-2

2.2.1 Name and Number

An activity is given a name and number to provide easy and clear reference to the type of work described in the activity standard.

The numbers assigned reflect the type of work. For example, numbers 101 to 104 are reserved for unpaved roadway repair and numbers 111 to 114 are reserved for bituminous roadway surface maintenance.

2.2.2 Description

The description is necessary to standardize terminology and make communications clear and concise. For example, “grading” has different meanings to different maintenance engineers – from a few light passes on the surface to complete reshaping of the surface and ditches. The description for Activity 104, Machine Grading Unpaved Roadways, leaves little doubt as to the type of work included in the activity.

2.2.3 Purpose

The purpose indicates why the activity is performed. It supplements the description and is useful in planning, scheduling and directing the work.

2.2.4 Authorization

The authorization indicates the person who approves the Work to be called and/ or performed. The standards recognize two levels of management in agreement with the organization of the Department. The two people who authorize work are the District Engineer and the Regional Director. In practice, the responsibility is designated to other engineers.

2.2.5 Work Control Category

For proper implementation of the maintenance activities, work control categories are assigned to the activities, such as:

Unlimited

– control category that signifies that activity is a priority activity and should be performed as

needed, usually to repair hazardous defects.

Limited

– indicates 2nd priority, activity should be performed approximately in the quantity planned.

Variable

– signifies the lowest priority, the activity quantity should be reduced when other activities

overrun planned quantities.

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Project

- Indicates an activity initially planned as lump sum and re-programmed as a series of projects requiring approving authority or implementation

2.2.6 Scheduling Criteria

The scheduling criteria indicate when the work should be scheduled. They may refer to the seasons of the year, road conditions, and coordination with other activities or other pertinent information.

2.2.7 Typical Crew

The typical crew size and composition are representative of what should be used when the work is performed according to the activity standard. Typical crews range in size according to the type and quantity of equipment required and/or available. Activities should be performed using an appropriate crew size within the given range.

2.2.8 Typical Equipment

Typical equipment indicates the types and number of pieces of equipment used to perform the work according to the activity standard. The planned equipment is representative of the majority of workdays and should be interpreted as a guide rather than a mandate.

2.2.9 Typical Material

Typical material includes the major types used when the work is performed according to the activity standard.

2.2.10 Typical Work Method

Typical work method indicates how the work should be performed on the majority of workdays. The work method is presented in numbered steps for clarity.

2.2.11

Daily Production Range

The daily production range indicates the amount of the appropriate unit of work expected to be accomplished on a typical workday performed according to the activity standard.

The range is used to reflect that workday accomplishments vary acceptably according to conditions – no single workday can be expected to result in the “average” accomplishment.

2.2.12 Notes

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Figure 2.1 Example of Activity Standard

Effetive Date: DPWH HIGHWAY M AINTENANCE

ACT. NO. 104 NAME: MACHINE GRADING UNPAVED ROAD SURFACES

DESCRIPTION: Use this activity for correcting minor surface erosion, ruts, corrugations, potholes

depressions, etc., and restoring the surface crown by using a road grader. Reclaiming surface materials and reshaping ditches, if needed, are included. However, adding new materials and/or surface widening are not included

PURPOSE: To provide smooth, well drained surfaces. Reclaiming surface material and ditching

are secondary purposes.

AUTHORIZATION: WORK CONTROL

District Engineer CATEGORY: Limited

SCHEDULING: Schedule when defects control traffic speeds or threaten the structure of the

road surface. Schedule ditching when there is need 1/.

Schedule a roller only when there is sufficient natural moisture for compaction 2/. Defects that cannot be removed by scarrifying, such as subgrade failures (soft spots) 3/. should be corrected first prior to scheduling this activity.

1-2* Operators 1. Place safety devices.

2 Laborers 2. Scarify or cut surface to remove potholes, erosion scars,

corrugations, high areas, etc.

3. Clean and recut ditches and outlets/turnouts. Remove

* - if roller is used spoil material from culvert inlets and outlets.

4. Reclaim suitable material from ditches and sides.

5. Remove oversize or unsuitable material.

No. Code: Description 6. Blend reclaimed material with scarified surface materials,

7. Spread, reshape and compact.

1 N1 Road Grader 8. Check cross section, profile and drainage. Rework if

1 Z4 Pneumatic/tandem needed.

(steel wheel)* 9. Remove safety devices.

Hand tools Safety devices

PPE (refer to Act. 503) * If available

Code: Descriptions

none

1-3 centerline kilometers graded.

NOTES: 1/ If primary purpose is ditching, use Act. 141 or 199.

2/ If watering is needed, schedule ahead of grading under Act. 199.

3/ Use Act.199 for subgrade repair(soft spots).

DAILY PRODUCTION RANGE:

ACTIVITY STANDARD

TYPICAL CREW: TYPICAL WORK METHOD:

TYPICAL EQUIPMENT:

TYPICAL MATERIALS:

2.3

Activity Number

Numbers are assigned to each maintenance activity to provide quick and easy identification and reference. The present numbers are of three digits to provide reference to the category of maintenance expenditures, to the roadway maintenance feature upon which is being performed and the activity within the system. The general expenditure categories are identified for funding and are identified as follows:

Routine Maintenance – Activity 100 through 600 under Routine Maintenance, general expenditure categories are represented by the numbers in the hundreds as follows:

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• 100 – Road and Related Features • 200 – Roadside Features • 300 – Traffic Services • 400 – Emergency Work

• 500 – Supervision Support and Overhead • 600 –Maintenance Project

• 700- Special Maintenance

The routine maintenance annual work program/performance budget is summarized by these expenditure categories for analysis of planned distributions of maintenance funds. Quarterly and annual reports are similarly grouped for review and comparison.

Maintenance on specific roadway maintenance features are in Group 100, 200 and 300 and identify the maintenance feature as follows:

The activities listed above represent the Routine Maintenance Program. The establishment of the above activity numbers will be easily adapted to future computerization of the maintenance management system. Presently, the decisions of determining the priority of expenditures are facilitated by the establishment and use of the activity numbering system.

In the form for Annual Maintenance Work Program and Performance Budget – Roads and Bridge

(Total) MVUC (see Appendix E form TAD 4.1 New) currently used by DPWH, standard routine

maintenance activities are further subdivided into the following WORK CATEGORIES:

• 101 to 104– Unpaved Road Surfaces • 171 – Temporary Repairs

• 111 to 114 – Bituminous Pavements • 199 – Other Maintenance and Repairs

• 121 to 123 – Concrete Pavements • 201 to 209 – Roadside features

• 131 to 133 – Unpaved Shoulders • 301 to 309 – Traffic Services

• 141 to 144 – Drainage • 501 to 510 – Supervision, Support and Overhead

• 151 to 157– Bridges • 61X – 69X – Maintenance Project

• 161 – Ferries • 71X – Special Maintenance

Activity No. Description Activity No. Description

Work Category No. 10 - Pavement Maintenance Work Category No. 15 - Shoulder Maintenance 111 Premix Patching Bituminous Pavements 131 Manual Repair of Unpaved Shoulders 112 Penetration Patching Bituminous Pavements 132 Manual Patching Unpaved Shoulders 113 Sealing Bituminous Pavements 133 Machine Grading Unpaved Shoulders 114 Replacement of Bituminous Pavements Work Category No. 16 - Drainage Maintenance 121 Patching of Concrete Pavements 141 Manual Ditch Cleaning 122 Crack & Joints Sealing of Concrete Pavements 142 Manual Inlet/outlet cleaning 123 Replacement of Concrete Pavements 143 Culvert line cleaning

101 Manual Repair of Unpaved Road Surfaces 144 Repair and/or Replacement of Minor Drainage Structure 102 Manual Patching of Unpaved Road Surfaces 199 Other Maintenance to Roadways and Related Features 103 Machine Patching of Unpaved Road Surfaces Work Category No. 17 - Vegetation Control

104 Machine Grading of Unpaved Roadways 201 Vegetation Control

171 Temporary Patching 202 Erosion Repair and Control to Roadsides 401 Initial Resp onse to Emergencies-Roadways 203 Repair of Major Roadside Structures 41X Emergency Projects 209 Other Roadside Maintenance

503 Indirect Cost Work of Expenses Work Category No. 18 - Traffic Services Maintenance 504 Other Work or Expenses 301 Sign Maintenance

509 Foreman Supervision 302 Centerline and Lane Line Repainting 510 Unproductive Time 303 Guardrail Maintenance

Work Category No. 11 - Regravelling 304 Sight Distance Mowing and Clearing 61X Resurfacing of Unpaved Roadways 309 Other Traffic Services

63X Resurfacing of Unpaved Shoulders 71X Special Maintenance Work Category No. 12 - Bridge and Structure Maintenance Production Activities

151 Cleaning of Bridges 501 Production of Bituminous Premix 152 Patching of Concrete Deck 502 Other Material Prtoduction or Handling 153 Repairs of Concrete Bridges

154 Repairs of Steel Bridges 155 Repairs of Bailey Bridges 156 Repairs of Timber Bridges 157 Clearing Bridge Waterways

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CHAPTER 3

ORGANIZATION

This Chapter examines organization structures as they relate to the management system and is organized under the following headings:

• Crew Organization; • District Organization; and • Regional Organization.

Exhibits at the end of the chapter list management system responsibilities for selected positions.

3.1

Crew Organization

In order to apply roadway maintenance management according to the concept covered in Chapter I, using the activity standards explained in Chapter 2, the district highway maintenance personnel must be organized to provide the number of work days for each employee classification as developed in the Annual Maintenance Work Program. The number in each classification is determined by the number of work days of the various activities required to maintain the district national road system and the typical crew described in the activity standards. The assignment of maintenance personnel according to the activity standard of the work to be performed and the flexibility of assignment to any location is necessary to fulfill the annual work program. Thus, in general, maintenance personnel are assigned to either a certain work activity or location but rather as required according to their abilities.

3.2

District Organization

Districts are divided into geographical areas to organize management activities.

Area boundaries are established on a flexible basis and can be revised as transportation capabilities and other factors change.

The establishment of boundaries to maximize the roadway kilometers within an area will develop a sufficient workload to keep both men and equipment assigned to that area and reduces transportation requirements. Travel times, geographical features and transportation capabilities determine the best size of an area.

A centralized area office and yard is desirable to provide a meeting place, safe storage for equipment and materials and overnight facilities for personnel.

Area boundaries, and arrangements for area offices and yards when feasible, are submitted by the district for approval by the Regional Director prior to implementation.

Personnel and equipment are assigned to an area for durations required to perform work activities scheduled by the Area In Charge and approved by the District Maintenance Engineer. A District Area In Charge is assigned to share responsibility for managing maintenance in the area. Foremen are assigned to direct activity crews. Personnel, with special knowledge or abilities, and scarce equipment may be shared among areas to satisfy activity scheduling. Personnel are assigned to any area to perform work as benefits the Department.

District Maintenance Engineer procures resources, coordinates work among the areas and provides control of work scheduling and reporting. The District Maintenance Engineer functions as the Area In Charge in districts having only one area.

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The District Engineer provides overall control of work and money expenditures to meet Department objectives and priorities.

3.3

Regional Organization

The Regional Highway Maintenance Division is headed by a Regional Maintenance Engineer and is composed of two major sections: Maintenance Management and Inspectorate. Maintenance Management section is headed by a Regional Maintenance Management Engineer and is concerned with planning, reporting and system control. Inspectorate section is headed by a Regional Maintenance Inspectorate Engineer and is concerned with scheduling, directing and operational control.

3.4

Management System Responsibilities

3.4.1 District Maintenance Foremen

• Directs one or more activity crews to perform work as assigned in accordance with plans and standards;

• Reports work on activity cards;

• Performs related work as assigned by District Maintenance Area Engineer In Charge.

3.4.2 District Maintenance Area In-Charge

• Conducts field inspections to identify and document maintenance needs;

• Prepares quincenal schedule to satisfy maintenance needs and to achieve Department objectives and priorities;

• Assign work to foremen in an effective manner • Collects and reviews activity cards;

• Conducts field inspections of work-in-progress and completed work to ensure work is directed appropriately and effectively;

• Conducts field inspection and takes corrective measures to ensure activity cards are accurate and submitted on time;

• Performs related work as assigned by DistrictMaintenance Area In Charge

3.4.3 District

Maintenance Engineer

• Prepares workday distribution, resource use/standard cost distributions and resource requirements for annual maintenance work program;

• Conduct field inspections to ensure that current maintenance needs are identified; • Conducts quincenalschedulingmeeting and coordinates scheduling among district areas; • Reviews quincenal schedules to ensure schedules are written to satisfy maintenance needs and

to achieve Department objectives and priorities; • Approves quincenal schedules;

• Takes corrective measures to ensure work assignment procedures are appropriate and effective;

• Procures resources for maintenance work; Assigns resources for district area; • Supervises preparation of monthly reports;

• Conduct field inspections and takes corrective measures to ensure monthly reports are accurate and submitted on time;

• Reviews and analyzes monthly reports for operational control purposes; • Directs the DistrictMaintenance Area In Charge;

• Performs related work as assigned by DistrictEngineer;

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• Prepares project maintenance estimates;

• Supervises preparation of maintenance feature inventory.

3.4.4 District

Engineer

• Ensures resources are used and money is spent to achieve Department objectives and priorities;

• Reviews and submits project maintenance estimates;

• Reviews and submits workday distribution, resource use/standard cost distributions and resource requirements for annual maintenance work program;

• Reviews and submits monthly reports;

• Ensures resources are properly procured and assigned for maintenance work; • Ensures that proper scheduling and coordination exist among district areas; • Directs the DistrictMaintenance Engineer;

• Performs related work as directed by the Regional Director; • Reviews and submits maintenance feature inventory.

3.4.5 Regional Maintenance Engineer

• Assists districts in highway maintenance management systems of operations by: − conducting field inspections to confirm current maintenance needs are identified − attending quincenal scheduling meetings to confirm schedules are written to satisfy

maintenance needs and achieve Department objectives and priorities

− reviewing work assignment procedures to confirm that they are appropriate and effective − conducting field inspections of work-in-progress and completed work to confirm that

work is directed appropriately and effectively completed

− conducting field inspections and reviews to confirm activity cards and monthly reports are accurate and submitted on time

• Coordinates scheduling among districts in the region to maximize equipment utilization and material availability;

• Reviews and analyzes monthly reports for operational control purposes; • Identifies and investigates significant deviations from plans and standards;

• Suggests corrective actions to the Regional Highway Maintenance Inspectorate Engineer or the districtsdepending on the nature and severity of the actions;

• Implements and follows up corrective actions when specifically assigned by the Regional Director; and

• Performs related work as assigned by the Regional Director.

3.4.6 Regional Maintenance Management Engineer

• Prepare district and regional maintenance work program/performance budgets;

• Reviews and corrects district AMWP/PB submissions; Prepares regional summaries of AMWP/PB’s;

• Reviews maintenance feature inventory submissions and compiles regional inventory;

• Reviews maintenance project estimates and recommends appropriate action by Regional Maintenance Engineer;

• Advises and assists districts in AMWP/PB preparation;

• Advises and assists regional and district personnel in report preparation and analysis; • Compiles regional summary reports;

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• Reviews and analyzes regional summary reports and other data for system control purposes; • Conducts investigation for system control purposes;

• Recommends corrective actions to the Regional Maintenance Engineer;

• Reviews and analyzes accounting reports and records for standard unit cost analysis and comparisons with nationwide standard unit cost;

• Maintains records of other planning values for comparisons with nationwide values; • Directs personnel in the Regional Management Maintenance Engineer;

• Performs related work as assigned by the Regional Maintenance Engineer.

3.4.7 Regional Maintenance Inspectorate Engineer

• Coordinates scheduling among subregions;

• Evaluates corrective action suggestions from the Subregional Engineers;

• Reviews and analyzes regional summary reports for operational control purposes; • Recommends corrective actions to the Regional Maintenance Engineer;

• Implements and follows up corrective actions when specifically assigned by the Regional Director;

• Directs personnel in the Regional Inspectorate Maintenance Engineer; and • Performs related work as assigned by the Regional Maintenance Engineer.

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CHAPTER 4

PLANNING

Planning serves to estimate the annual work quantities, resource requirements and standard costs needed to meet the Department objectives for roadway maintenance. The Annual Maintenance Work Program and Performance Budget (AMWP/PB) documents and communicates these objectives.

AMWP/PB’s are prepared for Routine Maintenance budget of each District national roadway system. These are summarized by regions for a Regional AMWP/PB and the regional program/budgets are summarized to become the National Highway Maintenance budget request.

The sequence for developing a District program/budget is as follows:

 Identify planning concepts;

 Inventory maintenance features;

 Prepare the work program and performance budget;

 Prepare the monthly crewday distributions;

 Prepare other monthly distributions; and

 Estimate resource requirements.

The remainder of this chapter examines this sequence and the important forms used for documenting the AMWP/PB.

4.1

Planning Concepts

Concepts for preparing and interpreting the AMWP/PB recognize important Department objectives and planning limitations.

4.2

Department Objectives

A list of important planning objectives, from the list of system objectives in Chapter One, is as follows:

 To provide uniform levels of maintenance service throughout the Philippines;

 To plan the use of labor, equipment and material in manners appropriate to the Philippines;

 To provide objective bases to plan maintenance work programs;

 To provide direct relationship between programmed work and budgeted costs;

 To provide planned work quantities for meaningful comparisons with actual performance;

 To provide a measurement of effectiveness of the present standard value assigned to compute the annual national highway budget allotment; and

 To provide a programmed estimate of additional funding required to complete programmed routine maintenance.

These objectives are examined in the following paragraphs.

In order to provide for uniform levels of service throughout the Philippines, national planning values are used to program equal quantities of maintenance activity work units to all maintenance feature inventories and to estimate the amount of resources and funding required to perform the program. Variations in the actual requirements of an individual district are taken cared of by scheduling appropriate quantities of work activities needed to provide the desired level of service.

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4-2 Philippine Highway Maintenance Management Manual – 2nd Edition

Appropriate use of labor, equipment and material, to best meet the needs of the Philippines, is reflected in the planning values developed for the work activities. The distributions of labor, equipment and material in all work activities considers the most appropriate and effective use of the resources and funds available. The planning concept of labor intensive, equipment intensive or least fund requirement work programs is provided through adjustment of planning standards. The nationwide standards and planning values must be revised annually to meet the Department’s concepts.

The objectives bases provided for developing a maintenance work program attuned to a roadway system are the identification of roadway system features that require maintenance and a description of the work activities needed to meet these maintenance requirements. Applications of nationwide activity planning values to districtmaintenance feature inventory develops maintenance work programs using these bases. Performance budgets are calculated by applying unit costs to estimate resource quantities required to complete the work programs; the procedure provides direct relationships between programmed work and budgeted cost.

Programmed work quantities are expressed in work units, easily identified in the field, in workdays and in man-days. Budgeted costs are calculated using standard unit costs that remain as constants throughout the year and are also used in the reporting component of the management system. These concepts provide the bases for meaningful comparisons of planned work with actual performance.

The annual performance budget is developed using national work quantity standards that provide a routine maintenance program for national road maintenance provided by the standard value of pesos per Equivalent Maintenance Kilometer (EMK). The effectiveness of the standard peso value will be determined by the level of service provided by the routine maintenance work program.

Other, more specific Department objectives may be expressed in the individual planning values. For example, a desire to increase the levels of service for bituminous pavements would be expressed by increasing the planned quantity of work for the appropriate activities.

4.3

Planning Limitations

Development of an Annual Maintenance Work Program/Performance Budget uses one set of real, identifiable values in the process, the inventory, or quantity, of Roadway Maintenance Features. All other factors and planning values are estimates developed in various ways. For example:

 Quantity standards express the amount of work per activity per maintenance feature per year applied to the total feature inventory, not individual inventory units. They are developed from historical data, qualified experience and sound engineering judgment.

 Average daily production represents the weighted average of the total production achieved in the total work days for one year.

 Average crew size used for each activity, is the average of all work days reported in one year divided into total man-days.

 Workday planning values of resources per day are based on the activity standard and annual reported average usage.

 Standard unit costs are based on the nationwide actual fiscal costs adjusted for predicted inflation, handling, transporting and to include cost of minor accessories and hardware. The overall accuracy of a work program increases as its scope increases but its applicability to any specific maintenance feature unit, or small number of units, in district maintenance work must be scheduled as needed, within the limits of the program, and reported as actually accomplished. Comparison of the

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nd

reported values with the planned values may be issued at the end of a year for adjusting future planning values. Reports of less duration – nine, six or three months – maybe analyzed to indicate trends but comparisons of daily, weekly or monthly reports with the annual work program of workday distributions is based mainly on historical weather patterns. Identical monthly weather patterns in any two years seldom occur. Weather is one of the main factors in determining roadway maintenance requirements and as weather changes so does maintenance. Management must keep this in mind when reviewing performance reports. Roadway maintenance should be scheduled by field requirements and reported as accurately as possible. Reports adjusted to make favorable comparisons with annual report program are detrimental to the overall system and are not acceptable.

Annual nationwide planning values must be adjusted to meet anticipated funding in accordance with the Department’s objective for the national road maintenance.

The national quantity standard planning values for routine maintenance will be based on the present EMK value.

The standard EMK value multiplied by the total EMK for the roads and bridges for each district furnished by the BOM is the gross amount allotted by the national budget. Before distribution, five percent (5%) is deducted for a contingency fund for the regional office and another five percent (5%) is deducted for the maintenance of newly converted roads (local road to national road).

4.4

Maintenance Feature Inventory

A maintenance feature is a distinct part of the roadway system on which one or more activities must be performed. A maintenance feature inventory is the counting and recording of the measurement units of each maintenance feature. The total units called the inventory.

A list of maintenance features and inventory units is summarized from the activity list in Chapter Two and shown as Figure 4.1 - Maintenance Feature Inventory Work Units. Descriptions of these inventory units are in shown The Definition of Terms.

Maintenance feature inventories are maintained for each district and summarized into regional and national inventories. They are separate from other inventories, are permanent records and after initial compilation, require only annual updating.

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4-4 Philippine Highway Maintenance Management Manual – 2nd Edition

Figure 4.1

Maintenance Features and Inventory Units

Maintenance Features Inventory Units

Unpaved Roadways - Centerline kilometers Bituminous Roadways - Centerline kilometers Concrete Roadways - Centerline kilometers Bituminous Pavements - Lane kilometers Concrete Pavements - Lane kilometers Unpaved Shoulders - Shoulder kilometers Ditches - Ditch kilometers Drop Inlets/Catch Basin/Manholes - Number of structures Cross/Lateral Drainage - Number of lines Box Culverts - Number of structures Roadside Structures - Number of structures Ferries - Number of ferries

Traffic Signs, KM Post, Etc. - Number of sign, KM Post, Etc. Guardrail - Linear meters

Steel Bridges - Linear meter Concrete Bridges - Linear meter Bailey Bridges - Linear meter Timber Bridges - Linear meters Number of Bridge - Number Concrete Decks - Linear meters Width of Waterways - Linear meters

4.5

Compilation

The maintenance feature inventory is compiled from the results of field inspection or from Roads and Bridge Information Application (RBIA).

The feature inventory for an inventory section is recorded on the Maintenance Feature Inventory section recorded on the Maintenance Feature Inventory Work Sheet, which is shown in Figure 4.2.

The form for the summary of inventory quantities for all road sections is shown in Figure 4.3. The inventory quantities are totaled to produce the maintenance feature inventory for a district.

Regional summaries are compiled by Regional Maintenance Management Engineer and national summaries are compiled by the BOM.

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Figure 4.2

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4-6 Philippine Highway Maintenance Management Manual – 2nd Edition

Figure 4.3

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Philippine Highway Maintenance Management Manual – 2nd Edition 4-7

4.6

Annual Updating

Maintenance feature inventories are updated by adding, deleting or revising Work Sheets and making corresponding revisions based on Roads and Bridge Information Application (RBIA).

4.7

Inventory Instructions

Detailed instructions in using the inventory forms for compiling and updating District maintenance feature inventories are included in Appendix D-Maintenance Feature Inventory Instructions.

4.8

Annual Maintenance Work Program/Performance Budget (AMWP/PB)

Work programs and performance budgets are separate entities but are combined into a single presentation to emphasize the concept of planning and identifying work quantities and computing the budget requirements for the resources needed to perform the work program. The two components require the development and use of special planning values.

The work program is expressed in work units, workdays and man-days and is developed as follows: Maintenance Feature Inventory X Quantity Standards = Work Units

Work Units X Average Daily Production = Workdays Workdays X Average Crew Size = Man-days

The performance budget is expressed in pesos required for labor, equipment and material for the number of work days in each activity and summarized to express the total funds required for the work program. The development of the planning values and forms for the two components are described in the following paragraphs.

4.9

Work Program

The annual work program is developed by applying nationwide planning values for quantity standard, average daily production and average crew size to the maintenance feature inventories of each district, region, and the nation. The regional programs will equal the total of its districts and the national program will equal the sum of the regions.

The forms and planning values will be developed and distributed by BOM. The planning values for the work program include:

+ Quantity Standard + Average Daily Production + Average Crew Size

Quantity Standards control the quantity of work planned for each activity for one year and thus establish the level of maintenance service, the quantity of resources and the finances required.

Evaluation of quantity standards must be made annually but adjustments should be based on trends and averages of several years rather that to meet one year reported data.

References

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