Upsc Portal - History

212  Download (0)

Full text

(1)

INDIAN HISTORY

Proto Historic Period : Harappan Script was ideographic, but has not deciphered. On the fortification wall of the recently excavated city Dholavira depiction of Harappan pictographs have been found which the oldest sinage of the world is.

Vedic Literature:

• Veda means knowledge

• Vedic literature includes all the four Vedas, Brahmnas, Aryankas and Upanishadas. • Rigveda is the earliest Veda

• Rig means hymns.

• Rigveda is divided into 10 mandalas.

• Mandalas are further divided in to Astakas and Suktas. • Rigvedas comprises 1028 hymns.

• Total hymns is all vedas are 20,000.

• The last 11 hymns are known Balakhilya (second to seventh mandala are known as Family Text) which are considered as the oldest part of Rigveda.

• Third mandala of Rigveda comprises Gaytri Mantra, composed by Viswamitra. • Gaytri Mantra is dedicated to savitur who was deity of Sun family.

• Fourth Mandala consists of references of agricultural work.

• Sixth mandala depicts the word Haryupia which has been related with Harappa. • Ninth mandala is dedicated to soma.

• First type Krishna's description has been found in Chandogya Upnishad. • Tenth mandala (Purusha Sukta) describes

About the four varnas known as Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and sudra.

• Samanean ‘to Sing’.

• Except 78 hymns all the other hymns of this Veda have been taken from Rigveda. • Yajurveda is an elaborate elucidation of rituals.

• Krishan-yajurveda comprises description in prose.

• Atharvveda is related with some non-Aryan traditions like magical charm and spell. • Brahman literature is descriptive detail about Sacrament, sacrifices and different rites and

rituals.

• Aitreya and Kausitaki Brahman are related with Rigveda.

• Satpath Brahmn related with Yajurveda describes about Aryans extention in the Ganget c valley.

• Rituals related with agriculture have- been also described in it. • Aryankas are philosophical in content.

• Philosophy about the unity of Atma and Parniatma has been described in Upanishadas. • Upanishadas are called Vedanta.

• Total number of Upanishadas is 108. But According to Sankaracharya number of Upanishadas is 16.

(2)

• Katha upnishad describes the story yama and Nachiketa. • Upanisbadas mainly revolves around South and Brahma. • Mandukopanished of Atharva Veda depicts satyamev Jayte. • Rigveda, Samveda and Yayurveda are collectively called Trayee.

Vedang Literature:

1. Sikha (Phonetics) - Yaska is the first known writer on Sikha.

2. Kalpa - (Rituals) - There are three Sutras Dharma, Sraut and Grihya. • Sulva Sutra describes about geometry

Nirukta (Elymology)

Chhanda (Metre) - Pingal was the greatest author on Chhanda Shastra.

Vyakaran (Grammer) - Panini wrote Astadhyayi, Katyayan Vartika and Patanjali- Mahabhasya.

Jyotisha (Astrology) - No particular book on Vedanga Jyotitha is available Great Epics:

1. Ramayan : Elucidation of social ideals of ancient Indian Society.

• 24000, Salokas

• Poet - Valmiki (He is called Adikavi)

• Valmiki for first time used the world Sanskrit as nomenclature of the literary language which was earlier known as Bhasa.

2. Mababharta: Political thought of ancient India can be understood on the basis of this epic.

• 10,0000 slokas (It is called Satsahasri Sainhita and also Pancharu Veda. • Geeta is a part of Bhisma Parva.

• Harivanshapuran of Mahabharat comprises genealogy of the rulers.

Smirti Literature:

1. Manu Smriti is the earliest smriti.

• It was compiled during the period of Kanava ruler. • It calls foreign rulers Adham kula Kshatriya. • It criticises violation of varnasharma order.

• According to it Niyog is Kalivaijya means strictly restricted in kali era.

2. Yajnalkya smriti - first described about the origin of Kaysthas.

3. Narad smriti - describes about rituals related with manumission of seth.

4. Parasar smriti - describes about a number or classes of Brahmanas especially rich class of land owning Brahmanas who were against accepting alms.

(3)

Puranas:

Puranas have five important features.

1. Sarg 2. Pratisarg 3. Vansa 4. Manvantar 5. Varsanucharit

Vansanucharit means geneology

Vayu puran mentions about geography of Indian culture and about prominent Indian dynasties like Nanda, Maurya, Sunga, Satvahana and Gupta.

Srimad bhagvat purana is the. greatest puran in respect to Bhakti cult. Vayu and Vishnu Puran mention India's geography.

Vishnu dharmottara puran depicts about wall paintings and iconometry. Technical and Scientific Literature

Avurveda:

• Ashwini Kumars. were physicians of the celestial world who got the knowledge of Ayurveda from Brahma.

• Dhanvantri is considered as father of Ayurveda system. • Athraveda gives first hand information about Ayurveda.

• Charaka who belonged to kushana period wrote charak samihta.

• Shshurut wrote Shrshrut Samhita which also mentions about surgical operation.

• Vagbhata wrote Astang thidya which mentions about eight major organs of human body.

Veterinary Science:

• Salihanna wrote on Asva Chikitsa. • Palkappya wrote on Gaja chikitsa

Botany:

Vriksha parasar describes about numerous medicinal herbs and plants. Astrology/Astronomy:

• Vedang Jyotisha is considered as the earliest text on astrology as on well as astronomy but it is not available.

• Aryabhatta wrote Surya Sidhantika.

• Varahamihir wrote Pancha Sidhantika, Vrihatjatak, L.aghu Jatak and Vrihat Samhita on astrology.

(4)

Mathematics:

• Sulva Sutra describes about vedic alters.

• This is the earliest text which comprises information on geometry.

• Aryabhatta wrote Arybhattiyam which describes about decimal system and about zero. • Bhaskaracharya wrote Lilavati

Architecture:

• Manual of Architecture is known as Silpa Sastra.

• Earliest information about painting and iconometry is given in Visnudharmottara Purana. • Mayamatta, Ishan Visva gurudeo Padhati and Aparajitpnksha are some of the best known

texts on Indian Architecture.

Biographical Literature:

• Banabhatta - Elarsha Chant (Pushyabhuti ruler of Kanauj). • Vilhan - Vikramanakdevcharitam (Chalukyan ruler of Kalyani) • Anand bhatta - Ballal charita

• Sandhyakarnandi - Rampalcharit • Jayanak - Prithavi Raj Chant • Hem chandra - Kumar Pal Chant • Panmal Gupta - Navshashsanka Chant • Jayagondar - Kalingatupani

• Otakuttan - Kulatingam

Classical Sanskrit:

Bhasa wrote 14 plays (Swapanvasha-duttam and Pratirna Yangandhanaiyan are his most famous plays)

Asvaghosh

1. Buddha Charitam — (Buddha's biography) 2. Saudarananda (Story of Suqdani and Anand) 3. Sutralankar (Philosophical text)

Sudraka Mrichcha Katikam (First realistic play in Sanskrit) Visakhadutta

1. Mudsarakshasa- (It is related with Kautilyals diplomatic strife with Mahamatya of Dhanananda)

2. Devi Chandraguptam (It is related with Chandra Gupta Vikramaditya) 3. Kalidas Epic – Raguvansham

(5)

Lyrics: • Meghadutam • Kumar Sambhvam Plays: 1. Vikramo varsiya 2. Malvikagni mitram 3. Abhijayana Shakuntalam • Bharvi - Kirataijuniyam Magh — Sisupal Vadharn.

Kautilya - Arthasastra

• Book was written on polity.

• This book was discovered by Sham Ji Sastri • It has 15 Adhikaranas

• It describes about Saptang theory of state and enlightened despotism of Maurya period with descriptive detail about administration.

Kamandaka - Nitisar

• It is a commentary on Arthasastra. • It was written during Gupta period

Vrihaspati - Arthasastra

• Duties of an ideal rulers have been described in this text.

Histriography:

1. Kaihan - Rajtarangini I 2. Jon Raj - Rajtarangini II

3. Srivar and Suka - Rajtarangin III Buddhist Literature:

Tripitaka

1. Sutta Pitak - Teachings and preaching of Lord Buddha

2. Vinay Pitak - Monastical rules and regulations/discipline and order. 3. Abhidhamm Pitak - Metaphysical and esoteric ideas

(6)

Sutta Pitak 1. Diggha Nikaya 2. Majjim Nikaya 3. Samyukta Nikaya 4. Anguttara Nikaya 5. Khuddak Nikaya Khuddak Path

1. Dhanima Pad - (This is Known as Bhagvat Geeta of Buddhism)

2. Etivethhka - Buddha teachings Viman Vethu, Peta Vethu, Therigatha and Therigatha are also part of it. Vinay Pitaka: Suta Vibhang • Maha Vibhang • Bhikshunivibhanga Khandaka • Mahavagg • Chulla Vagg Parivar

Note - Milindapanho, written in Paliby Nagsena describes Nagasena’s discourses with Menader. Mahayan

1. Mahayan Sradhotpad Sastra 2. Sumangal vilasini.

3. Vajrayana

a. Manju Sri mul Kalpa b. Guhya Samajtantra Jain Literature: • l2 Angas • 12 Upanga • 10 Prakirnaka • 6 Chhedli Sutra • 4 Mula Sutra

(7)

Acharang Sutra - Monastical discipline

Bhagvatti Suta - Life and teaching of Mahavira LF Nayadhani Kahasutra - Gospel of Mahavira

Tattvarthadigam sutra - This accepted my both Digambura and Svetambara. Churnika - commentary on Angas and Upangas.

Epigraphical Sources:

1. The earliest written records have been found from Harappa, but the script has not been deciphered.

2. James Princep deciphered Ashokan Inscription in 1837.

3. Ashokan inscription’s were written in Prakrit language and. mainly in Brahmi script. 4. Only two of his inscription found from Mansehra and Sahbajagarhi are written in Kharosthi

script.

5. Kandhar inscription of Ashoka has been written in Greek and Arabic a scripts.

6. Mahasthan and Sahgaura inscripiion describe about great famine and help given by the ruler to his starved citizens. Sahgaura Inscription is depicted on copper plate.

7. Maski, Gurjara, Odegolam and Nittur inscriptions of Ashoka describe his name.

8. Only in Bhabru inscription Ashoka has called him self Magadh Raj and a ruler dedicated himself to Budha, Dhamma and Sangha.

9. Dhandeva's inscription of Pusyamitra describe about Asvamegha Yajan performed by him. 10. Helioderus pillar inscription also called Besanagar Garudadhwaj describes about the cult of

Panchvrishtii Veera.

11. Ghosuandi inscription describes about Bhagvat cult.

12. Girnar inscription was first inscription of Sanskrit language about Saka ruler Rudradaman I. 13. Nanaghat inscription of Naganika describes about Satkarmi I.

14. Eran inscription of Bhanugupta provides the first evidence of Sati. 15. Allahabad inscription of Samudra Gupta describes about his conquests. 16. Udaigiri inscription belongs to the period of Chandra Gupta Vikramaditya.

17. Damodar pur, Garhva and Karamdanda inscriptions describe about rules and regulations related with land grant.

18. Bhitari inscription, depicts Sakanda Guptas victory over Hunas.

19. Madhuvan and Vanskhera inscriptions belong to the period of Harsha and have signature of Harsha.

20. Aihole inscription written by Ravikirti depicts the name of Kalidasa. 21. Uttermerur inscription depicts local self government of Chola period.

22. Kudmiyamalaya Polukottai inscription depicts about Indian music and Ragas. Numismatical Sources:

1. Harappans did not use coin. 2. Rigveda mentions Niska griva.

3. Later Vedic literature mention about Satman and Krishanal. 4. Coinage system evolved in 6th cent. B.C.

(8)

5. The earliest coins belong to Magadha and Kosala. 6. The early coins are punch marked.

7. Our earliest coin was made of silver. 8. They have been called Kasarpan.

9. Arthashastra mentions about Pan, masaka and Kakini.

10. Indo-Bacterians introduced in India, gold coins. On their coin the figure of King & Queen and date were found.

11. Coins of Vim Kedphises depict trident symbol of Lord Siva. 12. Kaniska’s coins depicts Buddha’s figure.

13. Kushanas issued purest gold coins in India. Those coin were called Dinaras. 14. Kushans and Kunindas never issued Silver coin.

15. Yaudheyas depicted figure of war lord Kartikeya.

16. First of all on saka coin Indian God Lord Krishna were shown. 17. Samudra Gupta issued Asvamegha type of coins.

18. Chandra (Gupta Vikrarnaditya was the first Gupta ruler who issued silver coin. 19. Kumargupta also issued Asvaniegha type of coins.

20. Samudra Gupta had issued Veenavadak, Vyaghra lanta and Asvarohi types of coins. 21. Satvahana’s never issued gold coin. They issued Silyer, Copper, lead and potin. 22. Only one gold coin of Harsha period has been found.

23. In south India gold coins were known as Pon.

24. In pre-medieval period Gadhaiya coins were in circulation in western India.

25. Huen Tsang mentions that conch and shells were used as means of sale and purchase. 26. Paper Rupees were first issued by Lord Canning (1860 AD).

Language in inscriptions:

1. Brahmi Script (Prakrit Language) Left to right which were found all over Ashoka’s empire. 2. Kharosti Script Which were written right to left found in North-west Mansera and

Sahbajgarhi.

3. Bilingual (Greek and Armait Kandhar and Afganistan.

4. Bustrofedan - were written first right to left then left to write. Found in (Yeragudi) Karnataka.

Ancient India The Harappan Civilization Salient Features:

1. Urban Civilisation

2. Bronze Age Civilisation (Flourished during Circa 2500-2000 B.C.) 3. The largest Civilisation in geographical area of the ancient world. 4. Town-planning and well developed drainage system.

(9)

Origin:

1. Origin lies in various indigenous Pre-Harappan cultures.

2. Indus Civilisation was culmination of a long series of cultural evolution.

3. Emerged out of the farming communities of Sind and Baluchistan, Haryana Oujarat and Rajasthan.

4. Continuous cultural evolution from 6000 BC onwards in North West India which finally culminated in the rise of Indus Civilisation.

Phases of Development:

1. Archaeological excavation & research have revealed phases of cultural development bursting up in the emergence of a full-fledged civilization at Kalibangan, Banavali and Rakhigarhi.

2. Began in Baluchistan & Sind are then extended into the plains.

3. These phases are Pre-Harappan, Early Harappan, Mature Harappan and Late Harappan 4. Extent of Harrappa:- From in North Manda (J & K) to 1600 k.m Daimabad (Maharastra.) in

East Alamgirpur (U.P.) to 1100 K.m Sutkangedor (Bluchistan). Total Area was 12,99,600 Sq. k.m.

5. These phases of cultural evolution are represented by Mehargarh, Amri, Kalibangan and Lothal respectively.

Different Phases and Transformation:

• Pre-Harappan - Mehargarh - nomadic herdsrnen to settled agriculture • Early Harappan - Amri - growth of large villages and towns

• Mature Harappan - Kalibangan - rise of great cities • Late Harappan - Lothal mature as well as decling phase.

Town planning:

Facts on Town Planning 1. Features of Town Planning

• A great uniformity in town planning, the fundamental lay-out of prominent urban settlements exhibits apparent similarities.

• Based on ‘Grid Pattern’: streets and lanes cutting across one another at right angles dividing the city into a number of rectangular blocks. Main streets ran from north to south and were as wide as 30 feet.Streets and lanses were not paved.

2. Entire city complex was bifurcated into two distinct parts: the ‘CITADEL’ a fortified area which housed important civic and religious public buildings including granaries and residences of the ruling class and the ‘LOWER TOWN’, somewhat bigger in area and invariably located east to the former, meant. for commoners. Evidence of fortification of the lower towns as well from a few urban centres like Surkotada and Kalibangan and evidence of division of the city into three parts instead of two from Dhaulvira.

(10)

3. Use of standardized burnt bricks on massive scale in almost all types of constructions (an extraordinary feature of the contemporary civilizations), circular stones were used at Dholavira.

4. Elaborate andplanned underground drainage system. Houses were connected to the main drain equipped with manholes. Mostly made up of bricks with mud mortar.Use of gypsum and lime to make it watertight. Cesspits were there inside the houses to deposit solid waste. Bricks culverts meant for carrying rain and storm water have also been found. Bricks were made in ratio of I 2 4. Size of Bricks - 7 C.m in Thick,

• - 14 C.m Width • - 28 C.m Long.

5. Features of Houses

• Houses were plain and did not exhibit, any refinement and beauty. So far as the decorative value of the houses was concerned, they lacked it. In general they gave plain and un-decorative look.

• An average house comprised a courtyard and four to six rooms, a bedrooms, a kitchen, and a well presence of staircase gives indication of the second storey. Houses had side-entrances and windows were conspicuously absent. Except Lothal, where enterance were on main road and windows were found.

• Houses varied from a single-roomed tenements to houses with a number of rooms and having even a second storey. Floors were generally of beaten earth coated with cowdung. Fire-places were common in rooms. Walls were thick and square holes in them suggest of use of wooden beams. Every house was separated by another by a narrow space of ‘no-man’s land’. Staircases were usually wooden but some made up of burnt bricks have been found too. Roofs were flat. Doors were set in wooden frames and the average width of a door was one metre. Square and rectangular pillars of burnt bricks were used in larger rooms, round pillars were absent. Kitchen was small in size. A round oven meant for baking chappatis has been found.

Art and Craft: Pottery

1. Mainly two types Plain pottery and Red and Black Pottery with decoration, the majority being the former.

2. Widespread use of potter’s wheel made up of wood, use of firing technique, use of kiln. 3. Variety of Pleasing Design — Horizontal strips, Check, Chess-Board Pattern, Interesecting

Circles (Pattern exclusively found), Leaves & Petals, Natural Motif — Birds, Fish, Animals, Plants, Human Figure — Rare (A Man & A Child found from Harappa), Triangles.

4. Pottery had plain bases. Few ring bases have been found.

5. Mainly famous colour of pot was pink. General design was on the red base horizontally black line on pots.

(11)

Seals

1. Seals are the greatest artistic creation of the Harappan people — cutting &polishing craftmanship is excellent.

2. No of seals discovered is approx. 2000

3. Made of steatite (Soft stone), Sometimes of Copper, Shell, Agate, Ivory, Faience, Terracotta. 4. Size— 4 inch to 2Y2 inch.

5. Shape — Square, Rectangular, Button, Cubical, Cylinder, Round 6. Two main types:-

Square — carved animal & inscription, small boss at the back. Rectangular— inscription only, hold on the back to take a cord. 7. Colour — White appearance. Famous colour of seal was green.

8. Displays symbols - Circles, Crosses, Dots, Swastiks, Leaves of the Pipal tree. 9. Most frequently depicted animal - Unicorn

10. Other animals : Elephant, Tiger, Rhino, Antelope, Crocodile. 11. No bird were depicted on Harappan seal.

12. Purpose: Marked ownership of property. Used in applying to bales of merchandise. (Discovery of such seals beside the dockyard of Lothal).

13. Pashupati Seal has been found from Mohanjodaro. It depicts Siva seated on a stool flanked by an elephant, a tiger, a. rhinocerous, a buffalo and two antelopes / goats. Marshall identified it with Proto — Siva.

14. ‘Persian Gulf Seals’ have been discovered from Lothal. Technical Achievements:

• Lost-Wax technique, used for making bronze images. • English Bond method-Bonding system for bricks. • Flemish Bond method-used for making staircases.

• Kiln Bricks — Evidence of Kiln has been found at Rakhigarhi • Water Harvesting System—Dholaveera

• For small measurement binary system and for big measurement decimal system were used in Harappa.

Findings and Evidences

1. Cemeteries ‘H’ & ‘R 37’ Harappa 2. Furrow mark Kalibangan 3. City divided into three parts Dholvira 4. Fragment of Woven cloth Mohanjodaro 5.City without a citadal Chanhudaro 6.Small pot (Probably an ink-pot) Chanhudaro

7. Cities where lower towns were fortified Kalibangan & Surkotada 8. Cities having both proto—Harappan and mature

(12)

Harappan Cultural Phases Kalibangan & Banwali 9. Dockyard Lothal

10.Evidence of Rice Rangpur & Lothal 11.Evidence of Coffin Burial Lothal

12.Remains of Bones of Horse Surkotada

13.Fire altars Kalibangan, Banarvali, Lothal and Rakhigarhi 14. Terracotta Models of ships/ boats Lothal

15. Temple— like structure Mohanjodaro 16. Human skeletons huddled together indicating

violent death/massacre Mohanjodaro 17. Houses having front entrances Lothal 18. Bronze rod/stick with measure marks Lothal 19. Single — roomed barracks Harappa

20. Bronze models of’ikkas’ Harappa, Chandudaro and ‘bullock-carts’

21. Pasupati Mahadev seal

(As said by John Marshall) Mohanjodaro

22. Medical Beliefs, surgery of Lothal & skull Kalibangan 23.Seal depicting Mother Mohanjodaro

Goddess with a plant growing from her womb 24. Painting on a jar resembling the story of the

cunning fox of panchtantra Lothal 25. Harappan game similar to chess Lothal 26.Copper rhinocerous Daimabad 27. Copper chariot Daimabad 28. Copper Elephant Daimabad

29.Devastation by flood Dhanhudaro, Mohanjodaro & Lothal 30. Collegiate building Mohanjodaro

31. Assembly Hall Mohanjodaro

32.Granaries Mohanjodaro & Harappa 33. Steatite figure of a bearded man Mohanjodaro

34. Bronze dancing girl (11.5 cm) Mohanjodaro 35. Cylindrical seals of Gigamesh and

Ekindu Mesopotamian type, three in number Mohanjodaro 36. Warehouse Lothal

37.Granary outside citadel Harappa 38.Working platcform Harappa 39.Sandstone male dancer Harappa 40.Terracotta figurine of a horse Mohanjodaro 41.Absence of mother goddess figurines Rangpur

42.Bead-making factory Chanhudaro & Lothal 43.Absence of seals Alamgirpur

44. Shell-ornament makers factory Chanhudaro, Balakot and Lothal 45. Metal workers factory Chanhudaro & Lothal

(13)

46. Persian Gulf seals Lothal 47. City having a middle town apart from the citadel

and the lower town Dholvira 48. A merchant house Lothal 49. Impressions of cloth on sealing Lothal 50.Six types of pottery Kalibangan 51.Evidence of double burial Lothal 52.Evidence of pot-burial Surkotada 53.Furnace Rakhigarhi 54. Kiln Rakhigarhi 55. Boustro phedon Kalibangan 56. Camel bones Kalibangan 57. Horse skeleton Surkotada 58.Horse teeth Rana Ghundai 59.Regalia Kunal

60. Stone cut water reservoir Dholavira Indus Civilisatlon-General Aspects

Customs and Amusements:

• A good number of toys — Clay Cart, Rattles, Bulls with mobile heads, Monkey with movable arms, Dices, Chessboard.

• Hunting, Fishing, Cock-Fighting.

Cosmetics:

Tweezers, Ear-scoop, Piercer, Antimony rods, Ivory comb, Mirrors, Hair pins, Round buttons, Minor razors, Kohl pots and sticks

Dress and Ornaments:

1. Females were scantily dressed, they wore a short skirt especially figurines of mother Goddess.

2. The male wore a robe, sometimes embroidered. 3. Cotton was used, no evidence of Linen and Silk. 4. No evidence of footwear.

5. Special care of hair, reference of pony-tail, bun and braided hair. 6. Curley hair (clay figure from Mohanjodaro).

7. Beards (not very long), shaven upper lips in the figure of Yogi.

8. Necklaces, Beads, Girdle, Bracelet, Fillets, Finger rings, Bangles, Nose Ornaments, Anklets. Religion:

1. Predominance of Mother Goddess, denotes people’s faith in fertility cult. 2. Male deity — Pasupati Shiva.

(14)

4. Tree worship — Pipal.

5. Fertility Cult — Phallus worship. 6. Nature worship.

7. Amulets and Talisman (Mohanjodaro) 8. Sacred bath — Water Cosmology Burials:

1. Bodies were extended in north-South direction.

2. Cemeteries of Harappa, Mohanjodaro, Lothal, Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi and Ropar located around the outskirts.

3. Three forms of burials — complete burial, Fractional burial and post-cremation burial. 4. General practice was body lying on its back and head to the north.

5. Coffin burial from Harappa.

6. Pot burial from Surkotada (Sacrophagus tradition). 7. Double burial from Lothal.

8. Pit burial from KaIibangan. 9. Cemetety —R-37 (Harappa). 10. Cemetery — (Post Harappan) Weights & Measure:

1. Standard weights and measures, uniformity and accuracy of denominations.

2. Weights were made of a variety of material — state, jasper, chert, alabaster, limestone and quartzile, but main1 polished chert.

3. For larger weights decimal system was used and for smaller ones binary system was followed.

4. The unit weight had the calculated value of 0.8 750 gms, the largest weights was 10970 gms. 5. A few specimens of scales used with the weights appear to be a very ordinary patterns

comprising a bronze bar with suspended copper pens. 6. Broken Ivory were used as a scale in Chanhudaro. 7. Bronze scale was used in Lothal.

Weapons:

1. Mainly offensive weapons were found in Harrappa. 2. Spears, Axes, Arrow-heads.

3. No defensive weapons were found in Harrappa. Crops:

1. Main crops: Wheat & Barley.

2. Others Peas, Rai, Linseed, Mustard, Cotton, Dates. 3. No evidence of sugarcane.

(15)

4. Rice was produced region (Rice husk has been found from Lothal & Rangpur). Animals & Birds:

Elephants, Cats, Dogs, Camels, Asses, Buffalo, Dear, Rhino, Goat, Unicorn, Pigs, Tortoise, Fowls, Ox; Fish, Stag, Antelope, Patridge.

Metals:

Copper, Silver, Gold, Jade, Lapis Lazulli, Lead. Tin, Ingot (Lead+Silver), Electrum (Silver & Gold) Tools:

Needles, Razors, Sickles, Fish-hooks, Saws, Chappers, Spades, Knoves, Chisels, Spoons Professions:

Potters, Copper and Bronze workers, Stone workers, Builders, Brick-makers, Priests, Faience workers, Farmers, Traders.

Rarities:

Rice, Horse, Round Cylindrical seals, Plough, Whetstones. Absence:

Iron, Winows, Tp1e, Fork, Hair dyes, Round columns, Silk fabrics, Swords, Sheilds, Metalic Money, Water closets Brick-Lamps, Footwares, Linen, Wool, Golden finger rings, Indigenous, Gradual decline.

Language & Script:

Yet not deciphered, pictographic or ideographic approximately 450 signs have been listed, written from right from left and left to in alternate lines style known as Boustrophedan, inscriptions are short.

Trade: Evidences

• Sumerian text make a mention of Meluha which is identified with Indus Civilization and two intermediate trading stations Dilmun (Bahrain) and Makan (Makaran Coast).

• Appearance of Indus seals in the Mesopotamian cities of Ur, Kish,Susa, Tell Asmar, Lagash. • Cylindrical seals of Mesopotamian type have been found in Indus valley (Mohanjodaro). • “Persian Gulf Seals” of intermediate trading stations have been discovered from Indus

region (Lothal).

• Discovery of”Reserved slip ware” of Mesopotamian type from Harappa & Lothal.

Internal Trade: With Saurashtra, Maharastra, South India, Rajasthan, ports of western UP. Ports: Port was found in Lothal. This is the first manmade port in the world.

External Trade: With Mesopotamia (Modern Iraq), Persian Gulf region and probably Egypt. Item of Imports: Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin, Lapis Lazuli,-Amethyst, Agate, Jade, Shells.

(16)

Items of Exports

• Agricultural products Wheat, Barley, Peas, Oil Seeds

• Finished Products Cotton goods, Pottery1 Beads, Shells, Terrocotta Products, Ivory Products.

The Vedic (Part -1) Rigvedic Period - l500-l000B.C

Later Vedic Period - 1000-600B.C VEDIC PERIOD (IMPORTANT TERMS)

• Akratuh — People who had no faith in rituals. • Anas — People who didn’t have prominent nose • Apah — Water

• Brahmin — Rituals • Dam - House • Dunitri — daughter • Gana - Tribal militia • Gavisti — war • Godhara — guest • Godhuli—evening

• Gomat — a wealthy person • Gopa (Janasya) — the ruler • Gorasa-milk

• Gosthi — meeting • Gotra- Cow pen

• Gvayuti — measurement of distance

• Mridhvaka — who were not adept in Vedic language • Panch Char Sanyah — Five wandering tribes.

• Pani—people having cattle wealth (traders) • Parjanya — cloud

• Purodasa — Materials used in Yajana • Rayi — Cattle wealth

• Sadam - House • Sala — House

• Sardha — Tribal militia

• Sisandeva—Wroshippers of phallus symbol. • Vayadh — Costumes of a bride.

• Vesmin — House

• Vrata — people who hadnot a well established marriage system or who had incestuous relation.

(17)

Vedic Geography:

Adhavaryn Yajurveda

Anandaka Sadania

Brahma Atharva Veda

Champaran Champararanya Chenab Askini Delhi Indraprastha Deobanda Dritvan Ghaghar Drisdvasti Hakra Sarswati Haryn Saryn Himalaya Himvanta Hota Rigveda Indus Sindhu Jhelum Vilasta Kabul Kubha Magadha Kikatvan Mithila Videh Ravi, Parusani

Ritual Priests Vedas

Saran Nairnisheranya

Sutlej Satudri

‘Udgata Sarnveda

Vyas Vipasa

Vedas and their branches:

Vedas Branches Rigveda Sakal, Vaskal, Asavala, Yan, Sakhayan and mandukeya

Samveda Kauthum and

Ranayaniaya Yajurveda Madhyandin and

(18)

Kanva

Athar Veda Paiplad and Saunak Rigveda:

Mandalas — Poets/Drasta

1. Mandla - Gritsamada

2. Mandla — Viswamiitra (Mandalas from, II to VII are called Family Text.) 3. Mandla - Vamdeo

4. Mandla — Atri 5. Mandla— Bharadvaj 6. Mandla —. Vasistha

7. Mandla — Kand & Angirasa The Word Arya means civilized one. 1 & 10 Mandalas were added later on. References & Evidences,

1 Origin of Indian music Sam Veda

2 Mention of the word ‘Sudra' Rig Veda (10th Mandala)

3 ‘Gayatri Mantra’ Rig Veda

4 Mention of the word ‘Gotra’ Atharva Veda

5 Origin of kingship Aitareya Brahainma

6 ‘Soma’, the intoxicating drink and the god who lends his name to the

drink Rig Veda (9th Mandala)

7 Mention of the word ‘Varna’ Rig Veda

8 Four-fold division of society Rig Veda (10th Mandala)

9 Purusa Shukta Hymn Rig Veda

10 First three ‘ashramas’ (Brahmacharin, Grihastha, Vanaprastha) Chandogya Upanishad 11 Four ashrams (Brahma- charin, Grihastha, Vanaprastha, Samyasin) Jabla Upanishad

12 Doctrine of’Trimurti’ Maitrayani Upanishad

13 Origin of the Universe Rig Veda (10th Mandala)

14 Mention of the ‘Great Flood’ Satpatha Brahamana

15 Samsara (Transmigration of soul) Brahadarankya

Upanishad

16 Kshatriyas Precedence over Brahamanas Atreya Brahamana

(19)

18 Vratyastoma Tandya-Maha- Brahmana

19 Division of India into five parts Aitreya Biahmana

20 Mention of the Divine Horse ‘Dadhikara’ Rig Veda

21 Sabha & Samiti as the twin daughters of Prajapati Atharva Veda

22 Baffle often kings between Sudan and Bhed for the water of Parnsni Rig Veda (VII Mandala)

23 Mention of the easten and western seas Satpatha Brahmana

24 Surdas as the servant of another to be expelled at will and to be slain

at will Atreya Brahmana

25 Ganga Rig Veda (X, Mandala)

26 Sabha as Narishta Atharvaveda

27 Satya Meva Jayate Mundaka Upanishad

Vedic Literature: The Vedas

1. Veda means “to know”.

2. Called “apaurusheya” meaning not created by human beings that means divine.

3. Known as “Shruti” meaning to hear. These have been passed on from one generation to another through verbal transission.

4. They are four in number, (Rig, Sam Yajur and Aharva)

5. They are collection of hymns, prayers, charms and sacrificial formulae.

6. The “rishis” to whom these books are ascribed are known as “Mantradrashta” meaning enlightened saints who received the hymns directly from the supreme creator.

Factual Aspects: Rig Veda

1. Collection of Hymns 2. Oldest of all the vedas 3. Contains 1017 Suktas

4. Contains 11 Balakhilya, that makes the total no. of Suktas 1028. 5. Contains 10 ‘Mandals’

6. The oldest Mandalas are II, III, IV, V, VI and VII known as family books on acount of their composition being described to various families of sages.

7. The mandalas II to VII are ascribed to Gritsamada Viswamitr.a, Vamadeva, Arti, Bhardwaja and Vasistha.

8. The latest mandalas are I, VIII, IX and X.

(20)

10. BrahrnanasofRigveda Aiterya Bralvnana Sankbayana Brahmana 11. Upanishads of Rigveda Aitareya Upanishads Kaushitaaki Upanishad

Priest related to Rigveda — Kotri or Motri Upveda of Rigveda is - Ayurveda. Yajur Veda:

1. Collection of rituals for performing different sacrifices. 2. Recited by the priests known as Adhavarm

3. Consists of 40 chapters. 4. The only veda party in prose.

5. Divided into two parts Krishna/Black Yajurveda (commentary in prose) and Suklal White Yajurved (sacrificial formulae and rituals).

6. Brahmanas of Yajurveda

7. Tattiriya Brahmana — Related with Krishna Yayurveda. 8. Satpatha Brahmana — Related with Sukta Yajurveda. 9. The lengthiest of all the Brahmanas.

10. The most important of all the Brahmanas. 11. Upanishads of Yajurveda

• Tattiriya Upnishad

• Brihadaranyaka Upanishad is the largest one • Kathad Upanishad- describes story of Nachiketa. • Isa Upanishads

• Sveiasvatara Upanishad

• Upveda of Yayurveda - Dhanurveda. • Related priest-. Adhwariyu.

Sam Veda:

1. Collections of hymns taken from the Rig Veda and set to tunes for the purpose of singing. 2. Only 75 hymns are original.

3. Known as the ‘Book of chants’.

4. Hymns are meant for singing at Soma sacrifices

5. Sung by a particular type of priests known as Udgatari. 6. Consists of 1810 (1549, omitting the repetitions) 7. Brahmanas

(21)

8. Upanlshads

• Chanddogya Upanishad describes about Lord Krishana 9. Kena upanishad/Talavakara Upanishad.

10. Upveda of Samveda is Gandhaveda. The Atharva Veda:

1. Collection of charms, magic and spells.

2. Preserves many popular cults and superstitions, contains non-Aryan elements (folk elements).

3. Belongs to Saunakiya & Paipalado schools. 4. Contains 711/731/760 hymns.

5. Contains 20 Kandas or books.

6. The Knadas 18, 19 and 20 are later additions.

7. The hymns are meant for warding off evils & demons, winning over friends aid gain material success. No Brahmanan belongs to Atharvaveda.

8. Upanishads of Atharvaveda

• Mundaka Upanishad-mentions ‘Stya Mev Jayate’. • Prasana Upanishad

• Mandtkya Upanishad

• Upveda of Atharvaveda — Shilpveda.

The Brahmanas:

1. Elaborate prose texts.

2. Contain explanation of the hymns, prayers, charms and sacrificial, formulae. 3. A kind of theology and philosophy of the Brahmanas (the priestly class).

4. Satapath Brahman is the most famous Brahman. It describes the story of videh madhau and agricultural rituals.

The Aranyaka

1. Literal meaning is forest. 2. Known as forest books.

3. Deal with mysticism, moral values and philosophical doctrines. 4. Meant for the ascetics and hermits living in the forests.

5. Give emphasis on meditation.

6. Opposed to sacrifices, formulae and rituas.’ 7. The most famous Aranyaka is vrihadaranyaka. The Upanishads

1. Literal meaning to sect under the fact of the teacher mean to learn. 2. Deal with philosophy, metaphysics

(22)

3. Known as “vedanta” meaning the end of the vedas” for they denote the last phase of the vedic period and reveal the ultimate aim of the vedas.

4. They are 108 in number

5. Upanishadas mainly describe about the Atina and Parmatma and about Salvation. 6. The earliest upanishads are “Brihadaranyaka” and “Chanddogya” written in prose. 7. The later upanishads like “Katha” and “Svetasvatara” are written in verse, form. 8. The pivot of their philosophy is realization of “Brahman”, as the ultimate reality of the

universe and the recognition that the individual soul is identical with that and attainment of salvation in this recognition.

9. Advocates salvation through knowledge (Jayan Marga) / realisation rather than works or faith.

SAMSKARAS AND RITES DURING THE VEDIC PERIOD Pancha-Mahayajanas (Five great daily sacrifices)

1. Dev yajan (to the God) 2. Bhut (to animals) 3. Nriyajan (to men) 4. Risi yajan (to Saifls) 5. Pitri Yajan (Fore fathers) SACRAMENTS

Agnihotra Daily oblation in sacred fire

Agnyadheya Ritual for the establishment of the scared fire in house Garbhadhana Ceremony to cause conception

Pumsavana To secure the birth of a male child.

Simantonnayana Ceremony to ensure the safety of the child in womb. Jatakarman Ceremony for the newborn child

Niskramana Ceremony of taking the child out of the house and showing of the sun. Namakarana Ceremony of naming the child

Annaprasana Ceremony of the first feeding of the child with solid food in the sixth month Cudakarma Tonsure of the child, saving his scalp, leaving only a top knot.

Upanayana Ceremony of invitation, the child enters life of a student. Diksharamban Learning of Alphabet

Kesant The second tonsuring after the age 13-14

(Korrarn), Kubha (Kabul) and Suvastu (Svat) and eastern tributaries the five rivers of Punjab besides the valleys of Saraswati and Drishadvati corresponding to Eastern Afghanistan and West & East Punjab.

(23)

• No Knowledge of sea:

• Knowledge of the Himalayas. (Hlmvant) • Ninth Mandal describes about Mujavant

Later Vedic Period

• Satpatha Brahmn describes the story of Videh

• Madhav who reached to the bank of Sadanira (Gandak). • Expansion to parts of eastern Rajasthan, eastern UP and Bihar • Knowledge of Gangetic Valleys

• Knowledge of some more rivers like Narmada, Ganga, Gandak, Chamba. • Mention of Seas.

• Mention of the Vindhyas.

SOME OLD NAMES OF THE RIVERS • Askini—Chenab • Parusani — Ravi • Satudn—Satluj • Sindhu—Lndus • Vipasa—Vyas • Vitasta—Jhelum Six Vedangas:

The Vedangas were considered important for understanding Vedas but they are not included in vedic literature.

A. Siksha - Phonetics/Pronunciation, Yaska wrote Siksha Sastra. B. Chhandas - Metre (Pingal wrote Chhanda Sastra)

C. Vyakarana - Grammer, Panini wrote Astadhyayi D. Nirukta - Etymology (Explanation of words).

E. Jyotisha - Astronmy, No text is available on vedanga Jyotisa.

F. Kalpa - Sacrificial rituals - Dharm Sutra, Sraut Sutra, Grihya Sutra, (Sutra depicts about geometry).

The first two were required for reading the vedas, the third and fourth for understanding the vedas and the fifth and the sixth for the implementation of the sacrifice.

Four Upavedas

a. Dhanurveda - Archery/Warfare b. Gandharvaveda - Music

c. Shilpaveda - sculpture/Architecture d. Ayurveda - Medicine/Life

(24)

Important Terms In Vedic Period

1. Akratuh — People who had no faith in rituals. 2. Anas—People who didnt have prominent nose 3. Apah — Water 4. Askini — Chenab 5. Brahman — Rituals, 6. Champararanya — Champaran 7. Dam - House 8. Drisdvasti — Ghaghghar 9. Duaitvan — Deobanda 10. Duhitri —daughter 11. Gana - Tribal militia 12. Gavisti — war for Cow. 13. Godhana — guest

14. Gomat — a wealthy person 15. Gopa (Janasya) — the ruler 16. Gorasa—milk

17. Gosthi — meeting 18. Gotra- Cow pen

19. Gavayuti — measurement of distance 20. Himvanta — Himalaya

21. Godhuli — evening 22. Indraprastha — Delhi 23. Kikatvan — Magadha 24. Kubha Kabul

25. Mridhvaka — who were not adept in Vedic language 26. Naimisharanya — Saran

27. Panch Char Sanyah — Five wandering tribes. 28. Pani — people having cattle wealth (traders) 29. Parjanya—cloud

30. Parusani — Ravi

31. Purodasa — Materials used in Yajana 32. Rayi — Cattle wealth

33. Sadam — House 34. Sadanira - Gandak 35. Sala—House

36. Sardha — Tribal militia 37. Sarswati-Halcra

38. Saiyu-Haiyu 39. Satudri — Sutlej 40. SifldhuIndus

41. Sisandeva — Wroshippers of phallus symbol. 42. Vayudh — Costumes of a bride.

(25)

43. Vesmin — House 44. Videh — Mithila 45. Vipasa — Vyas 46. Vitasta - Jhelurn

47. Vrata — people who hadnot a well established mathage system or who had incestuous relation.

48. Vrata - Tribal militia Vedas — Ritual Priests

1. Rigveda — Hota 2. Samveda — udgata 3. Yjurveda — Adhavaryn 4. Atharva Veda — Brahma VEDAS AND THEIR BRANCHES

Vedas Branches

Rigveda Sakal, Vaskal, Asavalayan, Sakhayan and mandukeya Samveda Kauthum and R.anayaniaya

Yajurveda Madhyandin andKanva Athar Veda Paiplad and Saunak Rigvedic Pantheon

Aditi Mother of gods

Agni Jatvedasa

Apsara Celestial damsls.

Apah Water god

Aryaman God of marriage and contact Brahmaspati Power inherent in vedic mantra

Diti Mother of demons

Gojat Devata Gods of animal orign

Indra Purandbar (270 Sukla)

Purbhida

Manyu Mind (god related with mind/ conscience) (Abstract deity)

Maruta Wind God

Parjanya Water god

(26)

Ribhu Dwarfs (Craftinen)

Rudra Srestha Bhisag Pasupa

Sarswati Terrestial goddess river Sarswati)

Soma Potent herb (9th mandal)

Sradha Dedication (Abstract deity)

Surya

Aditya (Eight Aditya Gane)

• Savitur God of down and dusk • Surya—Daughter of surya

• Ashwini Kumar. — Physicians of the heavenly world. • Usha — Daughter of Surya

Tavastra Vedic vukan god

Varun

Ritsyagopa Astir Roja

Vidyadhar Celestial dancers

Vishnu Urugai Trivikram Gavendra Rigveda I. MANDALAS - POETS/DRASTA

II. Mandla - Gritsamada Note - 2 to 7th (Mandalas arc called Family Text.) III. Mandla — Visvamitra

IV. Mandla — Vamdeo V. Mandla - Atri

VI. Mandla— Bharadvaj VII. Mandla — Vasistha

(27)
(28)

Aryan Priests

1. Hotri - Invoker, priest well-versed in the Rigveda. 2. Udgatri - Chantor, priest well-versed in the Samveda.

3. Adhavaryu - Performer of Yajna, priest wellversed in Yajurveda. 4. Brahma - Atharva Veda.

5. Ritvik - Supervised the whole sacrifice. Deities belonging to various planes

1. Terrestrial deities - Agni, Soma, Prithvi, Saraswati.

2. Atmospheric deities - Indra, Rundra, Vayu, Marut, Parjanya

3. Celestial deities - Surya, Usha, Vishnu, Varuna, Savitr, Dyaus, Asvins, Mitra, Pushan. PAINTED GREY WARE (1000 B.C. TO 600 B.C.)

Characteristics

1. Wheel made Sturdy pottery related with Later Vedic Age, 2. Out of well lavigated clay with thin core.

3. Smooth surface.

4. Grey to ash-grey in colour.

5. Painted in black and sometimes in a deepchocolate colour on the outet as well as inner surface.

6. It has nearly 42 designs and the most common types are bowls and dishes. 7. Important sites — Ahichhatra, Rupar, Bhagwanpur, Noh, Alamgirpur, Hastinapür,

Afranjikhera, Jakhera, Mathura, Panipat, Purana, Qua, Bairat, Sonepat, Jodhpura, Sravasti Original home of the Aryans: Viewpoints

1. Sapta Sindhu Region - A.C.Das

2. Sapta Sindhu Region - Sampumanand 3. Central Asia - Max Mullar

4. Arctic Region - B.G.Tilak 5. Tibet - Dayanand Saraswati 6. Bacteria - Rhode

7. Madhya Pradesh - Raj Bali Pandey

8. Russian steppes, north of Black Sea - Benfey 9. Central and Western Germany - Geiger 10. Brahamharshi Desh - Ganga Nath Tha

11. Austria, Hungary P.Giles and and Bonemia - Macdonald 12. Foot of Himalayas - Pandit Laxmidhar Shastri

13. German Plains - Prof. Penka Territorial Divisions

1. Brahmavarta Region between Sutlej and yamuna (the area of earliest Aryan settlement). 2. Dhruvmadhyamandis Region between the saraswati and the ganga literally means “firm

middle country" (area of settlement in the later Vedic age). 3. Aryavarta Northern India.

(29)

4. Madhyadesa Central India. 5. Dakshinapatha Southern India.

6. Brahmarshi Desa The western part of the central India. 7. Littarapatha (Udichya) North-West India

8. Aparanta (Pratichya) Western India 9. Purvadesa (Prachya) Eastern India 10. Tamilakam The Tamil country

Twelve Ratnins political functionaries who formed a king of kings council in the Later Vedic Period. Some of them were recruited from the non-Aryans also. Out of a twelve ratnins, three happened to be women. The following is the list of ratnin:

Purohita, Rajnya, Mahisi, Parityaktiri, Senani, Suta, Gramini, Kshta, Samgrahitr, Bhagadugha, Aksavapa, Govikarta.

The Vedic (Part -2) RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY

Philosophical schools Nastik - Athestic Astik — Thestic Nastik - (a) Carvak - (b) Jainism - (c) Buddhism -

SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY CHIEF EXPOUNDER Astik -

(a) Sankhya - Kapil (b) Yoga - Patanjali (c) Nyayay - Gautam (d) Vaisesika - Kannad (e) Mimansa - Jaimini

(f) Vedant - Bhadrayan and Shankaracharya UNORTHODOX RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS

Early Buddhist texts speak of six foremost opponents of Lord Buddha who were (1) Ajit Kesh Kamblin - (Believed in Materialsm)

(2) Maskari Gosal - (Founder of Ajivaka sect) (3) Puran Kasyap - Atomist)

(4) Pakudh Katyayam - (Believed in fatalism)

(5) Sanjay Vethaliputta - (Believed in materialismsynicism) (6) Niggantha Nathputta - (He was Bhagvan Mahavir Charvak

This school of philosophy is also known as Lokayat. According to this philosophy there is no Law of Karman and no rebirth. There is no conscious entity like soul. It also promulgated that death is the only end.

(30)

Jainism

This school of philosophy is based on the teachings of Parsvanath and Mahavira. The doctrine of Jainism is known as Anekantvad. Jaina doctrine is also called Syadvad. This school of thought recognises five sources and kinds of knowledge. These are Mati (sense-perception), Sruti

(intelligible symbols), Awadhi (knowledge acquired through supernormal means), Manahprayay (telepathy) and Kevalya (Omniscience). Jainas also believe that Jivas are infinite in number. Bhagvatism

Chandogya upanishad depicts about Lord Krishna.

• Sutra of Panini speaks of Lord Krishna and Krishna was disciple of Ghora Angirasa. • Bhagvatisrn is known as Satvat, Eknatika Dharma;

• This believes in the worship of Panchavrishni Veers named Bairama, Krishan, Pradyaman, Samb and Anirudha.

• Samb introduced Sun worship in India.

• Nagri, Ghosundi and Besa nagar inscriptions depict about this cult. • Later on it was known as Vaishnavism.

• The philosophy of this cult is called Bhakti that means complete surrenderence to God. • Follower of Krishna were known as Bhagwat.

• Follower of Narayan were known.as Vaishnav his cult.

In South India this cult was promulgated by Vaishnav saints called Alvars. There were eleven great Alvars. There devotional anthologies are of great fame. The best one is known as Halaroyam Which was composed by Wamalvar.

Buddhism

Buddha’s four noble truths are called Aryasatya. These are (1) Dukha - (World is full of miseries).

(2) Sukha Smudya - (Causes of miseries). (3) Dukh Nirodh - (Miseries can be checked).

(4) Dukh Nirodha Gamini Pratipada - (Eight fold path). Eight Fold Path (Astangik Marg)

Right Faith (Samyak Dristi) Right Resolve (Samyak Sankalp) Right Speech (Samyak Vak)

EVENT SYMBOL

Birth Lotus and Bull

Great renunciation Horse

First Sermon Dharmachakra or wheel

Nirvana Bodhi tree

Pararinivana or Death Stupa.

(31)

Right Action (Samyak Action) Right Living (Samyak Ajiv) Right Effort (Samyak Vyayam) Right Thought (Samyak Smriti)

Right Concentration (Samyak Concentration)

Buddhism believes in Law of Karman operating in this life and next. In this regard Buddha also talked about twelve-linked chain of causation. (Dvadas Nidan).

Other schools of Buddhist Thought

1. Vaibhasik of Vijanvada — Entire world is mental in structure. Ideas of the mind are the stuff of the world and the entire world originates from Alyavijana (Cosmic-consciousness) Asvaghosh was the most renowned leader of this school.

2. Madhyamika (Sunyavad) — There is nothing real in this world Ngaup was the chief exponent of this school.

Astika

1. Sankhya: It is a kind of dualistic ontology. It believes in two ultimate realities Prakrit and Purusa. Prakrit is made of a triad of fundamental attributes (Gunas) called Sattva, Rayas and Tamas. Purusa is pure consciousness.

2. Yoga System : It is applied Samkhya. It has devised a systematic method of bringing about the release of Purusa from Prakriti through mental mechanism.

3. Nyaya : It considers God as the creator who is free from Law of Karman. God is a soul and his wisdom, desire and effort are unbounded. Nyaya makes a detailed study of the sources of knowledge (Praman)

4. Valsesika : When the atoms of five basic elements begin to combine the creation of the world begins. Creation and dissolution of the world go on in cycles.

5. Mimansa : It is a philosophy of interpretation, application, and use of truths of Samhita and Brahmanas portions of the vedas. It has devised certain principles according to which the vedic mantras and their application in the field of sacrifies could be understood.

6. Vedant : According to this philosophy Atman and Parmatman are same. Partmatman is the ultimate reality and the whole world is an illusion (Maya). The whole philosophical thinking of this school is based on Upthiisahd, Bhagwatgeeta and Brahamsastra of Bhadrayan, called Prasthantrayi. Buddhism

• Buddha was born at Lumbanivan in 563 B.C. • His father was the king of Kapilvastu.

• He belonged to the clan of Sakyas, so he is called Sakyamuni and also Sirnha Sakya. • Yasodhara was his wife and Rahul was his son.

• Buddha renunciated the wordly life when he was 29 years old.

• He meditated at Uruvela. There he got Nirvan. This place was later on known as Bodh Gaya. • Buddha gave his first sermon at lsipatan, i.e. modern Sarnath.

• Bimbisar and Ajatsatru were his contemporary ruler of Magadh. • Prasenjit of Khosla was also his contemporary.

(32)

• Anath Pindak donated him jetvan at Sravasti.

• Gautami was the first woman who joined the Sangha. • Anand and Upali were his twomost eminent disciples. • Buddha got his Mahaparinirvan at Kusinara.

Important Seats of Buddhism

1. Sthavirvadi — Only ten people can get Buddhahood. 2. Mahasanghika — Every one can get Buddhahood.

3. Sautantrik — They wrote their texts in Sanskrit language. 4. Sammitiyas — They believed in Atma (Soul)

5. Hinyana — Buddha was only a great saint. 6. Mahayana— Buddha was a great incarnation.

7. Yogachar (Vijanvad) —They believed in Yoga and called it vijan.

8. Sunyavad — There is nothing real in this world. It was also known as Madhyamika sect. 9. Vajrayan — It believed in Tantra.

SECTSFOUNDERS

1. Theravada - Mahakatyayam 2. Mahasanghika - Mahakashyapa 3. Sarvastivadin - Rahul bhadra 4. Mahayan - Vasumitra

5. Yogachar - Asang / Varusandhu 6. Sunyavad - Nagarjuna

BUDDHIST TEXTS Pitak-

(1) Sut Teachings of Buddha (2) Vinay Discipline and order

(3) Abhidhamma Esoteric Philosophy

(1) Khuddak Nikaya of Sut Pikak has 15 tents.

a. Dhammapad It is known as Bhagvatgita of Buddhism.

b. Jatak This is collection of 550 stories of the previous births of Buddha. (2) Vinay Pitak has three parts known as Parivar, Khandak and Vibhanga. (3) Mahavibhasa sutra was written by Vammitra.

(4) Guhya Samaj Tantra and Manju Sn Miii Kalpa are the texts of Vajrayan. Jainism

(33)

• 23 Trithankar was Parsavanath. He was the son of the king of Kasi. He was a historical figure.

• Mahavira was born in the family of Jantrika.

• Yasodawas his wife and Priyadarsa was his daughter. • Herennounced the family life when he was 30 years old. • He got Kaivalya at Jrimbhakgram.

• His disciples were called Ganadhara.

• Sudharman became the head of the Jam sangha after him.

JAIN TEXTS • 12 Angas • 12 Upanga • 10 Prakrinaka • 6 Bhedsutra • 4Sutra

• Churnika was commentary • Way to Nirvana (Three Ratna) • Right faith (Samyak Vishwas) • Right knowledge (Samyak Gyan)

• Right conduct (Samyak Karma) Various Heterodox Philosophies

NIYATIVADA

• Third religious chief was Makhkhali Putta Gosal (supposed to be the real founder who popularised it).

• Followers are known as Ajivikas.

• Main profession was fortune telling and Astrology.

• Philosophy is based on Niyati (Destiny) which means everything in the world is predetermined.

• Makhkhali Gosala was a companion of Mahavira and this sect had a lot in common with Jainism.

• Bindusar was disciple of Ajivikas.

• Practised complete nudity and rigorous practices.

• Ashoka donated Barabar cvend king Dhasarath donated Nagarjuni cave to Ajivikas.

Materialism

• Developed by_Brihpor Charvaka.

• Followers are known as Charvakas or Lokyatas.

• Believed that nothing existed which could not be understood by five senses. • Believed that earth, water, fire and air are the only elements.

• Believed that death was ultimate and everything ended after death. • Believed that there was no soul, no god, no rebirth, no karm—’

(34)

Akriyavad/Antinomism

• Founder was Purana Kasyapa (a brahmin of Kasyapa gotra). • Believed in the doctrine or non-action.

• Believed that action did not lead to either merit or demerit.

Akrittavada /Aagasvatavad/Anunada • Founder was Pakuda Katyayana.

Unhchedavada /Jarvada /Annihilationism

• Founder Ajita Keshakamblin (meaning with the hair blanket) • Believed in materialistic philosophy.

• Ajita was the earliest propounder of materialism

Bhagvatism

Facts about Bhagvatism

1. Religion based on the idea of a supreme God Han or Narayan or Vishnu (later known as Vaishvanism).

2. Main philosophy is Bhakti, complete surrender of self to God and salvation through his prasada.

3. Did not believe in sacrifice and slaughter of animals.

4. Rise in west among the tribe satvatas (a branch of yadavas) in Mathura region. 5. Vasudeva-Krishna of Vrishni race was the chief God who discussed its philosophy in

Bhagvad — Gita

6. Vasudeva— Krishna was the disciple of Ghora Agnirasa.

7. Bhagvat—Gita gives amphasis on one’s wordly duties as dharma. 8. Magasthenes refers to Krishna as Herakies of Sourseni tribe. 9. Ten awatares • Matsya (Fish) Kurma (Tortoise) Varaha (Bear) Narsimha (man-lion) Vamana (Dwarf)

Parasurama (Rama with the axe) Rama

Krishna Buddha

Kalkin (As a man on a white horse with a sword in his hand, the awatara yet to come in Kaliyuga).

(35)

10. The earliest reference to Krishna is found in Chhandogya Upanishad. Here he is represented as pupil of Ghora Angirasa and son of Deviki.

11. The reference of Vasu4eva is found in Panini’s Astyaohyagi and Patanjali’s Mahabhashya. 12. The Besnagar Pillar inscription is associated with Heliodorus son of Dion and a native of Taxila, and ambassador from the court of the Indo-Greek king Antialkidas to King Bhagabhadra (Sungas) who erected a garduadhwaj at Besnagar and claimed himself a Param-Bhagvata.

13. Pancharatra (of five nights), a vaishnavite school gave the doctrine of Vyuha (emanations) according to which Sankarsana (aftother name of Bulrama) Pradyumna (Krishna’s Son) and Aniruddha (Krishna’s grand son) emerged out of Vasudeva.

14. Developed and popularised in South by twelve saints known as Alvars. 15. Total No. of Nayanar saints was 63 and they were shaiv.

• Tirumurai which is consider as fifth veda in which the preaching of Aiwar and Naynar saint were compiled in 11 volumes.

Saivism

Facts about Saivism

1. Developed around the concept of Siva associated with the vedic god Rudra.

2. Wema Kadphises, the Kushana king adopted salvism and depicted ‘he figure of siva with trident and Nandi on the reverse of his coins.

3. Developed and popularised in south India around 500 A.D. by the saints Nayanars, 63 in number.

4. The sacred literature of the Saivas is known as Saivagama.

5. The God Shiva ismentioned by different names namely Ishwara, Mahadev, Mahesvara, Shankara, Bholenath.

6. The collection of the songs of 63 Nayanars is knows as Tevaram stotras and is in Tamil. It is also known as Dravida - veda.

7. Agmas, 18 in number and said to have been composed by the various aspects of Siva himself are the greatest work in salvism.

8. Various forms of siva:

Nataraja — Lord of dance, invented 108 forms of dances, tandava, a fierce dance is one of them.

Dakshinamurti — A God south-facing.

Ardhanariswara — Haif-siva and haifparvati representing the union of God with his sakti. 9. In South India, daughter of a Pandayan king named Minakshi is associated with Siva as his spouse and the Minakshi temple of Madurai had been constructed to celebrate the event of marriage of Siva with Minakshi.

(36)

Various sects of Salvism

Pasupatas / Naku1isapasupatas

• Founded by Lakulisa / Nakulisa I Lakulin /Lakutin

Kalmukhas /Kapalikas

• Extreme forms of Saivism Mattamayuras • Moderate form of Saivism

• Developed in central India.

Virasaivas /Lingayats

• Founded by Basava, the prime minister of

Bijjala, the Kalachuri king.

• Popular in Kamataka region.

Kashmir Saivism Pratyabhijna

• Founder is Vasugupta (800-900 AD) • Moderate form of Saivism.

Spanda — sastra

• Founders are Kallata and Somananda the two desciples of Vasugupta • Moderate form of Saivism

• Believes in spitirual development

Agmantas

• Greatest exponent was Aghora Sivacharya (1200 AD).

Facts about Buddhism

Life of Siddhartha (Gautam Buddha)

1. Title Buddha, Sakyarnuni,

Tathagata

2. Birth Place

Lumbini (Modern Rumindel /Rupan—Delhi) in Kapilvastu (Piparwaha)

(37)

3. Birth Year 563 BC

4. Clan Sakya

5. Class Caste Kshatriya

6. Gotra Name Gautama (Gotama in Pali)

7. Foster Mother Mahaprajapati Gautami

8. Wife

Bhadda Kanchana,

Subhadraka, Bimba, Gopa, Yasodhara

9. Cousin Devadutta

10.Son Rahul

11.Horse Kanthaka

12.Charioteer Channa

13.Teachers under whose guidance Sidhartha remain

for quite some time before he attained enlightenment

Alara Kama & Ruddaka Ramaputta

14. Got enlighten- ment at Uruvela (modern Bodh Gaya) on thebank of the river Niranjana

15.Got enlightenment under the tree Pipal (known as Bodhitree) 16.Delivered, first sermon at Deer Park in Sarnath (Isipatna)

17.Death (year 483 BC at the age of 80

yrs

18.Death (Place)

Kushinagar (Kushinara) in U.P., capital of the Mallas

19. Birth, Enlightenment & Death Vaishakha Purnima (Full Moon day 20.Preached most of his sermons at Sravasti

FOUR NOBLE TRUTH / CATTARIARIYASACCANI 1. Sorrow (dukkha) — The world is full of sorrow 2. The cause of sorrow (dukkha samudaya) / is desire 3. Cessation of sorrow (dukkha— nirodha)

4. The path leading to the cessation of sorrow (dukkha — nirodhagamini pratipada) is Ashtangikamarga

(38)

Eight Fold Paths /Ashtangika Marg

1. Right belief/observation /views (Samnia — Ditthi) — Understanding that desire is the cause of sorrow and the ending of it will lead to the liberation of the soul.

2. Right thought / determination / resolve (Samma — Sankappa) — Avoiding the enjoyment of the senses and luxury & to love humanity & increase the happiness of others.

3. Right speech (Samma — Vaka) — Always tell truth.

4. Right action/effort (Samma — Kammanta) — Unselfish action.

5. Right means of livelihood (Samma — Ajiva) — Man should live by honest means.

6. Right endeavour/conduct (Samma — Vayamma) — Proper way of controlling senses for preventing bad thoughts through correct mental exercises that one can destroy desire & attachment.

7. Right recollection /memory (Samma — Sati) — Emphasises the meditation for the removal of wordly evils.

8. Rightmeditation (Samma— Samadhi)—leads to peace. Buddhist order (Sangha)

1. Provisions of the membership

• No caste restriction

• Slaves, soldiers, debtors and other persons under obligation were not to enter it without the permission of their superior.

• Criminals, leapers and persons affected by infectious diseases were not given admission into it.

• On the repeated requests of the chief disciple of Buddha Ananda and his foster mother Mahaprajapatl Gotami, admitted the women in Sangha.

1. His foster mother Gautami became the first woman to join the Sangha.

2. During the four months of the rainy season the monks look up a fixed abode and meditated. Three Jewels in Buddhism

• Buddha (Enlightened one) • Dhamma (Doctrine) • Sangha (Order)

Symbols Signifying Different Events of Buddha‘s Life • Birth - Lotus & Bull

• Renunciation - Horse • Enlightenment - Bodhi tree • First Sermon - Wheel • Death - Stupa

(39)

Four Great Events in the life of Buddha i. Mahabhiniskarman - Renunciation ii. Nirvana - Enlightment

iii. Dhammachakaparivartan - First sermon iv. Mahaparinirvana or Parinirvana - Death

Name of Famous Buddhist Scholars

Upali, Ananda, Vasumitra, Asvaghosha, Sabakamik, Moggaliputta Tissa, Nagarjuna, Buddhaghosha, Asanga, Buddhapalita, Bhavaviveka, Dinnaga, Chandrakirti, Sthrimati, Dhammapala, Aryadeva, Santideva, Santaraksita, Kamalasila. Dharmakirti.

Five Buddhas in Buddhist Tradition

Krakucchnada, Kanakamuni, Kasyapa, Sakyamuni And Maltreya (Yet to Come) Four Signs in Buddhism

1. Oldman 2. Sick man 3. Corpse 4. Saint

(40)

Buddhist Councils I. First Council

1. Year—483B.C.

2. Place — Saptparni Cave (Near Rajagriha) 3. Over By - Mahakassapa Upali

4. Under - Ajatsatru

5. Purpose — To compile the Buddhist scriptures 6. Outcome

All the teachings of Buddha were divided into two pitakas Vinaya Pitaka— established under the leadership of Upali Sutta Pitaka — settled under the leadership of Ananda II. Second Council

1. Year-383B.C. 2. Place — Vaisali

3. Presided over by— Saba Kami 4. Under — Kalasoka / Kankavarmin

5. Purpose — To settle down the dispute between the two opposing groups monks of Vaishali and Patliputra and monks of Kausambi and Avanti regarding the code of discipline.

6. Outcome

The council failed to brag about a compromise between the two opposing groups. The council ended in a permanent split of the Buddhist order into Sthaviravadins and

Mahasangikas. III. Third Council

1. Year—237 Bc 2. Place — Patliputra

3. Presided Over By - Mogali Putta Tissa 4. Under — Ashoka

5. Purpose — To Revise the Scriptures 6. Outcome

The Philosophical interpretations of the doctrines of Buddha were collected into third Pitaka called Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Heretical monks numbering sixty thousand were expelled from the order IV Fourth Council

(41)

2. Place — Kundalavana In Kashmir 3. Presided over by — Vasumitra 4. Under — Kanishica.

5. Purpose — To settle the disputed doctrines 6. Outcome —Rise of Mahayana and Hinanyana

Compiled commentaries (Upadesa Sastras & Vibhasa Sastra) of the three pitakas.

Decided certain controversial questions of differences that arose between the sarvastivada teacher of Kashmir and Gandhara.

Kings who gave Patronage To Buddhism

Bimbisara, Ajatastru (Magadha), Prasenjita (Kosala), Udayana (Kausambi), Ashoka, Menander, Kadphises, Harsha, Kanishka, Dharampala, Kujula. Famous Buddhist Centres (1) Bharhut (2) Sanchi (3) Sarnath (4) Bodhgaya (5) Nalanda (6) Purushapura (7)Taxila (8) Mathura (9) Amarvati (10) Karle (11) Kanheri (12) Nagarjunkonda (13) Odantpuri.

Schools of Buddhism 1. Mahasanghikas

2. Sthavlravadin / Theravada 3. Sarvastivadin

4. Mahayana

Believed in the divinity of the Buddhas

Worshipped the images of several Buddhas and Bodhistavas. “Sanskrit” became the language of preaching and teaching.

It had two chief philosophical schools, the Madhyamika and the Yogachara.

Prominent place given to the Bodhistavas — who were being of great kindness and helped the humanity through their own suffering.

Teaches the salvation for all.

Believed in the original teachings of the Buddha.

Popular in Ceylon, Bunna, Thailand, Combodia, Loas etc. but lost its popularity in India. Teaches the attainment of salvation for oneself alone.

Salvation through self-descipline and meditation.

No belief in idol-worship. Worshiped Budha in form of the symbols. Adopted Pali as the language for teaching and texts.

6. Vajrayana / Vehlcle Of Thunder Bolt

• Salvation attained by acquiring the magical power.

• The chief divinities of this new sect were the Taras, wives of the Buddhas and Bodhisattavas.

(42)

7. Yogachara/Vinanayadin

• Founded by Miitreyanath around 400 AD.

• The only reality is tahatata/suchness/ thusness or Dharamadhatu which is equivalent to Sunyata of Madhyamika school.

8. Madhyamika

• Founded by Nagarjuna / Nagasena around 150 AD.

• Philosophy of Sunyavada/Sunyata/Void/ Emptiness according to which everything around us is emptiness and whatever we perceive is only illusion.

• Associated with theory of relativity.

Other Important seats of Buddhism 9. Sautrantikas 10. Samitlyas 11.Lokottaravadin 12.Pudgalavadin 13.Shahajnyana 14. Tantrayana Buddhist Scriptures

1. Buddshist Scriptures are Pitakas, which are written in Pall language. 2. It consists of three sections called Tripitakas.

I. Sutta Pitaka

1. Largest & most important of the Tripilakas. contains the teachings of Buddha. 2. It is divided into five “Groups” (Nikayas)

Digha (long) Nikaya — Collection of long sermons ascribed to the Buddha, with accounts of the circumstances in which he peached them.

Majjhima (medium) Nikaya — Shorter sermons

Samyutta (connected) Nikaya—Collections of brief pronouncements.

Anguttara (Graduated) Nikaya—Collection of over 2,000 brief statements, arranged in eleven sections.

Khuddaka (Minor) Nikaya

3. Contains miscellaneous works in prose and verse.

4. Among the contents of Khuddaka are Dhammapada (versus on virtue) is containing a summary of Buddha’s universal teachings. Tharagatha (Hymns of the elder monks) Therigatha (Hymns of the elder nuns) Jatakas (a collection of over 500 poems which describe the previous birth of Buddha, many of them being in the animal forms).

(43)

II. Vinava Pitaka

Contains moral code of conduct III. Abhidhamma Pitaka

Consists of philosophy of Buddhism especiallymela physics. Buddhist Works

1. Milinda-Panho (Questions of Menander) — An account of the discussion between Bacterian king Menandar or Milinda and the Buddhist monk Nagasena.

2. Ceylonese chronicles — The history of Buddhism in Ceylon and give valuable information on political and social history

The Mauryan

Chandragupta founded it in 322 B.C. with the help of his Brahmin Minister Chanakya. References and Sources:

The most important source in Artha Sastra which has 15 chapters called Adhikaranas. Other

Sanskrit sources are Kaumudi Mahotsava of Vajika and Mudraraksha of Visakhadutta. Sangam poets named Mamulnar and Pamar described about Bimba Mauryas attack on South India.

1. Division of Indian Society into seven castes Megasthenes

2. Absence of slavery Megasthenes

3. Chronology and list of Mauryan Kings Puranas 4. Economic and Political Conditions Arthashastra

5. Social and Economic Conditions Jatakas

6. Role of Ashoka in spreading Buddhism to Sri Lanka Dipvamsa & Mahavamsa 7. Conversion of Chandragupta Maurya to Jainism — his

abdication of throne and going to Sravanbelagola

Parisistparvan of Hemachandra

8 Absence of usury (Money lending) Megasthenes

9. Ashoka’s favour to Ajivikas Barabar Hill cave inscriptions

10. Construction of Sudarsana Lake Junagarh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman I.

11. Killing of 99 of his brothers and seizing of throne by

Ashoka Mahavamsa & Dipavamsa

12. The name Ashoka Maski Gujarra, Nittur and

Udegolam Edicts 13. Existance of an Ashokan Pillar at Sanakisa with a lion

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :