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A

palynological investigation of some Lower Kimmeridgian

deposits from Spain

A. W. van ERVE

Veba Oel AG, Abteilung 51 P.O. Box 20 10 45, Gelsenkirchen 4650, BRD, Fed. Rep. of

Germany.

R. E. BESEMS

EPW36, Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij. B.V., Postbus 162, 2501 AN, The Hague,

The Netherlands. C. F. LOVE

XGL/1, Syria Shell Petroleum Development B.V., P.O. Box 3633, Damascus, Syria.

ABSTRACT-The present paper provides the first palynological data from two ammonite controlled sections from the Lower Kimmeridgian (Sutneria plutynota Ammonite Zone) in Spain. The Segura de la Sierra sequence is located in the Betic Cordilleras and the Hontanar sequence is located in the Iberian Chain. The palynological assemblages, dominated by dinoflagellate cysts and sporomorphs, include taxa which are well known from other areas to be long-ranging throughout the major part of the Mesozoic. Most noteworthy is the presence of Cicatricosisporites spp. in the material investigated. The impact of this on the assumption that a strong diachronous south-north migration of this taxon existed during Middle and Late Jurassic times is discussed.

INTRODUCTION

Age assessments of Jurassic sedimentary rocks from the Iberian Peninsula have generally been based on faunal evidence, especially ammonites, although occa- sionally, due to the absence of palaeontological con- trol, assessments have also been established on litho- stratigraphical criteria. So far few Jurassic palynologic- al records are available from this area. Most of these concern Portugal (Riley, 1974; Adloff et al., 1977; Adloff & Doubinger, 1978; Williams & Bujak, 1985; Davies, 1985; Van Erve & Mohr, in press) and little is known about the Jurassic microfloral development in Spain.

To increase the palynological information on the Jurassic of the Iberian Peninsula two Lower Kimmerid- gian ammonite controlled sections from different structural units in Spain have been investigated: (1) the Segura de la Sierra section of the Betic Cordilleras and (2) the Hontanar section of the Iberian Chain (Fig. 1). In both sequences some samples were taken from ammonite bearing strata which have been assigned to the Sutneria platynota Ammonite Zone. This zone represents the earliest Kimmeridgian of the Tethyan realm and is generally assumed to be time-equivalent to the Pictonia- baylei -Ammonite Zone of ihe

realm (Fig. 2).

THE SEGURA DE LA SIERRA SECTION

Location. The Segura de la Sierra section is

Boreal

located

north-east of the village of Segura de la Sierra (province of Jaen) along the road to Siles (Lopez Garrido, 1971; Fig. 1).

Geological setting. In the province of Jaen, the Prebetic

Zone is one of the structural units of the Betic Cordilleras, the Alpine fold-belt of southern Spain (Hermes, 1978; Alvarado, 1980). Lopez Garrido (1971) recognized three distinct structural sub-units in this area which approximately correspond to palaeogeo- graphical domaines: (1) Unit of Beas de Segura, (2) Unit of Sierra de Cazorla and (3) Unit of Sierra del Segura.

In the former two units only Jurassic deposits are present, whereas in the latter Cretaceous sediments are also encountered. The Segura de la Sierra section is part of the Unit of Sierra del Segura and represents predominantly shallow marine Jurassic-?Cretaceous deposits, uncomfortably overlain by the continental Cretaceous sediments of the so-called “Utrillas” (Lopez Garrido, 1971).

Stratigraphy (Figure 3). No formal lithostratigraphical

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Interval 1: 80- lOOm of massive grey non-fossiliferous dolomites. It is considered to represent the Lias and ?Dogger.

Interval 2: 8- 10m of grey-yellow nodular limestones

containing a rich ammonite fauna. The basal part contains numerous Divisosphinctes spp. and Euaspi-

doceras sp., Ochetoceras marantianus (D’Orbigny),

Taramelliceras flexuousus pinguis (Quenstedt),

Taramelliceras flexuosus auritus (Quenstedt),

Taramelliceras sarasani Loriol, Taramelliceras pictus

costatus (Quenstedt). In the upper part Perisphinctes

(Orthosphinctes) tiziani (Oppel) , Lithacoceras (Prog-

eronia) pseudopolyplocoides Geyer and Glochiceras

(Lingulaficeras) lingulatus (Quenstedt) are also pre-

sent. The lower part of this interval is considered to represent the Late Oxfordian (Epipeftoceras bimamma- tum Ammonite Zone), whereas the upper part repre- sents the transition to the basal Kimmeridgian.

Interval 3: 50-60m of alternating limestones, marly

limestones and marls. Three sub-units have been recognized: -the lowermost 15 m comprise marly lime- stones with marl intercalations. Abundant ammonites

+

k b G 0

G LISBOA

h

*

P 4

.

IBERIAN CHAIN BETIC CORDILLERAS

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STAGES

EARLY KIM M ER l DGl AN

SENSU ANGLICO

OXFORD I AN

A M M O N I

T

N.W.

EUROPE

(BOREAL)

AULACOSTEPHANUS AUTISSIODORENSIS AULACOSTEPHANUS EUDOXUS

AULACOSTEPHANUS MUTABlLlS RASENIA CYMODOCE

PlCTONlA BAYLEI

RINGSTEADIA PSEUDOCORDATA DEClPlA DEClPlENS

PERISPHINCTES CAUTISNIGRAE GREGORYCERAS TRANSVERSARIUM PERISPHINCTES PLlCATlLlS CARD IOCER AS COR DAT U M QUENSTEDTOCERAS MARIAE

E

Z O N E S

S.EUROPE

(TETHYAN)

HYBONOTICERAS BECKERI AULACOSTEPHANUS EUDOXUS ASPIDOCERAS ACANTHICUM CRUSSOLICERAS DlVlSUM ATAXIOCERAS HYPSELOCYCLUM SUTNERIA PLAYNOTA

IDOCERAS PLANULA

EPIPELTOCERAS BIMAMMATUM PERISPHINCTES BIFURCATUS GREGORYCERAS TRANSVERSARIUM PERISPHINCTES PLlCATlLlS CARDIOCERAS CORDATUM QUENSTEDTOCERAS MARIAE

Fig. 2. Oxfordian and Early Kimmeridgian Ammonite Zonations (after Hallam, 1975).

have been recorded: e.g. Sutneria platynota

(Reinecke), Sowerbyceras silensus (Fontannes), Ha-

plocerm tenuifalcatus (Neumayr), Ataxioceras sp., Ata-

xioceras polyplocus breviceps (Quenstedt), Ataxioceras

(Parataxioceras) cf. schneidi Geyer, Ataxioceras (Para- taxioceras) sp., Lithacoceras sp. and Phylloceras sp. This part is assigned to the Early Kimmeridgian

(Sufneria platynota Ammonite Zone, Fig. 2). - the

middle 27m are formed of marly limestones with marl intercalations. Ostracods, radiolarians, echinoderms and globochaetes have been recorded.

-

the uppermost 13- 15m comprise an alternation of marls, limestones and marly limestones. Ostracods, radiolarians, forami- nifera and sponge spicules have been recorded.

Interval 4: 35m of well-bedded grey dolomites.

Although no fossils have been recorded, a Kimmerid- gian age has been assigned to this unit on lithostrati- graphical considerations.

Interval 5: 1-3m of whitish coloured limestones. A few

fragments of gastropods and charophytes have been observed.

Lithostratigraphical correlations with adjacent areas suggest this unit represents the Portlandian- ?Neocomian.

This sequence is uncomformably overlain by Cre- taceous green marls and white sands of the “Utrillas” of Interval 6 and the yellowish sandy dolomites of Interval 7.

SEGURA D E

LA S I E R R A S E C T I O N

(AFTER LOPEZ GARRIDO, 1971)

SECT10

O * 9 ” VERTICAL E A L E

?I3

9

P

t -I

I

KIMMERIDGIAN

EARLY KIMMERIDGIAN

S. PLATYNOTA

E. BIMAMMATUM LATE OXFORDIAN

?DOGGER

LlASSlC

-

(4)

H O N T A N A R S E C T I O N

(AFTER VIALLARD, 1973)

EGEND: =LIMESTONE ~ ~ - ~ A UMARL M E ~

~ a m c H M m L Y LIMESTONE

0

SAND

&SECTION MISSIN

0

-

40n

VERTICAL S A L E

. .

. . .

...--

. . .

IFORMITY

v)

W

z

r?

w

z

0

I

k

3

S. PLATYNOTA

E. BIMAMMATUM

w

::

~~

ALBIAN

PORTLANDIAN ( 7 )

LATE ( 7 )

KlMMERlDGlAN

" MI DDLE "

KlMMERlDGlAN

EARLY KlMMERlDGlAN

LATE OXFORDIAN MIOOLE OXFORDIAI

MIDDLE- LATE

\ CALLOVIAN 1

THE HONTANAR SECTION

Location. The Hontanar section is located along the

road Teruel-Cuenca (province of Teruel) between kilometer poles 185-186 (Viallard, 1973; Fig. 1).

Geological setting. The section is part of the Sierra de

Albaracin, one of the structural units of the Iberian Chain (Viallard, 1973). In this unit the Precambrian and Palaezoic Hercynian basement is covered by thick more or less complete sequences of Mesozoic and Palaeogene sediments. As a result of tectonics, major differences are apparent in the palaeogeographical configuration of the Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary basins.

Stratigraphy (Figure 4). No formal lithostratigraphical

subdivision of the Jurassic has been established in this area and the lithostratigraphy, as in the Segura de la

Fig.

4.

Stratigraphy and sample position of the Hontanar section.

Sierra, is discussed in terms of Liassic, Dogger and Malm. In the Hontanar section the Malm is exposed. The Callovian to Middle Oxfordian sequence is very condensed and the Lower Oxfordian seems to be missing. Within the Hontanar section 7 lithological units have been distinguished. These units will be briefly discussed in a ascending order (Viallard, 1973):

Unit 1: approximately 0.30111 of oolithic limestone.

Viallard (1973) assigned a Middle-Late Callovian to possibly Middle Oxfordian age for this unit.

Unit 2: 25 m of cryptocrystalline limestones. The fossil

record contains ammonites, e.g. Ochetoceras marian-

tianum (D'Orbigny), Orthosphinctes polygyratus

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thc upper part of this unit has been assigned to the Late Oxfordian Epipeltoceras bimammatum Ammonite zone (Fig. 2).

Unit 3: 10m of grey m a r k Ammonites have been

recorded from this unit, e.g. Zdoceras sp. and Sutneria platynota (Reinecke). Based on the latter taxon this unit has been assigned to the Early Kimmeridgian

Sutneria platynota Ammonite zone (Fig. 2).

Unit 4: 100m thick sequence of cryptocrystalline limestones with intercalations of marly limestones. Ammonites have been recorded from this unit: Peris-

phinctes (Lithacoceras) aff. riberoi Choffat, Litha-

coceras cf. subachilles Wegele and Lithacoceras cf.

virgatoides Wegele. Based on the fossil content, Vial-

lard (1973) assigned an Early Kimmeridgian age.

Unit 5: 50m of thick bedded sub-lithographical or

oolitic, microcrystalline limestones. The fossil record contains a variety of echinoderms (Cidarids).

Unit 6: 35m of fine sands and silty marls with

intercalations of microcrystalline limestone beds. On the basis of the foraminifera taxa Alveosepta jaccardi

(Schrodt) a Kimmeridgian age has been assigned.

Unit 7: 70m of fine micaceous sands and silty m a r k

Based on lithostratigraphical considerations a Late Kimmeridgian to Portlandian age has been assigned. The Malm sequence is uncomfortably overlain by Cretaceous (Albian) deposits which constitute argil- laceous sands with quartz pebbles of the “Utrillas”.

PALYNOLOGY

Sampling. Twelve samples from the two sections

described were taken and prepared, using standard palynological techniques. Eight samples are from Interval 3 of the Segura de la Sierra section (Figure 3); three samples from unit 3 and one sample from unit 4 of the Hontanar section (Figure 4). From the Hontanar section only samples HON 01 and HON 03 provided palynological assemblages, whereas samples HON 02 and HON 04 proved to be barren.

The samples were collected during a field excursion of the Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology of the Utrecht State University, The Netherlands, in the early spring of 1979.

Annotated species list. The following taxa have been

recognised in the palynological assemblages investi- gated. The taxonomical classification of the palyno- morphs was mainly based on publications by Couper (1958), Burger (1966), Vigran & Thusu (1975), Dorhofer (1979), Herngreen et al. (1980), Hunt (1985) and Thusu & Vigran (1985). For genera identification the Genera File of Jansonius & Hills (1976) was consulted. Therefore, no other papers are included in the reference list. Full references to the dinoflagellate cysts cited can be found in Lentin & Williams, 1985. Those taxa marked by an asterisk are further discussed in the systematics section.

Spores

Aequitriradites sp.

Anfulsporites clavus (Balme, 1957) Filatoff, 1975.

Araucariacites australis Cookson, 1947.

Baculatisporites comaumensis (Cookson, 1953) Poto-

Biretisporites potoniaei (Delcourt & Sprumont , 1955)

Calamospora mesozoica Couper, 1958.

Cibotiumspora juriensis (Balme, 1957) Filatoff, 1975

Cicatricosisporites spp. (Plate I, Figs. 4-6).

Concavisporites spp. (Plate I, Fig. 3).

Concavissimisporites spp.

Contignisporites cooksonii (Balme, 1957) Dettmann,

Convolutkpora spp.

Deltoidospora mesozoica (Thiergart , 1949) Schuur-

Deltoidospora minor (Couper, 1958) Pocock, 1970.

Densoisporites velatus Weyland & Krieger , 1953.

Echinatisporis spp.

Foraminisporis spp.

Gleicheniidites senonicus Ross, 1949 (Plate I, Fig. 2).

Zschyosporites variegatus (Couper, 1958) Schulz, 1967

(Plate I, Fig. 9).

Kraeuselisporites sp.

Leptolepidites proxigranulatus (Brenner, 1963) Dorhof-

Leptolepidites spp.

Lycopodiacidites intraverrucatus Benner, 1963.

Marattisporites scabratus Couper, 1958.

Osmundacidites wellmanii Couper, 1953.

Reticulatisporites spp

.

Retitriletes spp.

Rubinella major (Couper, 1958) Norris, 1969 (Plate I,

Spheripollenites spp. (Plate I, Figs. 11, 12).

Staplinisporites camirzus (Balme, 1957) Pocock, 1962.

Taurocusporites segmentatus Stover, 1962.

Todisporites major Couper, 1958.

Todisporites minor Couper, 1958.

Trilobosporites spp

.

Tuberositriletes spp.

Uvaesporifes argenteaeformis (Bolchovitina, 1953)

Varirugosisporites spp.

Pollen

Bisaccate pollen undifferentiated.

Callialasporites dampieri (Balme, 1957) Sukh Dev,

Callialasporites microvelatus Schulz, 1966.

Callialasporites minus (Tralau, 1968) Guy, 1971.

Callialasporites trilobatus (Balme, 1957) Sukh Dev,

Callialasporites turbatus (Balme, 1957) Schulz, 1967

niC, 1956.

Delcourt, Dettmann & Hughes, 1963.

(Plate I, Fig. 1).

1963.

man, 1977.

er, 1979.

Fig. 7).

Schulz, 1967 (Plate

I,

Fig. 8).

1961 (Plate I, Fig. 10).

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(Plate I, Fig. 16).

Calliulasporites segmentatus (Balme, 1957) Srivastava, 1963.

Cerebropoffenites macroverrucosus (Thiergart, 1949) Schulz, 1967.

Coroflina spp. (Plate I, Fig. 14).

Cycadopites spp

.

Ephedripites spp.

Exesipollenites tumulus Balme, 1957 (Plate I, Fig. 13).

Perinopollenites elatoides Couper, 1958.

Dinoflagellate cysts

Apteodinium cf. nuciforrne (Deflandre, 1938b) Stover

& Evitt, 1978 (Plate 2, Fig. 5).

Apteodinium nuciforrne (Deflandre, 1938b) Stover &

Evitt, 1978.

Chlamydophorelfa? cf. membranoidea

*

Vozzhenniko- va, 1967 (Plate 2, Figs. 7, 10).

Chytroeisphueridia chytroeides (Sarjeant , 1962a) Dow- nie & Sarjeant, 1963 emend. Davey, 1979 (Plate 2, Fig. 8).

Cfeistosphaeridium spp.

Cribroperidinium granufigerum (Klement, 1960) Stover

Cribroperidinium spp.

Ctenidodinium cf. panneum (Norris, 1965) Lentin &

Dichadogonyaulax seffwoodii Group* sensu Woollam,

Dingodinium tuberosum (Gitmez, 1970) Fisher & Dinoflagellates indeterminable.

Egmontodinium? ovatum (Gitmez & Sarjeant, 1972) & Evitt, 1978 (Plate 2, Fig. 9).

Williams, 1973. 1983 (Plate 2, Fig. 2).

Riley, 1980 (Plate 2, Fig. 11).

Riley, 1979.

Elfipsoidictium spp.

Epip fosphaera spp.

Escharisphaeridia pocockii (Sarjeant, 1968) Erkman &

Sarjeant, 1980.

“Gonyaulacysta complex”* sensu Jan du ChCne, Ma-

sure et al., 1986 (Plate 2, Figs. 1, 4).

Gonyaulacysta jurassica (Deflandre, 1938) Norris &

Sarjeant, 1965.

Hystrichosphaerina orbifera (Klement, 1960) Stover & Evitt, 1978.

Leptodinium spp.

Mendicodinium groenfandicum (Pocock & Sarjeant,

Meristaulax cf. granufata (Klement, 1960) Sarjeant,

Meristaulax granufata (Klement, 1960) Sarjeant, 1984.

Pareodinia ceratophora Deflandre, 1947.

Pareodinia spp.

Scrinodinium crystaffinum (Deflandre, 1938) Klement,

Scrinodiniurn spp.

Sentusidinium cf. riouftii (Sarjeant, 1968) Sarjeant &

Sentusidinium pifosum (Ehrenberg, 1854) Sarjeant &

Sirmiodinium grossii Alberti, 1961.

Systematophora areofata Klement, 1960 (Plate 2, Fig.

Tubotubereffa apatefa (Cookson & Eisenack, 1960) Ioannides et al., 1977 emend. Sarjeant, 1982.

Tubotubereffa furida (Deflandre, 1938) Davies, 1983.

Vafensielfa ovufa (Deflandre, 1947) Eisenack, 1963.

Waffodinium cf. gfaessneri* (Cookson & Eisenack, 1972). Davey, 1979.

1984.

1960.

Stover, 1978 (Plate 2, Fig. 6). Stover, 1978.

3).

1960) Loeblich & Loeblich, 1968.

Explanation of Plate 1

All Figures approx. X 1000 magnification.

Fig. 1. Cibotiumpora juriensis (Balme, 1957) Filatoff, 1975 sample SIE-08. Fig. 2. Gfeicheniidites senonicus ROSS, 1949 sample SIE-08.

Fig. 3. Concavisporites spp. sample SIE-09.

Figs. 4,5,6. Cicatricosisporites spp. Fig.

4:

sample SIE-08. Fig. 5: sample SIE-06. Fig. 6: sample SIE-09. Fig. 7. Rubinefla major (Couper, 1958) Norris, 1969 sample SIE-05.

Fig. 8. Uvaesporites argenteaeformis (Bolchovitina, 1953) Schulz, 1967 sample SIE-09. Fig. 9. Zschyosporites variegatus (Couper, 1958) Schulz, 1967 sample SIE-05.

Fig. 10. Cufliafasporites dumpieri (Balme, 1957) Sukh Dev, 1961 sample SIE-09. Figs. 11,12. Spheripoffenites spp. sample SIE-09.

Fig. 13. Exesipoffenites turnulus Balme, 1957 sample SIE-09. Fig. 14. Coroflina spp. (tetrad) sample SIE-05.

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Acritarchs

Acantomorphy acritarchs (including Micrhystridium

spp., Baltisphaeridium spp., Solisphaeridium spp.).

Algae sensu lato

Circulisporites parvus De Jersey 1963.

Botryococcus spp.

Prasinophytes

Cymatiosphaera spp.

Pterospermella spp.

Tasmanitids

Tasmanites spp.

Scolecodonts

Schistomeringos expectatus Szaniawski & Gazdzicki,

Foraminiferids Trochiliascia spp.

1978.

Systematic descriptions

Class Dinophyceae Fritsch, 1929. Order Peridiniales Haeckel, 1894. Genus Dichadogonyaulax Sarjeant, 1966 emend.

Woollam, 1983.

Dichadogonyaulax sellwoodii Group sensu Woollam,

1983. (Plate

2,

Fig. 2)

Remarks. Several authors have discussed the taxono-

mic relationship between Dichadogonyaulax and Cteni-

dodinium Woollam (1983, p. 193) differentiates the

genera “primarily on the asymmetry of the paracingular crests”. Whilst Benson (1985, p. 147-8) seperates the genera “on the basis of the postventral displacement of the pre-apical paraplate”. The comment of Benson

(1985, p. 145) that the differentiation of species within

the complex is often easier than deciding in which genus the species should be placed is fully supported.

Benson also suggests that the differentiation by the development of paracingular crests is variable, impossi- ble to observe in highly compressed specimens and should not be used to seperate dinocysts at a generic level. Although agreeing that development of crests are highly variable and an undesirable characteristic for generic separation, it seems that his use of the presence of an apical paraplate, although being probably a unique morphological feature, for practical purposes is equally difficult to apply. This difficulty is highlighted in the Spanish material where the poor presentation makes the recognition of an apical paraplate impossi- ble, whereas the crest morphology can readily be interpreted. Therefore the symmetry of the paracingu- lar crests and the fine, long crestal spines places the morphotype recorded in Spain within the Dichado-

gonyaulax sellwoodii group sensu Woollam (1983,

p.193).

Genus Chlamydoporella Cookson & Eisenack 1958 emend.

Duxbury 1983.

Chlamydophorella? cf. membranoidea

Vozzhennikova 1967 (Plate 2, Figs. 7, 10)

1982 Chlamydophorella? membranoidea Davey; 27,

plate 8, fig. 12.

Remarks. This species is closely related to C. ? membra-

noidea Vozzhennikova 1967. Davey (1982, p.27) in

discussing this species notes the occasional presence of a corona, including the holotype, and suggests this is due to intra-specific variability. Davey suggests that

C . ? membranoidea probably ranges from the basal

Kimmeridgian to the Late Hauterivian, although notes that specimens possessing a corona have not been observed below the Early Portlandian (kerbus) Ammo-

Explanation of Plate 2

All Figures X650 magnification except Figs. 7, 10 x1000.

Figs. 1, 4. “Gonyaulacysta complex” sample SIE-08. The specimen figured is probably conspecific with Meristaulax

angulosa (Gitmez, 1970) Sarjeant & Gocht in Sarjeant 1984, however the species was so rare that it has been

recorded under the “Gonyaulacysta complex”.

Fig. 2. Dichadogonyaulax sellwoodii Group sensu Woollam, 1983 sample SIE-08. Fig. 3. Systematophora arealata Klement, 1960 sample SIE-08.

Fig. 5 . Apteodinium cf. nuciforme (Deflandre, 1938) Stover & Evitt, 1978 sample SIE-08. Fig. 6. Sentusidinium cf. rioultii (Sarjeant, 1968) Sarjeant & Stover, 1978 sample SIE-08. Figs. 7,lO. Chlamydophorella? cf. rnembranoidea Vozzhennikova,

Fig. 8. Chytroeisphaeridia chytroeides (Sarjeant, 1962) Downie &

SIE-08. The operculum can be observed in the cyst interior.

Fig. 9. Cribroperidinium granuligerum (Klement, 1960) Stover &

Fig. 11. Dingodinium tuberosum (Gitmez, 1970) Fisher & Riley,

1967 sample SIE-08.

Sarjeant, 1963 emend. Davey, 1979 sample Evitt, 1978 sample SIE-08.

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nite Zone. The species recorded in Spain although not possessing a discernable corona are synonomous with

C.? membranoidea sensu Davey (1982). It seems likely

however, that the presence or absence of a corona, linked to an indication of a stratigraphical element to this variability, would suggest two species are involved. Hence the forms recorded in Spain have not been assigned to C. membranoidea, although the poor quality of the material in Spain could not support the erection of a new species.

“Gonyaulacysta complex” sensu Jan du ChCne,

Masure et al. 1986. (Plate 11, Figs. 1,

4)

Remarks. The term “Gonyaulacysta complex” was

coined by Stover & Evitt (1978, p.271). Jan du ChCne, Masure et al. (1986 p.15) also adopted this term although incorporating several new genera, including

Apteodinium and Meristaulax (which they synonymize

with Cribroperidinium). The generally poor preserva- tion of the Spanish material means that many dinocysts could not be positively identified. However, many could clearly be recognised as part of the “Gonyaulacy- sta complex” and probably are representatives of the genera Apteodinium, Cribroperidinium, and Meris- taulau.

Genus Wallodinium Loeblich & Loeblich, 1968.

Wallodinium cf. glaessneri (Cookson & Eisenack

1960b)

Loeblich & Loeblich 1968.

1980 Wallodinium cf. W . glaessneri Courtinat & Gal- liard p. 68, pl. 2, fig. 11.

Remarks. The single specimen recorded is comparable

with W . glaessneri and probably synonymous with that described by Courtinat & Gaillard (1980) from the Upper Oxfordian.

GENERAL COMPOSITION OF THE

ASSEMBLAGES

The samples investigated yielded relatively moderate diversified but rather poorly preserved palynomorphs. The relative frequencies and distribution of the taxa recognised are presented on Figures 5 and 6. The plots were made within S.I.P.M., EPW36 with the Checklist programme of J. Phillips.

The sporomorph content of the Segura de la Sierra assemblages is generally dominated by Corollina spp.

and Spheripollenites spp. All other sporomorph taxa

are minor constituents although occasionally Concavi-

sporites spp. can be present in higher proportions.

Noteworthy is the persistent occurrence of Cicatricosi-

sporites spp. Acantomorph acritarchs, dinoflagellate

cysts forming part of the “Gonaulacysta complex”,

Sentusidinium cf. rioultii and Apteodinium cf. nuci-

forme are generally the most frequent microplankton

constituents.

The sporomorph content of the Hontanar assem- blages is dominated by Spheripollenites spp., All other sporomorph taxa are minor constituents although

Corollina spp. and Exesipollenites tumulus may occur in

higher proportions. It should be noted that due to the overall poor preservation some specimens referred to

Exesipollenites tumulus may represent inner bodies of

Corollina spp. (see also Riley, 1974; p.36). Cicatrico-

sisporites spp. has been recorded in both assemblages.

Microplankton is a minor constituent.

The major difference between the Segura de la Sierra and Hontanar assemblages is that the latter are less diversified and contain fewer microplankton. The Segura de la Sierra assemblages show a general decrease in diversity towards the higher part of Interval 3.

DISCUSSION

Sporomorphs. The majority of taxa which have been

recognised from the sections investigated occur in both Tethyan and Boreal realms. Some of them range throughout the larger part of the Jurassic and Cre- taceous of Northwest Europe, e.g. Deltoidospora spp.,

Cleicheniidites senonicus, Ischyosporites variegatus, Leptolepidites spp., Spheripollenites spp. Todisporites

spp., Callialasporites spp., Corollina spp. and Tauru-

cosporites segmentatus, while other taxa are known

from the Upper Jurassic onwards, e.g. Cicatricosispo-

rites spp., Concavissimisporites spp., Leptolepidites

proxigranulatus and Trilobosporites spp. (e.g. Couper,

1958; Burger, 1966; Vigran & Thusu, 1975; Dorhofer, 1979; Herngreen et al., 1980, Hunt, 1985).

Although the bulk of taxa are present in both Tethyan and Boreal areas, the composition of Middle to Late Jurassic assemblages from these areas are quite different. This difference has already been discussed by Thusu & Vigran (1985). Although these authors do not discuss coeval Early Kimmeridgian assemblages, the composition of the Spanish sporomorph fraction in broad terms resembles that of other Jurassic Tethyan assemblages from the Sahara and north-eastern Libya being dominated by Corollina spp. and Spheripollenites

spp. with scarce bisaccate pollen grains. (see also Reyre, 1973; Riley, 1974; Thusu & Vigran, 1985; Van Erve & Mohr, in press.). Assemblages from the Boreal area however show a reverse combination (Thusu &

Vigran, 1985).

(11)

tudes (10 degrees) in the Callovian of North Africa towards the north. At a palaeolatitude of ca 20 degrees (= approx. Iberian peninsula) it would appear in the Oxfordian and at a palaeolatitude of ca 30 degrees (North-west Europe) its first appearance would be in the Upper Kimmeridgian. However, the palynological data available do not support this theory: (1) the presence of indigenous Cicatricosisporites spp. in the “Callovian” of North Africa is rather doubtful. The palynological data from North Africa used by Dorhofer (1979) is based on the work of Reyre (1973). This author used subsurface cutting material and reports the first (= bottom) appearance of Cicatricosisporites spp. at the base of his zone 5B of presumed Middle Callovian to Late Jurassic age. Reyre’s Zone 5B a c c o m m o d a t e s “ C a 11 o v o

-

0 xf o r d i a n

-

Kimmendgian” (litho-) stratigraphical unit and the age assessments of this unit has been based on both

stratigraphical/palaeontological and palynological criteria. The Middle Callovian age for the base of this unit has been established by stratigraphical correlations with the Tazerdunet outcrop section. The major part of this outcrop section is dated Callovian-Oxfordian by means of ammonites, whereas its upper part probably represents the Kimmeridgian (Reyre, 1973). The Late Jurassic age of the top part of the “Callovo-Oxfordian- Kimmeridgian” unit is adopted on palynological criteria: the presence of Cicatricosisporites spp. and

Trilobosporites spp. The lowermost appearance of very few specimens of Cicatricosisporites spp. in the “Callo-

vo-Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian”, definitely not caved from the overlying units, is only reported in the well DB-1, where this (litho-) unit of 160m thickness reaches surface. In the upper part of this unit Cicatri- cosisporites spp. has been recorded together with

Trilobosporites spp. However, from Reyre’s data it is not conclusive whether Cicatricosisporites spp. are present in the lower part of the “Callovo-Oxfordian- Kimmeridgian” unit in well DB-1, and if so, that they are indigenous and have not been caved from the upper part of this unit. In conclusion it can be stated that, at present no strong evidence is available for the first appearance of Cicatricosisporites spp. in the “Middle” Callovian.

(2) the presence of Cicatricosisporites spp. in the

Sutneria platynota zone of earliest Kimmeridgian age from Spain is the oldest known occurrence from the Iberian peninsula (compare Van Erve & Mohr, in press.). (3) In Northwest Europe Cicatricosisporites

spp. have been recorded from strata referred to the

Rasenia cymodoce Zone (Vigran & Thusu, 1975; Thusu & Vigran, 1975), which represents the equivalent of the zone overlying the Sutneria plafynota Zone (Fig. 2).

From this it is obvious that the assumption of a strong diachronous migration of Cicatricosisporites spp. from lower to higher palaeolatitudes on the northern hemi-

t h e

sphere is speculative and not supported by palynologic- a1 data.

Microplankton. Although Gitmez (1970) describes

microplankton assemblages from the Pictonia baylei

zone of North-west Europe, there are relatively few other publications discussing microplankton assem- blages specifically from the earliest Kimmeridgian. Also in the Tethyan realm no records are available: in the Upper Bathonian-Tithonian interval described by Thusu & Vigran (1985) no marine Lower Kimmerid- gian deposits have been recorded. However, the Lower Kimmeridgian interval is considered in several Upper Jurassic zonal schemes notably Fisher & Riley (1980)

(Leptodinium egemenii subzone) and Woollam &

Riding (1983) (Gj/Sc(c) subzone). In general the microplankton assemblages described from these pub- lications are all fairly similar being dominated by species of the “Gonyaulacysta complex,” normally with common G. jurassica, Hystrichogonyaulax cladophora,

and species of Leptodinium. The assemblages also typically contain Sentusidinium spp. and with varying records of chorate dinocysts.

In some respects the assemblages recorded in Spain are similar to those mentioned above, particularly in the dominance of species of the “Gonyaulacysta com- plex”. However G. jurassica, which is normally fre- quent in Northwest European Early Kimmeridgian assemblages, although present in Spain, is only re- corded in low numbers and H. cladophora is not recorded at all.

The other apparently major difference is the pre- sence of species of Dichadogonyaulax and Ctenidodi- nium with high parasutural ornament in the Spain material. Ctenidodinium chondrum Drugg 1978, which has low parasutural ornament, is the only published species of these genera from the Early Kimmeridgian. This apparent difference is probably a reflection of the lack of published data, since several forms, similar to those recorded in Spain, have been frequently noted to occur in borehole material from the Kimmeridgian of the North Sea (CFL pers. obs.).

(12)

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(15)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to thank Veba Oel AG (Gelsenkir-

chen-Hassel, FR Germany), Veba Oel de Venezuela

S.A., Caracas, Venezuela and Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij (SIPM), The Hague, The

Netherlands for the permission to publish this paper.

They also wish to thank the Laboratory of Palaeobo-

tany and Palynology of the Utrecht State University,

the Netherlands for kindly providing the samples for

the present investigation. Sincere gratitude is expressed

to the Institute of Paleontology of the Free University

of Berlin for supplying all possible assistance crucial to the preparation of the manuscript. Special acknow-

ledgement is made to Drs. P. H. Griggs (SIPM, The

Hague) and H. Leereveld (Laboratory of Palaeobotany

and Palynology , Utrecht) for critically reading the

manuscript.

Many thanks are due t o Mr. R. van Aarle for the

preparation of the illustrations. Appreciation is also

extended to M. Bouman (Shell Exploration and Pro-

duction Company, London), A. Wolfard (Petroleum

Development Company Oman, Muscat), H. Leereveld

and P. Brugman (Laboratory of Palaeobotany and

Palynology, Utrecht) for their contribution during the

field excursion of the Laboratory of Palaeobotany and

Palynology of Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Manuscript received December 1987. Revised manuscript accepted March 1988.

REFERENCES

Adloff, M. C. & Doubinger, J., 1978. Associations palynolo- giques du Trias et du Lias inferieur de I’Quest de 1’Europe (Luxembourg, France, Portugal). Palinologia, nrim. ex- traordinario 1, 21 -25.

Adloff, M. C., Doubinger, J. & Palain, C., 1977. Contribu- tion a la palynologie du Trias et du Lias inferieur du

Portugal, “Gres de Silves” du Nord du Tage. Com-

muniacoes do Servicos Geologicas de Portugal, 58 (1974), Alvarado, M., 1980. Introduccion a la Geologia general de Espafia. Boletin Geologico y Minero. T. XCI-I, 65 pp. Benson, D. G., 1985. Observations and recommendations on the fossil dinocyst genera Ctenidodinium, Dichadogony- au1a.x and Korystocysta. Tulane studies in Geology and Paleontology Vol. 18, 145-155.

Burger, D., 1966. Palynology of the uppermost Jurassic and lowermost Cretaceous strata in the Eastern Netherlands.

Leidse Geologische Mededelingen, 35, 209-276.

Cookson, I. C. & Eisenack. A., 1960. Upper Mesozoic microplankton from Australia & New Guinea. Palaeontol-

Couper, R. A., 1958. British Mesozoic microspores and pollen grains. Palaeontographica, Abt. B., 103 (4-6), Courtinat, R. & Gaillard, C. 1980. Les dinoflagelles des

calcaires lites des Trept (Oxfordian SupCrieur) inventaire et repartition comparee a celle de la microfaune benthique.

Documents des Laboratoires de Geologie de la FacultP des Science de Lyon., 78, 1-123.

91 -144.

Ogy, 2, (2), 243-261. 75-179.

Davey, R. J., 1982. Dinocyst stratigraphy of the latest Jurassic to early Cretaceous of the Haldager No. 1

borehole, Denmark. Danmarks Geologiske Undersogelse,

Serie B., 6 , 1-57.

Davies, E. H., 1985. The miospore and dinoflagellate cyst oppel-zonation of the Lias of Portugal. Palynology, 9, Dorhofer, G., 1979. Distribution and stratigraphic utility of

Oxfordian to Valanginian miospores in Europe and North

America. AASP Contribution Series No. 5B, 101-132.

Fisher, M. J. & Riley, L. A., 1980. The stratigraphic distribution of dinoflagellate cysts at the boreal Jurassic- Cretaceous boundary. IV International Palynological Con- ference Lucknow (1976-77) 2, 313-329.

Fritsch, F. E., 1929. Evolutionary sequences and affinites among Pyrophyta. Biological Reviews 4, 103- 151. Gitmez, G. U., 1970. Dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs from

the basal Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) of England, Scotland and France. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Geol),

Haeckel, E., 1894. Entwurf eines naturlichen Systems der Organismen auf Grund ihrer Stammegeschichte, Erster Teil: Systematische Phylogenie der Protisten und Pflanzen.

Berlin, George Riemer, 400 pp.

Hallam, A,, 1975. Jurassic environments. Cambridge Uni-

versity Press.

Hermes, J. J., 1978. The stratigraphy of the Subbetic and southern Prebetic of the Velez Rubio-Caravaca area and its bearing on transcurrent faulting in the Betic Cordilleras of southern Spain. Proceedings Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie voor Wetenschappen, 81, 1-54.

Herngren, G. F. W., Van Hoeken-Klinkenberg, P. M. J. &

De Boer, K. F., 1980. Some remarks on selected palyno- morphs near the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Netherlands. IVth International Palynological Conference Lucknow (1976-1977), 2, 357-3376.

Hunt, Ch. O., 1985. Miospores from the Portland Stone Formation and lower part of the Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) from Dorset, England.

Pollen et Spores, (3-4), 419-451.

Jan du ChCne, R., Masure, E. et al., 1986. Guide practique pour la determination de kystes de DinoflagellCs fossiles: le complexe Gonyaulacysta. Bull. Centres Rech., Explor.

-

Prod., Elf Aquitaine Mem. 12, 479 pp.

Lentin, J. K. & Williams, G. L., 1985. Fossil Dinoflagellates: Index to Genera and Species, 1985 Edition. Canadian Technical Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences. 60, 451 pp.

Lopez Garrido, A. C., 1971. Geologia de la zona prebetica, a1 NE de la provincia de Jatn. Thesis doctor., Universidad de Granada, Espana, 91-204.

Reyre, Y . , 1973. Palynologie du Mesozoique Saharien.

Memoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Serie C, Sciences de la Torre, Tome XXVII, 284 pp. Riley, L. A., 1974. Miospores from the Upper Jurassic of the

Cab0 Espichel, Portugal. Symposium on stratigraphical palynology

.

Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Special publication No. 3, 33-39

Stover, L. E. & Evitt, W. R., 1978. Analyses of pre- Pleistocene organic-walled dinoflagellates. Publ. Geol. Sci. Univ. Stanford 15, 300 pp.

Thusu, B. & Vigran, J. O., 1975. A review of the palynostra-

tigraphy of the Jurassic System in Norway. NTNF‘s

Continental Shelf Project, Publication No. 67, 1-12. 105-132.

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Thusu, B. & Vigran, J. O., 1985. Middle-Late Jurassic (Late Bathonian-Tithonian) Palynomorphs. Journal of Micropa- laeontology, 4 (l), 113-130.

Van Erve, A. W. & Mohr, B. A. R., in press. Palynological investigation in the Upper Jurassic of the vertebrate locality Guimarota (Leiria, Central Portugal).

Viallard, P., 1973. Recherches sur le cycle alpin dans la chaine Iberique sud-occidentale. Traveaux du Lab. de Geol. Mediteer., Associt au CNRS, Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, 130-139.

Vigran, J. 0. & Thusu, B., 1975. Illustations and distribution of the Jurassic palynomorphs of Norway. NTNF's Con- tinential Shelf Project, Publication No. 65, 1-54.

Williams, G. L. & Bujak, J. P., 1985. Mesozoic and Cenozoic dinoflagellates. In: Bolli et al. (Eak.): Planktonic Stratigra-

Woollam, R., 1983. A review of the Jurassic dinocyst genera

Ctenidodinum Deflandre 1938 and Dichadogonyaulax Sar- jeant 1966. Palynology 7, 183-196.

Woollam,

R.

& Riding, J. B., 1983. Dinoflagellate cyst zonation of the English Jurassic. Rep. Znst. Geol. Sci. No.

Figure

Fig. 1. Location Map. A: Hontanar section. B: Segura de la Sierra section.
Fig. 2. Oxfordian and Early Kimmeridgian Ammonite Zonations (after Hallam, 1975).
Fig. 4. Stratigraphy and sample position of the Hontanar section.
Fig. 5. Distribution chart Segura de la Sierra section.
+3

References

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