• No results found

INTERACTION OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, AND

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2020

Share "INTERACTION OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, AND"

Copied!
12
0
0

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Full text

(1)

INTERACTION OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS, AND pH ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LINSEED

s. s.

SAXENA'

Botany Department, Government Agricultural College, KanjJUr

s.

K. SINHN

Botany Department, D. A. V. College, KanjJur

SUMMARY

The effect of varying levels of nitrogen, phosphorus on the growth and yield of linseed in relation to pH \\·as studied. Plants were raised in sand culture, and the nutrient solutions were renewed at weekly intervals. Three levels of nitrogen (:N/3, N, and 3~) and three levels of phosphorus (P/3, P, and 3P) were used during 1959-60 and in the next season the treatment N/3 was replaced by 9:N \\·hile

Pj9 was taken in place of 3P. In both the seasons, five levels of pH, namely, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were maintained.

The effect of nitrogen was very much influenced by the pH of the medium; although heavy application of nitrogen increased the growth and yield of linseed at pH 6, it had a depressing effect at pH 9. The percentage of oil in seeds was reduced by the increased supply of nitrogen but the yield of oil was maximal at the highest concen-tration of nitrogen at pH 6. A change in phosphorus supply had a relatively less effect. During 1959-60 the best growth and yield \\lere obtained at 3N X P/3 X pH 6 and during 1960-61 at 9N X

Pj9 X pH 6.

INTRODUCTION

It is well known that the pH of the soil is one of the major factors for its heterogeneity (Daubenmire, 1959; Black, 1957). Furthermore, several investigators (Hoagland and Broyer, 1940; McEvoy, 1964; and Hallet al., 1964) have clearly demonstrated

(2)

GRO\\'TH OF LINSEED 23 that the hydrogen ion concentration of the root medium in-fluences ion uptake. This in turn affects the growth and yield of plants. The results of a study of the influence of varying levels of nitrogen and phosphorus at five different pH levels in sand culture, arc presented here.

l\1A TERIALS AND .METHODS

The investigations were carried out during two successive growing seasons (1959~60 and 1960~61). Taking Shive's solution as the standard (Miller, 1938) three levels of nitrogen and phosphorus were used in each season with slight modifica-tions. The treatments were as follows :

Season 1959~60 :

Nitrogen N/3 1/3 Normal 3· 7 ppm

N Normal 11·0 ppm

3N 3 Normal 33·0 ppm

Phosphorus P/3 1/3 Normal 12·4 ppm

p Normal 37·2 ppm

3P 3 Normal 101·6ppm

The concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the year 1960~61 were changed on the basis of the experience gained in the first year. During 1960~61 N/3 (3 · 7 ppm) was replaced by the 9N (99 · 0 ppm) treatment and the 3P treatment was dropped in favour of P/9 ( 4·1 ppm) concentration of phosphorus. The following five pH levels were maintained in each season :

pH 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9

All possible combinations of nitrogen and phosphorus were used at five different pH levels. There were five replica-tions for each treatment. The nutrient solureplica-tions were renewed at weekly intervals after leaching out the old solutions. Then the requisite amount of sulphuric acid or sodium hydroxide was added to adjust the pH in a particular pot to a desired level. Nitrogen was supplied as ammonium nitrate and phosphorus was given as sodium dihydrogen phosphate.

(3)

24 INDIAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Observations were recorded for a large number of charac-ters after the first supply of nutrient solutions. For example at random samples of the plants were taken for their fresh and dry weights at weekly intervals. Heights of the plants were recorded till they were 15 weeks old. However for the sake of breviety the important results at the time of harvest are presented in this communication.

The oil content of the seeds was determined by the standard Soxhlet's ether extraction process. The total nitrogen content in the seeds was estimated by digesting the material and followed by Nesselerisation. This was followed by studying absorbancy of the colour in a colorimeter and checking against a standard.

RESULTS

Experiment of 1959-60.--In the Tables I, III, V, and VII data on the dry weights of shoot and root, yield of seeds and on percentage and actual content of oil of seed have been summa-rized. It is evident that the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and pH and of the interactions, nitrogen x phosphorus, nitrogen x pH, and nitrogen X phosphorus x pH were significant. The triple interaction of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH also significantly affected the dry weights of shoot and root and the yield.

The highest dry weight of the shoot was obtained at the highest concentration of nitrogen, the lowest concentration of phosphorus, and at pH 6. The growth of the plants was depressed at higher pH levels. An increased supply of nitrogen in relation to pH further depressed the dry weight of the shoot. For example, the ratio between the dry weights obtained at N/3 X

pH 9 and N /3 X pH 6 was 0 · 69. This ratio decreased to 0 · 42

at a higher level of nitrogen supply, e.g. at 3N x pH 9 and 3N X pH 6 levels. Similarly at the higher levels of phosphorus

supply the higher pH had a more depressing effect (Table I). However, of all the treatments 3N xP/3 xpH 6 proved to be the best medium for the growth of shoot.

(4)

GROWTH OF LINSEED

25

Table I. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the shoot dry weight (g) at harvest in linseed: 19 59-60

Treatments

N/3 x P/3 N/3 X P N/3 X 3P

5

0·738 0·670 0·704

6

0·626 0·678 0·916

pH levels

7

0·686 0·530 0·582

8

0·416 0·390 0·330

9

0·547 o-:>18 0·436

MeanforN/3 X pH 0·704 0·740 0·599 0·379 0·509 l'viean

for NxP

0·608 0·557 0·594

l'viean for

N

0·586

---~---N. X P/3 0·592 1·126 0·760 0·918 1·126 0·932

NxP 0·880 0·988 0·990 0·988 1·128 0·995 0·856 N X 3P 0·840 0·896 0·846 0·416 0·200 0·640

Mean for N X pH 0·771 1·003 0·865 0·774 0·618

·

-3N X P/3 1·078 2·344 1·766 0·660 0·962 1·362 3N X P 1· 382 1·190 1·022 0·562 0·638 0·959 1·012 3N X 3P 1·188 0·762 0·612 0·782 0·230 0·715

Meanfor3N X pH 1·216 1·432 1·133 0·668 0·610

Mean for pH 0·897 1·058 0·866 0·661 0·579

Mean for P P/3 p 3P

0·967 0·837 0·650

C.D. at 5%: Nitrogen=0·106; Phosphorus=0·106; pH=O· 137;

Nitrogen X pH=0·235; Nitrogen X Phoshphorus X pH=0·417

of nitrogen and phosphorus showed that the higher level of P at the higher level of N supply depressed root growth. Further, the influence of nitrogen x pH was also significant at the 3N level of nitrogen. Of all the treatments, 3N x P xpH 5 produced the maximum root growth.

An increase in the supply of nitrogen and phosphorus decreased the yield. However at all three levels of nitrogen yield was better with the lowest dose of phosphorus. The yield was also reduced considerably at high level of nitrogen at the alkaline pH and with higher concentration of phosphorus. The treatment 3N xP/3 xpH 6 gave the maximum yield of linseed.

(5)

2() INDIAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Table ll. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the dry weight (g) at harvest in linseed: 1960-61

Treatments

:'f c; Pj9

N >; P/3

~X p

:\lean for N x pH

pH levels

j 6 7

--- ---~ ---- -

-0·804 0·819 0·936 0·883 0·83.i 0·898 0·919 0·884 0·817 ---~---~---·

0·868 0·8+6 0·883

1·705 I ·513 I· .'i62

8 9

0·876 0·880 1·093

0·873 0·68i 0·687

0·949 0·7Hl

1·420 :VIe an

lor

N

0·8.i9

31'\ < P/9 3N X P/3

3:\T X P 1·9:>

I 1·90+ I ·671

1·539

I· 363 1· 28:i

I· 7:i9 1 ·627

:\lean for 3N X pH

9:\ X P/9 9N >< P/3

9:\T X l'

1·642 1·992 1·773 1·338

1·766 1·803 1·668 1·396 1·505

2·054 2·561 2. 511

3·180 3·068 3·1:i8

2·138 2·232 2·203

1·946 1·804 1·619 1·+78 2·070 1·390

2·247

-'--__ ,

____

:\lean for 9N x pH 2·375 3·133 2 ·291 1·878 l·:i:i7

:\lean for pH 1·670 1·927 1·614 1·408 1·271

C.D. at 5°~ : NitrogPn=0·124; pHo~-0·160; Nitrogen pH=0·278

Table III. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the dT)' weight of roots (mg) in linseed: 1959-60

-pH leYcls Mean 1-Iean

Treatments --- --- for for

''

6 7 g 9 NxP N

. - - - --·

N/3 X P/3 204 208 I i4 ]()0 138 17::1

N/3 X P/3 191 211 12R 1 Hi 174 161 183

N/3 X 3P 221 201 219 2H 120 207

- - -

-:\lean for N/3 X pH 205 207 167 183 IH

N X P/3 212 309 191 :HO 262 263

:'f X p 229 2i0 21-7 318 275 262 269

:'f X 3P +27 29i 289 198 212 284

- --- - - - -

----Mean for N X pH 289 :zs_-, 243 285 2:10

-3:"-l" X P/3 :'iOI .;o_-, 375 273 223 376

3N X p 'iH 312 2:)7 1+6 202 292 304

3N X 3P ·l-23 2+9 224 26H 49 242

--- . --- -

---:\Iean for 301 >< pH 485 3:,:, 2fF} 229 J:i8

- - - -- - - ---~~---~

~---Mean lor pH 326 293 232 232 184

---~~----~-- -C.D. at:,~~: Nitrogcn=0·029; pH=37; Nitrogen X Phosphorus=51;

(6)

GROWTH OF LINSEED '27

of oil was influenced because of the fact that the yield of seeds was affected.

Experiment of 1960-61.-The results of the 1959-60

experi-ment showed that the 3P level was too high and the N/3 level was too low for the satisfactory growth of the plants. Accord-ingly N/3 and 3P treatments were replaced by 9N and P/9 doses respectively. However the same five pH levels were maintained. Nitrogen, pH and their interactions influenced the growth of the plants significantly (Table II). An increase in the nitrogen level increased the dry weight of shoot. Again pH 6 proved to be the best medium for growth. As it was observed earlier the growth of the plants was depressed at the higher pH levels. Of all the combinations of nitrogen and pH, the 9N xpH 6 produced maximum dry matter of shoot. The depressing in-fluence of pH was more obvious at the higher concentration of nitrogen. A similar trend was observed during the 1959-60 season.

The change in nitrogen and phosphorus levels during 1960-61 did not indicate any change in the trend of their effect on root growth observed in the previous year (Table IV).

Table IV. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the d~y weight of roots (mg) in linseed: 1960-61

Treatments

:'\ X I' /9 N ~< P/3 NxP

:\lean for I\ X pH

3'\ X P/9

3N x P/3 3N X P

Mean for 3N X pH

9N X P/9 9:'>1 X P/3

9N X P

Mean for 9N x pH

Mean fo:· pH

130 18J. 224 196 402 458 410 423 416 620 476 504 374

pH levels

G 163 17~1 190 177 236 123 438 384 578 592 750 640 400 7 216 213 154 195 333 300 3H8 342 :J!2 423 498 479 337 H 291 164 172 :no 260 310 192 261 346 340 48G 390 283 l\lean lor

9

Nitro-gcn 1HH 171- 193 204 188 370

336 351

274 · - - - - -343 328 322 328 326 286 1GB

C. D. at 5% :Nitrogen= 31; pH -- 39; Nitrogen >~ pH - 68; Nitrogen X

(7)

28 INDIAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

There was no significant effect of phosphorus levels while the increased supply of nitrogen had a beneficial effect on root growth. Again there was no significant difference in the growth of roots at pH 5 and 6, but at other pH levels root dry weight was reduced significantly. Significant differences in the root growth appeared at the highest concentration of nitrogen in relation to pH. The treatment 9N xP xpH 6 proved to be the best medium for the growth of roots.

Table V. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the yield of .seed (g): 1959-60

pH levels Mean Mean

Treatments ~---~---~--- for for

"

6 7 8 9 NxP N

---~--- - - - · - - - ·

---~---N/3 X P/3 0·262 0·212 0·213 0·138 0·187 0·202 N/3 xP 0·140 0·21:) 0·165 0·116 0·118 0·151 0·161 N/3 X 3P 0·189 0·211 0·110 0·057 0·080 0·129

Mean for N/3 X pH 0·197 0·213 0·163 0·103 0·128

~--- - - -

---N X P/3 0·179 0·290 0·197 0·258 0·324 0·250 NxP 0·069 0·170 0·191 0·234 0·219 0·176 0·161 N x 3P 0·078 0·052 0·072 0·076 0·002 0·056

Mean for N X pH 0·109 0·171 0·153 0·189 0·182

- - - -- - - · - - - -- - - · - - -

-3N X P/3 0·166 0·446 0·225 0·096 0·150 0·216 3N X p 0·077 0·055 0·064 0·032 0·037 0·053 0·098 3N X 3P 0·044 0·031 0·010 0·030 0·002 0·023

Mean for 3N X pH 0 · 095 0 · I 77 0 · I 00 0 · 053 0 · 063

Mean for pH 0·133 0·187 0·138 0·115 0·124

:\lt>an for P P/3 P 3P 0·223 0·127 0·067

C.D. at 5~0: Nitrogen=0·023; Phosphorus=0·023; pH=0·03; Nitrogen X Phos-phorus=0·052; Nitrogen X Phosphorus X pH=0·09.

The yield of linseed was significantly affected by nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH independently of each other. In addition, the interactions of nitrogen and phosphorus, nitrogen X pH, and

nitrogen X phosphorus xpH also had significant effects (Table VI),

(8)

GROWTH OF LINSEED

29

Table VI. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the grain ~vield(g)

in linseed: 1960-61

Treatments pH levels

5 6 7 8 9

.Mean lor NxP

1\iean for

N

~---

---~----~X P/9 0·250 0·209 0·296 0·241 0·139 0·227

N X P/3 0·242 0·232 0·242 0·283 0·170 0·234 0·229

~ X p 0·206 0·253 0·215 0·305 0·149 0·226

---~-

-Mean for N X pH 0·233 0·231 0·251 0·276 0·153

---~---3N X P/9 0·404 0·272 0·295 0·254 0·250 0·293

3N X P/3 0·284 0·283 0·315 0·155 0·238 0·255 0·264 3N X p 0·273 0·334 0·330 0·165 0·118 0·244

-Meanfor3N X pH 0·320 0·296 0·313 0·191 0·202

9N X P/9 9P X P/3 9N X P

0·223 0·128 0·247

0·648 0·307 0·183

0·251 0·068 0·098

0·188 0·017 0·022

0·201 0·052 0·027

0·302 0·114 0·115

0·177

- - -

-Meanfor9N X pH 0·199 0·379 0·139 0·078 0·093

- - - ---~-

-Mean for pH 0·251 0·303 0·234 0·182 0·149

- - -

-Mean for P P/9 P/3 P

0·274 0·201 0·195

C.D. at 5% : Nitrogen=0·031; Phosphorus=0·031; pH=0·04; Nitrogen X Phos-phorus=0·054; Nitrogen x pH=0·07; Nitrogen X Phosphorus X

____ pH=0·!_24_. ____ _ ___ ____ _______________ _ ______ _ _____ _

Table VII. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the oil percentage andyield (mg) in linseed: 1959-60

- - -

-pH levels Treatnwnts

5 6 7 8 9

- - - · - - -

-% Yield % Yield % Yield % Yield % Yield

~---·

-N/3 X P/3 31·9 83 41·0 87 43·0 92 42·8 28 33·8 63 N/3 X P 34·5 84 32·5 70 32·4 53 34·2 40 32·0 38 N/3 ;-: 3P 21i. 7 51 27 ·6 58 25·6 28 22·0 12 29·9 24

N X P/3 32·8 59 29·8 86 30·7 GO 3:i·4 91 30·8 100 N X p 29·1 20 23·2 39 29·8 :i7 28·8 67 27.7 61

N X 3P 17·0 13 22·0 II 12·0 9 20·9 10

3N X P/3 31·6 52 29·8 133 25·6 58 2'>·4 24 32·2 4:i

3N XP 24·6 19 24·7 14 18·5 12 26·8 10

3N X 3P 19·9 8 12·0 4

(9)

30 INDIAN .JOURNAL OF PLA~T PHYSIOLOGY

addition, the adverse effect of pH became more obvious with the increase of nitrogen concentration in the medium. The lowest level of phosphorus was optimal individually and in combina-tion. An increased supply of this element lowered the yield of linseed. The combination 9N xP/9 xpH proved to be the best treatment for the yield of linseed.

The effects of the treatments on the oil percentage showed a pattern more or less similar to that of 1959~60. The yield of oil was dependent upon the yield of seeds, and maximum oil content was obtained at the 3N level. However in combination with

100 ~

1"\"'-/·rt~

~

/953-(,0

cl

so

~

..

60 ~

-....

40 0

./•N/3 . • ---.

•p

r

2.0

3N.-~

•3P

0

120

I

9

60-61

100 ~ 1:'

80

{

~ \.1

60 ~

...

40

....

~

20

r

9K p

0.

5 6 7 8

9

5 6 7 8 9

pH Levels

Frc;. I. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus at different levels of oil

(10)

GROWTH OF LINSEED 31 phosphorus and pH the treatments 9N xP/9 and 9N xpH 6 produced greater amount of oil (Fig. 1). Again the triple combination of9N xP/9 xpH 6 was the most successful treatment. The lowest level of phosphorus was the best treatment individually and in the combination of nitrogen and pH (Table VIII).

Table VIII. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the oil percentage andyield (mg) in linseed: 1959-60

pH levels

6 7 8 9

Treatments

~~ Yield % Yield % Yield % Yield ~;, Yield

- - - -.. - - - ---~

·---~~---·-:'II X P/9

N X P/3

:'II >< p

3N x P/9 3N X P/3 3N X P

9N X P/9

9:'11 X P/3

9N X P

26·1

27·1

2:) ·6

20·3 21· 7 21·8 22·5 22·2 21·'i 6:) 66 'i3 82 62 :)9 50 28 .'i3

28 ·I :i9

26·9 62

30·3 77

21·3 :iS

24·3 69

24·0 80

29·6 192

27·4 84

26·0 48

33·0 98 29·2 70 27 ·8 39

30·1 73 28·8 82 29·4 :i1

29·0 62 29·+ 90 26·9 +0

27 ·1 80 24·1 61 23·2 ;,g

30·1 95 '27. :) 43 28·9 69

24·5 81 19·3 32 2'i·8 30

26·1 66 20·7 39 24·0 48

---Table IX. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the total nitrogen content of seeds of linseed in mg : 1960-61

Tr~atmcnts

6

N X P/9 13·2 13·2

N X P/3 9·7 10· 7

:'II >< p 10·9 9·4

---

·-·~---·---·-l\l<'an for :'II X pH 11·3 11·1 ---·----

---~-~--"·---3N X p!O 15·3 16·3

3:-i , ,

P/3 20·7 16·2

:1:\' ,, p 17·2 20 ·1

;\lean for 3N X pH 17·7 17·5

9!\ >: P/9 9N X P/3 9N X P

13·4 7·7 9·0 14·3 7·0 5·2 pH levels 7

11·1 12·8

12 ·1 14·9

13. :) 16·1 - - - - -

---12·2 14·6

16·0 9·4

II ,3 4·:i

19·8 3·8

15·7 'i·9

12. :) .1-:->

1·5 0·5

4·2 0 ·:)

9

3·2 4·4 2·9

3 .Ci

,~,. 7 .)•:) 3·2 4·8 'l·O 1· 7 1· 7 :\lean for NxP 9·98 ~lean tor :'\

10·36 10·30 10·56

12·54 11·6,t I:!· 30 12·82

10·94 3·68 4·12

(j .:z:;

-~---··---·---

----··---Mean for 9N X pH 10 · 0 8·8 6·1 2·2 4·1

- - - ---·--~-··---- - · - - - · - - · - - -~

:\lean for pH 13·0 12. :) 11· 3 7·6 +·1

---~---· ~ - · - - - - · - · · - - - -

-Mean for P P/9 P13 p

(11)

32

INDIAN JOURNAL OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

The seeds were also analysed for the total nitrogen content (Table IX). The seeds contained maximum amount of nitrogen at the 3N level. In addition, the accumulation of nitrogen decreased with the increase in pH level. This was true as an individual dTect of the pH and in combination with nitrogen treatments.

CoNcLusiONs

It is clear from the present investigation that the individual effects of the nutrients are modifted to a large extent in relation to other nutrient elements and the reaction of the medium. Though the heavy application of nitrogen increased the growth and yield of linseed at pH 6, it had a depressing effect at pH 9. The effect of increase in concentration of phosphorus was generally insignificant. The triple interaction of nitrogen, phos-phorus, and pH was however always significant. The treatment which produced maximum dry matter of shoot and yield were 3N xP/3 xpH 6 during 1959-60 and 9N xP/9 x pH 6 during 1960-61. The best root growth occurred in the treatment combination, 3N xP xpH 5 during 1959-60 and 9N xP xpH 6 in 1960-61. This indicates that the phosphorus requirements for the shoot and root growth are slightly different.

The yield of linseed was apparently affected adversely due to decreased seed setting at high levels of nitrogen. It was reported by Sinha and Saxena ( 1965) that heavy application of nitrogen increased the production of flower buds and flowers but the number of matured fruits and seeds was considerably reduced. In addition, the 1 ,000-seed weight was also reduced at higher levels of nitrogen.

Heavy application of nitrogen also reduced oil, the maximal percentage as well as total content being obtained at the N/3 level in 1959-60. However, among all the combina-tions of nitrogen, phosphorus and pH, maximum oil production was obtained at 3N xP xpH 6. Similarly during 1960-61 the highest oil percentage was obtained at N xP/9 xpH 7, whereas the highest total content of oil was recorded at 9N x P /9 x pH 6. The pH 6 was more favourable for oil production.

AcKNOWLEDGEMENTs

(12)

GROWTH OF LINSEED 33 appreciate the help offered by the authorities of D.A.V. College and the Government Agriculture College, Kanpur for providing working facilities.

REFERENCES

Black, C. A. (1957). Soil Plant Relationship. John Wiley & Sons Inc. ]\". Y. Daubenmire, R. F. (1959). Plants and Environment.

Hall, I. V., Alders, L. E., and Townsend, L. R. (1964). The effects of soil pH on the mineral composition and growth of lowbush blueberry. Can. J. Plant Sci.,

44:433-38.

Hoagland, D. R. and Brayer, T. C. (1940). Hydrogen ion-concentration effects and accumulation of salt by barley roots as influenced by metabolism. Amm.

]. Bot., 27: 173-85.

McEvoy, E. T. (1964). The effects of pH and calcium on the uptake of radio-phosphorus by flue-cured tobacco. Can. J. Plant Sci., 44: 28-31.

Miller, E. C. (1938). Plant Physiology. McGraw Hill Publication, N.Y.

Sinha, S. K. (1962). Response of certain nutrient elements in crop plants in relation to pH as reflected by growth and uptake. Ph. D. Thesis, Agra University. - - - - and Saxena, S. S. ( 1965). Reproductive characters in linseed as affected by different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH. Can. J. Plant Sci.,

Figure

Table I. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the shoot dry weight (g) at harvest in linseed: 19 59-60
Table ll. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the dry weight (g) at harvest in linseed: 1960-61
Table VI. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and pH on the grain ~vield(g) in linseed: 1960-61

References

Related documents

The present study revealed that the ALEE attenuated both MES - induced tonic and PTZ - induced clonic seizures indicating that ALEE possesses anticonvulsant effects.. In the MES

In sum, if the current situation continues and the nominal prices of all types of energy remain the same causing the real prices to decline over time, and despite tbe slower growtb

Power Quality [1,5] has regained consciousness due to certain visual effects occurring in the day to day household applications. Some of the inevitable visual effects

In view of these communication problems, a wholesale revision of academic evaluation mechanisms shall be ne cessary, because at present there is little direct incentive for

This means that in the case of copper fins, benefits related to increasing fin efficiency with increasing fin thickness diminishes faster due to reducing of convective heat

We performed the present study to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of a rapid serologic assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis based on detection of IgM, IgA and IgG

The 17 TQM practices were ranked on the basis of this analysis and it was found that 10 TQM practices such as Customer Focus, Process management and efficiency, Education