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太極拳 TAIJI BOXING 孫劍雲 整理 孫祿堂 原著

by Sun Jianyun, based on original material by Sun Lutang

[published by 人民體育出版社 The People’s Physical Education Press, Sep, 1957] [translation by Paul Brennan, March, 2015]

CONTENTS Foreword Introduction Part One [Solo Set]

Posture 1: BEGINNING POSTURE Posture 2: TUCK IN THE ROBE Posture 3: OPENING HANDS

Posture 4: CLOSING HANDS Posture 5: SINGLE WHIP Posture 6: RAISE THE HAND

Posture 7: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS Posture 8: OPENING HANDS

Posture 9: CLOSING HANDS

Posture 10: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (LEFT) Posture 11: PLAY THE LUTE (LEFT)

Posture 12: ADVANCE, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH Posture 13: SEALING SHUT

Posture 14: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN Posture 15: OPENING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT)

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Posture 16: CLOSING HANDS

Posture 17: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE [RIGHT] Posture 18: TUCK IN THE ROBE

Posture 19: OPENING HANDS Posture 20: CLOSING HANDS Posture 21: SINGLE WHIP

Posture 22: GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW Posture 23: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY (LEFT) Posture 24: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY (RIGHT) Posture 25: PLAY THE LUTE (RIGHT)

Posture 26: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS Posture 27: OPENING HANDS

Posture 28: CLOSING HANDS

Posture 29: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (LEFT) Posture 30: PLAY THE LUTE (LEFT)

Posture 31: THREE THROUGH THE BACK

Posture 32: TUCK IN THE ROBE Posture 33: OPENING HANDS Posture 34: CLOSING HANDS Posture 35: SINGLE WHIP Posture 36: CLOUDING HANDS

Posture 37: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE Posture 38: RIGHT LIFTING KICK

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Posture 39: LEFT LIFTING KICK Posture 40: TURN AROUND, KICK Posture 41: STEP SUCCESSIVELY, PUNCH Posture 42: TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK Posture 43: DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING TIGER Posture 44: LEFT KICK

Posture 45: RIGHT PRESSING KICK

Posture 46: STEP FORWARD, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH Posture 47: SEALING SHUT

Posture 48: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN Posture 49: OPENING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT)

Posture 50: CLOSING HANDS

Posture 51: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE Posture 52: TUCK IN THE ROBE

Posture 53: OPENING HANDS Posture 54: CLOSING HANDS

Posture 55: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP Posture 56: WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE Posture 57: OPENING HANDS

Posture 58: CLOSING HANDS Posture 59: SINGLE WHIP

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Posture 61: MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE Posture 62: TUCK IN THE ROBE

Posture 63: OPENING HANDS Posture 64: CLOSING HANDS Posture 65: SINGLE WHIP Posture 66: CLOUDING HANDS

Posture 67: LOWERING FROM CLOUDING HANDS Posture 68: ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG Posture 69: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY Posture 70: PLAY THE LUTE (RIGHT)

Posture 71: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS Posture 72: OPENING HANDS

Posture 73: CLOSING HANDS

Posture 74: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE Posture 75: PLAY THE LUTE

Posture 76: THREE THROUGH THE BACK Posture 77: OPENING HANDS

Posture 78: CLOSING HANDS Posture 79: SINGLE WHIP Posture 80: CLOUDING HANDS

Posture 81: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE Posture 82: CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK

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Posture 84: RETREAT, TUCK IN THE ROBE Posture 85: OPENING HANDS

Posture 86: CLOSING HANDS Posture 87: SINGLE WHIP

Posture 88: LOWERING FROM SINGLE WHIP Posture 89: STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER Posture 90: STEP BACK TO RIDE THE TIGER

Posture 91: TURN-TO-THE-CORNER SWINGING LOTUS KICK Posture 92: BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER

Posture 93: DOUBLE RUSHING PUNCHES

Posture 94: PASSIVE & ACTIVE MERGE INTO ONE Posture 95: FINISHING POSTURE

Part Two: Taiji Boxing’s Pushing Hands Methods Appendix: Reference Material

1. Wang Zongyue’s Taiji Boxing Treatise 2. Wu Yuxiang’s Taiji Boxing Treatise

3. Understanding How to Practice the Thirteen Dynamics 4. Thirteen Dynamics Song

5. Pushing Hands Song

6. Li Yiyu’s Five-Word Formula 7. The Trick to Releasing

8. Essentials in Practicing the Solo Set & Playing Hands –

FOREWORD

My father, Sun Lutang, was energetic his whole life. He intensively studied Xingyi Boxing, Bagua Boxing, and Taiji Boxing, practicing only Taiji Boxing in his later years. He learned his Taiji set from Hao

Weizhen. In my youth, I was taught by my father personally, and I practiced under his supervision and encouragement. I am therefore ashamed that my skill is not high and that I have merely a superficial

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understanding.

For the sake of popularizing this Taiji Boxing set, I have dared to base it on my father’s revisions to his original book. I have strived to make the explanations within readable for all so that beginning students can practice according to them. Within the section on movements, they are according to my father’s practice and writings from his later life, and are therefore slightly different from his original book. As for Taiji Boxing theory, there are the detailed essays of Wong Zongyue, Wu Yuxiang, and Li Yiyu, which have been specially included as an appendix section for reference.

The photographic plates for my father’s original book are already lost. I have compensated for this with photos of myself, also including numerous additional photos to fill in for where the explanations are insufficient. Wherever I have done a poor job in this book, I hope readers will make corrections.

During the editing of this manuscript, my “elder brother” Hu Xipu gave me much help and I sincerely thank him for it.

– written by Sun Jianyun, May, 1957 –

INTRODUCTION

Taiji Boxing is a peculiarly Chinese martial art, but in exactly what era or from which person it began, traditions differ, and these things still await verification. Yet experience of it will demonstrate that it has the functions of strengthening the body, preventing disease, and prolonging life. This is because it is a kind of exercise in which “inside and out are simultaneously cultivated”,

internally calming the mind and nourishing the temperament, externally tempering the physique, enabling all the organs to become more robust, consequently strengthening the body’s capacity to withstand its surrounding environment, preventing and eliminating illnesses. By doing the movements slowly, the breathing naturally deepens and lengthens, and can strengthen the functioning of the circulatory and respiratory systems. Therefore practicing Taiji Boxing can help you recover from tuberculosis, heart disease, high blood pressure, and other ailments. Of even greater significance is the constant use of consciousness to direct the movements, consequently enhancing the functioning of the nervous system.

The movements in Taiji Boxing are comparatively mild, and so it can be practiced by both men and women, and by both young and old. Although there are different versions of the practice set, with a few of the postures being giving variant names, the principles of the art are the same.

Taiji Boxing’s postures and movements all have specific requirements and each has a specific meaning. You must practice in accordance with these requirements. The requirements of the art are presented briefly below:

Head:

Your head should have an intention of pressing up, but must not do so with exertion. By pressing your head up, the headtop is made upright and spirit is concentrated.

Mouth:

Your mouth should be gently closed, tongue touching your upper palate. Breathe through your nose, and the breath should be even and fine.

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Your shoulders should loosen and hang down. They should on no account be lifting, which would cause your energy to rise upward.

Elbows:

Your elbows should drop down. If your elbows are dropped, then your shoulders will hang, and the energy within your belly will then be able to sink to your elixir field. With your elbows dropped, your arms will be bent. This has to do with: “Within curving, seek to be straightening. Store and then issue.” Hands:

Your fingers are to be loose (i.e. should not be held together) and your wrists should sink. Chest:

Your chest should be contained and must not stick out. When your chest is contained, energy sinks, but if your chest sticks out, energy will rise up. If energy rises, then you will be heavy above and light below, and your heels will float up, which is something to be avoided in boxing arts.

Waist:

When practicing the set, it is necessary to settle your waist, because the waist is the controller of the whole body. In turning left or right, and in advancing or retreating, by way of complete reliance on your waist there will be power coursing through.

Legs:

Your legs should be bent and should not be straight, and there should be distinction between empty and full (i.e. the weight placed onto one leg at a time), otherwise the movement will not be nimble.

Energy:

It is said that “energy sinks to your elixir field” (three inches below the navel), which signifies deep breathing. Deep breathing is always a very important idea in Taiji Boxing, but you must not forcefully press the energy down and should instead let it happen naturally.

Movement & Stillness:

In our nation’s meditation methods, we seek movement within stillness, but in Taiji Boxing we seek stillness within movement. When practicing the set, your mind should be calm and your spirit focused, and thereby the movements can be nimble.

Intention & Exertion:

A characteristic of Taiji Boxing is the use of intention rather than exertion. Because Taiji Boxing seeks to use a lively strength, you should seek for both extreme softness and extreme hardness, for both extreme heaviness and extreme nimbleness. Where intention goes, power goes, and a lively strength is naturally generated. If you instead use an awkward exertion, it will be sluggish and ineffective, strength only on the outer surface, and this is incompatible with the requirements of internal boxing arts.

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Posture 1: BEGINNING POSTURE

1. Your body stands straight, your hands hanging down, shoulders loosened. Your feet are spread at the toes to make nearly a ninety degree angle. Your emotions are at peace. Slightly pause here. Your gaze is ahead and level. See photo 1:

2.Your right toes lift. Use your heel to pivot the foot halfway to the left to make a forty-five degree angle with your left foot. Your waist should be sinking and there must be no use of awkward effort. Your tongue is touching your upper palate. Your breathing should be natural. See photo 2:

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Posture 2: TUCK IN THE ROBE

1. Your arms go forward and upward until at shoulder level, palms facing each other as though you are holding a ball. Your legs do not move. See photo 3:

2. Once the previous posture seems to stop but not yet stop, your hands then lower in front of your belly. At the same time, your legs slowly bend, your left heel slowly lifting. See photo 4:

3. Your left foot steps out forward, heel touching down. At the same time, your hands slowly extend forward from your ribs, the hands still in the shape of holding a ball, arms slightly bent. Your right foot

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goes along with your hands as they extend forward by doing a forward follow step, stopping behind your left foot, about two or three inches away from it, toes touching down. As your right foot does the follow step, your left foot gradually comes down fully. Your gaze goes between your hands. See photos 5 & 6:

4. Your hands arc horizontally to the right, and once they are angled straight ahead, your right palm turns over to face upward, left hand facing downward. As your hands begin to turn, your left toes lift, heel touching down, and the foot pivots to the right along with your hands, your right heel at the same time slowly touching down. Your gaze is toward your right hand. See photos 7 & 8:

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5. Continuing from the previous posture, your right palm, facing upward and at shoulder level, draws a half circle to the right and rear, your left hand going along with the action of your right hand. Both hands turn until the palms are facing outward, your left hand seeming to support your right wrist, and they push forward, arms slightly bent. As your hands arc to the rear, your right toes lift and the foot twists outward until straight. As your hands push forward, your right foot steps out forward, heel touching down and the foot gradually coming down fully. Your left foot then does a follow step behind your right foot, toes touching down about two or three inches away from your right heel. Your gaze is toward your right hand. Slightly pause. From the beginning to this point, the movement should be continuous and uninterrupted. See photos 9 & 10:

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Posture 3: OPENING HANDS

Continuing from the previous posture, your right toes lift and the foot pivots to the left, your body turning to the left. At the same time, your palms face each other and spread apart to the sides as though holding a balloon (which is inflating) until the tiger’s mouths are in front of your shoulders, fingertips pointing upward, hands about one or two inches away from your shoulders, fingers spread. Slightly pause. See photo 11:

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Posture 4: CLOSING HANDS

Continuing from the previous posture, your hands slowly close inward toward each other until their distance from each other is the same as their distance from your face, and there is a slight pause. At the same time, your legs bend, your right foot comes down, and your left heel lifts, toes touching down. Your gaze goes between your hands. Your whole body should loosen and there must not be the slightest bit of strained effort. See photo 12:

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First your wrists turn outward, then as though they are stroking along a long pole, they slowly spread apart to the sides until your arms are raised horizontally, palms facing outward and standing upright at eye level. Your gaze is toward your right forefinger. As your hands spread apart, your left foot steps sideways to the left, coming down with the toes slanted outward, legs slightly bent, and there is a slight pause. At this time, your upper body should be upright, your arms should loosen, and your breathing should be natural. The energy within your belly must not be pressed down with an awkward exertion. See photo 13:

Posture 6: RAISE THE HAND

Continuing from the previous posture, first shift the weight to your left leg, sink your waist, then your left hand draws an arc forward until in front of your forehead, palm facing outward, as your right hand arcs downward until in front of your belly, fingers pointing downward. At the same time, your right foot draws close to your left leg, toes touching down in line with your left toes, the heels about half an inch apart, legs slightly bent. Your body maintains stability. See photo 14:

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Posture 7: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS

1.Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand lowers from your forehead to be in front of your chest, elbow close to your ribs, and your right hand lifts from your lower abdomen to your head, the back of the hand close to your forehead. As your hands lift and lower, your right foot steps forward, heel touching down. As for the distance between your feet, as long as it does not get to the point that it leads the weight to shift, it is appropriate. See photo 15:

2. Continuing, your right hand passes along the right side of your face (as though near but not near), lowering (elbow hanging straight downward) until level with your left hand, and then together they push

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out forward. As your hands push forward, your right toes slowly come down, and the weight shifts to your right leg. As your right toes come down, your left heel lifts, and does a follow step forward until behind your right heel, toes touching down. Sink your waist. Your arms are slightly bent. Your gaze goes between your hands. Slightly pause. See photos 16 & 17:

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Posture 9: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 19:

Posture 10: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (LEFT)

Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand lowers to your right side, lowering in an arc to brush diagonally downward from the right side of your solar plexus until at your left hip, the thumb and forefinger spread open, the thumb about an inch or two from the hip. As your left hand brushes, your left foot takes a step to the left corner. At the same time, your right hand lowers to the right side, the palm

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turning to face upward, and spreads away to the right side until the thumb is level with your right shoulder, then pushes out horizontally to the left side. When pushing, the height of the hand uses the tip of the forefinger at about an inch away from the corner of your mouth as a standard, arm slightly bent, and you should sink the wrist. As your right hand pushes forward, your right foot does a follow step forward, coming down behind your left lower leg, toes touching down. Your gaze is again toward the tip of your right forefinger. The weight has shifted to your left leg and there is a slight pause. See photos 20 & 21:

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Continuing from the previous posture, the fingers of both hands extend so the tiger’s mouths are facing upward, and your right foot withdraws a step, toes touching down. As for the distance of the withdrawing step, as long as it does not lead the weight to shift, it is appropriate. At the same time, your right hand pulls back and your left hand extends forward, left hand forward, right hand behind. Your right fingers are beside your left wrist and your elbows are hanging down. Your left foot at the same time withdraws to be in front of your right foot, the heel about an inch away from your right foot, toes touching down, and as your left foot withdraws, your right heel touches down. See photo 22:

Posture 12: ADVANCE, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH

Continuing from the previous posture, first your left hand brushes toward your left ribs, palm facing downward, while your left foot steps forward to come down diagonally with the toes pointing outward, and your right hand, palm facing upward, extends forward from under your left hand. Your right hand turns so the palm is facing downward and brushes toward your right ribs, your right foot stepping forward to come down diagonally with the toes pointing outward. The posture should not come to a halt, for your left hand then extends forward, covering downward, as your left foot steps directly forward. Your right hand grasps into a fist and strikes from your right ribs straight over the top of your left wrist (fist at solar plexus level). The back of your left hand is facing upward, the hand grasping into a fist as your right fist strikes out, and moves along your right forearm arm, your left arm bending in, until under your right elbow. As your right hand strikes out, your right foot does a follow step that stops about two or three inches away from your left heel. Your gaze is toward the middle knuckle of your right forefinger. See photos 23-26:

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Posture 13: SEALING SHUT

Continuing from the previous posture, first draw back your right hand, your left hand at the same time extending forward from under your right arm until your hands are side by side, palms facing outward. As your right hand withdraws, your right foot withdraws a step. As for the distance of the withdrawing step, as long as it does not lead the weight to shift, it is appropriate. Then your hands withdraw in unison with your left foot, the thumbs an inch apart, withdrawing in front of your chest until gently pressing against it. Your left foot withdraws until an inch in front of your right foot, toes touching down. See photo 27:

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Posture 14: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN

Continuing from the previous posture, your hands, palms facing outward, go forward together to “push the mountain” at chest height, arms slightly bent. Your gaze goes between your hands. As your hands push forward, your left foot steps forward and your right foot does a follow step to be about two or three inches away from your left foot. Slightly pause. See photo 28:

Posture 15: OPENING HANDS (TURNING TO THE RIGHT)

Continuing from the previous posture, your left toes lift, heel touching down, and the foot pivots to the right. With your thumbs about one or two inches away from your chest, your hands spread apart

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horizontally, stopping when the tiger’s mouths are in front of your shoulders, fingers spread. Slightly pause. See photo 29:

Posture 16: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 30:

Posture 17: BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE (RIGHT)

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Posture 18: TUCK IN THE ROBE

Continuing from the previous posture, your left wrist twists inward until the palm is facing upward, and at the same time, your right hand extends forward, palm facing downward, and your hands make a shape of holding a ball. As your hands move, your left foot withdraws, coming down with the toes slanted outward. Your hands then arc downward together until they are by your lower abdomen. As your hands arc downward, your right foot withdraws until about an inch in front of your left foot, toes touching down. Then your hands (still in a shape of holding a ball) turn over so the right palm is facing upward and left palm is facing downward, lift in front of your chest, and then carry forward together. At the same time, your right foot steps forward, your left foot then doing a follow step to be about an inch behind your

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right foot, toes touching down. Your left foot slightly pauses there, then withdraws, and your hands at the same time draw a level half circle to the rear. Once they are by your right shoulder, the palms turn to face outward. The weight is now shifted to your left leg and your right toes are lifted. Then your hands push out forward together from your right shoulder, arms slightly bent, left hand close to your right wrist. As your hands push forward, your right toes gradually come down and your left foot then does a follow step to be about two or three inches behind your right foot. See photos 33-38:

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Posture 20: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 40:

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Posture 22: GUARDING PUNCH UNDER THE ELBOW

Continuing from the previous posture, First your left hand twists in, then your right hand grasps into a fist, the arm bending and drawing in close to your ribs, then extends under your left elbow from in front of your belly. At the same time, your right foot steps forward to come down behind your left foot, toes touching down, your feet about half an inch apart. After a slight pause, your right foot withdraws and your left foot then withdraws to come down in front of your right foot, toes touching down, your hands maintaining their original posture. See photo 42:

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Continuing from the previous posture, first your left hand withdraws in front of your chest, the thumb about two or three inches away from your chest, palm covering downward, and your right hand, palm facing upward, lowers diagonally to the right. While your hands cover and lower, your right foot, toes lifting, heel touching down, twists inward as though turning a screw, and once the toes are pointing straight or at least slightly covering inward, bring the toes down. Then your left hand goes from in front of your chest and brushes in an arc diagonally to the left until the thumb is about an inch or two away from your left hip, your left foot at the same time stepping diagonally to the left side, heel touching down, and your right hand, palm facing upward, lifts up until level with your right shoulder, the palm now facing to the left. With the forefinger passing the right corner of your mouth, your right hand pushes out forward. The bending and extending of your arms is the same as in BRUSH KNEE IN A CROSSED STANCE. As your right hand pushes forward, your right foot does a follow step forward to be behind your left foot, coming down about two or three inches away from it, toes touching down. The movements of your hands and feet from beginning to end should be continuous and must not be interrupted. See photos 43 & 44:

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Posture 24: DRIVE AWAY THE MONKEY (RIGHT)

Continuing from the previous posture, first your left toes lift, the heel twists inward like turning a screw, and your right hand brushes in an arc diagonally to the right side until the thumb is about an inch or two from your right hip. Your left hand meanwhile lifts up, palm facing upward, and once at shoulder level the palm is facing to the right, then with the tip of the forefinger passing the left corner of your mouth, pushes forward. The movements of your hands, feet, and body are all the same as on the other side. When practicing, the posture is to be repeated on each side, and though the number of repeats is not restricted, it must total an even number. See photos 45 & 46:

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Posture 25: PLAY THE LUTE (RIGHT)

Continuing from the previous posture, the movement is the same as in Posture 11, except the orientations are reversed. See photo 47:

Posture 26: WHITE CRANE SHOWS ITS WINGS – Same as in Posture 7. See photo 48 [photos 48, 16 & 17]:

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Posture 27: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 49:

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Posture 30: PLAY THE LUTE (LEFT) – Same as in Posture 11. See photo 53:

Posture 31: THREE THROUGH THE BACK

Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand first turns so the palm is facing upward, then draws a circle downward and to the rear. It arcs upward to your forehead, then pushes straight down from in front of your face, stopping a foot away from your left toes. When your right hand arcs to the rear, your left hand withdraws to your left hip, palm facing downward. When your right hand pushes down, your left foot withdraws until an inch in front of your right foot, toes touching down, legs slightly bent. Your gaze is to your right hand. See photos 54 & 55:

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2.Continuing, your right arm lifts so the back of the hand is close to your forehead, your body going along with it and straightening up, your left hand at the same time going from the hip to extend forward at solar plexus level, the wrist sinking. During the movement of your hands, your left foot steps out forward, the distance between your feet depending on your height. Your legs should be bent, and the size of the step will be appropriate as long as it does not lead the weight to shift. Your gaze is toward your left forefinger. See photo 56:

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3.Continuing, your left toes lift and the foot pivots to the right. As your body turns until you are facing behind, your right toes lift and the foot pivots to point directly to the rear then comes down fully. As your body turns, your left hand arcs upward, the back of the hand close to your forehead. As your left hand arcs, your right hand pushes out forward from your forehead at shoulder level, the wrist sinking. The posture is now the same as in the previous posture, except the orientations are reversed. See photo 57:

4.Continuing, your left hand extends forward from your forehead until beside your right hand,

palms facing each other, your right foot at the same time withdrawing behind your left foot, coming down with the toes slanted outward (the distance between the feet again depending on your height, since

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everyone is not the same). Your hands then arc downward from in front, loosely grasping into fists, until right in front of your lower abdomen. At the same time, your left foot withdraws until an inch in front of your right foot, toes touching down, and your waist sinks. See photos 58 & 59:

5. Continuing, your fists lift in unison, rising close along your body until above your solar plexus, then extending forward and upward to eyebrow level. At the same time, your left foot steps out forward, coming down with the toes slanted outward, the weight still not shifting. Slightly pause. Then your fists lower and again come down to your lower abdomen. At the same time, your right foot steps out directly

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forward, the heel about an inch in front of your left foot, toes touching down. Your body is upright and should neither have lifted nor lowered. See photos 60 & 61:

Posture 32: TUCK IN THE ROBE

Continuing from the previous posture, your hands open and lift until in front of your chest, right palm facing upward, left palm facing downward, then carry forward in unison. At the same time, your right foot steps out forward and your left foot then does a follow step to be about an inch behind your right foot, toes touching down. Slightly pause and then withdraw, your hands drawing a level half circle to your right shoulder, whereupon the palms are facing outward. At the same time, the weight shifts back to your

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left leg and your right toes lift. Then your hands push out forward together from your right shoulder, arms slightly bent, left hand close to your right wrist. As your hands push forward, your right toes gradually come down and your left foot then does a follow step to be about two or three inches behind your right foot. See photos 62-65:

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Posture 34: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 67:

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Posture 36: CLOUDING HANDS

1.Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand arcs a half circle downward and to the right, the arm drawing close to your body, arcing until below your right shoulder. As your left hand arcs downward, your left foot draws close to your right foot to be about an inch away from it, toes touching down. Slightly pause. See photo 69:

2. Continuing, your left hand goes from below your right shoulder, arcing a half circle upward and to the left, your right hand at the same time arcing a half circle to the left until below your left shoulder. During the movement of your hands, your left foot steps sideways to the left, toes somewhat slanted outward. Slightly pause. When your hands arc to the left side, your right foot draws close to your left foot, coming

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down about two or three inches away from it, the toes of both feet slightly slanted toward the left side. Then your right hand arcs upward and your left hand arcs downward. When your hands arc to the right side, your left foot again steps out sideways to the left side, the distance when it comes down depending on your height and should not lead the weight to shift. Then your left hand again arcs upward, your right hand arcs downward, and your right foot comes over with a follow step. It cycles in this way three times. When your hands arc upward, the palms should always turn outward. When practicing, as your left hand goes to the right, your body goes along with it by slightly turning to the right, and as your right hand goes to the left, your body goes along with it by slightly turning to the left. See photo 70:

Posture 37: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE

1. Continuing from the previous posture, while your hands are clouding from left to right, your left hand goes downward, clouding until in front of your chest, elbow close to your body, tiger’s mouth facing upward, and when your right hand clouds in front of your face, it then goes downward from in front, the tiger’s mouth facing upward, until at chest height, and your arms are slightly bent. While your hands move, your left foot withdraws a step, your right foot following it as your right hand goes forward and downward, coming down in front of your left foot, toes touching down pointing straight, making a T-shape with your left foot, legs slightly bent. See photo 71:

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2. Continuing, your left hand turns so the palm is facing upward and your right hand turns so the palm is facing downward, stopping three or four inches above your left hand, your hands about one or two inches away from your solar plexus. As your right hand turns to face downward, your right toes twist inward so that they and your left toes are pointing toward each other, toes touching down. See photo 72:

3.Continuing, your hands twist in unison for the fingers to be pointing upward, wrists sinking. The posture is the same as in the CLOSING HANDS posture. At the same time, your left heel lifts and twists slightly to the right to be parallel with your right foot. Slightly pause. See photo 73:

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Posture 38: RIGHT LIFTING KICK

Continuing from the previous posture, your hands spread apart as in the SINGLE WHIP posture. As your hands spread, your right leg kicks, toes pointing upward, lifting to meet your right hand. Your gaze is toward your right hand. Your waist slightly sinks. The posture does not stop there. Your right foot then lowers, coming down at a distance from your left foot according to your height. Then your left foot goes next to your right foot, toes touching down, while your hands close inward toward each other as in the CLOSING HANDS posture. Your gaze is to the left. Slightly pause. See photo 74:

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Continuing from the previous posture, your hands again spread apart as in the SINGLE WHIP posture, and your left foot kicks, toes pointing upward, lifting to touch your left hand. Then the foot comes down, returning to its original place, toes touching down, while your hands make the CLOSING HANDS posture. Slightly pause. See photo 75:

Posture 40: TURN AROUND, KICK

Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot and your body turn slightly to the left, then your left foot kicks, your hands spreading apart, and hand and foot meet. Your gaze is toward your left forefinger.

Posture 41: STEP SUCCESSIVELY, PUNCH

Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot comes down in front, toes slanted outward. As the foot comes down, your left hand brushes back toward your left hip and stops, and your right hand goes downward from behind and extends forward, palm facing upward. Slightly pause. Then your right foot takes a step in front of your left foot, coming down with the toes slanted outward. As your right foot steps out, your left hand extends forward from your left hip, palm facing upward, your right hand pulling back in front of your chest, palm facing downward. Slightly pause. Your left foot steps forward, toes twisted inward. At the same time, your left hand turns so the palm is facing downward, grasps into a fist, and pulls back to your left hip, while your right hand grasps into a fist, goes from your right hip, arcs upward and behind, passes your forehead, and strikes toward your left ankle, your body going along with it by bending down. As your right fist arcs to the rear, watch it as it arcs and then as it suddenly switches from upward to downward. All of the movements above should be continuous and your waist should sink. See photos 76-79:

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Posture 42: TURN AROUND, DOUBLE KICK

Continuing from the previous posture, first your right [left] toes twist inward while your right fist passes in front of your forehead, drawing an arc upward toward the rear, the center of the fist facing upward, and your body goes along with it, twisting around to the right. Your right fist then lowers in front of your right hip, your right foot at the same time slightly withdrawing, the toes slanted outward. When your right fist lowers, your left hand lifts from your left hip, passes the left side of your face, passes in front of your solar plexus, and brushes downward until at your left hip area. As your left hand lifts up, your left foot steps forward, coming down in front of your right foot, toes slanted outward. Your right fist leaves

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your right hip area, extending upward and forward, palm facing outward. Your right foot lifts from behind and kicks out forward, your right hand at the same time going out to slap the top of the foot. The height of the hand and foot is chest level. Continuing, your right foot promptly withdraws behind your left foot, your right hand staying extended. As your right foot withdraws, your left hand extends forward, right hand in front, left hand behind, both palms facing diagonally inward, and your waist sinks. Slightly pause. See photos 80-84:

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Posture 43: DRAPING BODY, CROUCHING TIGER

Continuing from the previous posture, first your left foot withdraws behind your right foot, then your hands grasp into fists and pull downward and to the rear. As your hands pull back, your right toes lift and the foot pivots to the left to point straight. Your hands do not come to a halt when they pull back, but continue past your left hip, to the rear, upward, and downward to your lower abdomen, making a circle. Slightly pause. Then your left heel lifts and slightly twists outward, while your fists lift from your lower abdomen, becoming palms, until in front of your chest as in the CLOSING HANDS posture. As your hands lift, your right leg slightly lifts, coming down with the toes slanted outward. Both legs are bent, your left knee bending slightly inward to be close to the inside of your right leg. As your wrists sink, your waist does also, but your body stands straight. Your gaze is forward. Slightly pause. See photos 85-87:

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Posture 44: LEFT KICK

Continuing from the previous posture, your hands spread apart as in the SINGLE WHIP posture. As your hands spread apart, your left foot kicks to your left hand, the hand and foot touching each other. Your gaze is toward your left forefinger. The posture is the same as in Posture 40. See photo 88:

Posture 45: RIGHT PRESSING KICK

Continuing from the previous posture, your left leg does not come down, but instead promptly bends and retracts, the sole of the foot slightly nearing your right knee. Your body turns around to the rear, turning three quarters of a circle. When your left foot comes down, the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other. As your body turns to the rear, your hands close inward toward each other, as in the CLOSING

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HANDS posture, and your right heel lifts, the toes touching down. Once your body has finished its turn, your hands make the SINGLE WHIP posture, spreading apart to the sides, and your right foot lifts and does a pressing kick. Your gaze is toward your right forefinger. See photos 89-91:

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Posture 46: STEP FORWARD, PARRYING BLOCK, PUNCH

Continuing from the previous posture, your right foot comes down forward, toes slanted outward, while your left hand goes downward and extends forward, palm facing upward, your right hand brushing back until at your right hip area. Then your left foot steps forward, toes pointing straight ahead, as your left hand turns over to face downward. Your hands then grasp into fists, your right fist striking out forward and your left fist bending in until under your right elbow. Your right foot at the same time does a follow step until about an inch behind your left foot, toes touching down. [See photos 92-94:]

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Posture 48: CAPTURE THE TIGER AND PUSH IT BACK TO ITS MOUNTAIN – Same as in Posture 14. See photo 96:

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Posture 50: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 98:

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Posture 54: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 108:

Posture 55: DIAGONAL SINGLE WHIP

Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot steps to the left forward corner and your hands spread apart. It is the same as in the SINGLE WHIP posture. See photo 109:

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Posture 56: WILD HORSE VEERS ITS MANE

Continuing from the previous posture, first your left foot withdraws to be next to your right foot, your left hand at the same time lowering to your lower abdomen. The hand then lifts to the right side of your chest, then in front of your eyes, then arcs toward the left side, right back to its original place, and at the same time, your left foot goes from your right foot, stepping out to the left side, toes slightly pointed outward. Once your left hand’s arc has reached the left side, your right hand also lowers to your lower abdomen, then again lifts and goes from in front of your eyes to arc back to its original place on the right side. At the same time, your right foot first draws close to your left foot (toes touching down, the distance between the feet about two or three inches), then steps back to its original place on the right side. You have now resumed the SINGLE WHIP posture. Then your left foot steps out in front of your right foot, coming down with the toes slanted outward, legs slightly bent. As your left foot steps forward, your hands go down and forward, crossing with the palms slightly facing outward, left hand on top, arms slightly bent. They then spread apart to the sides and each make a circle, your right palm turning over to face upward. When your left palm, facing downward, is in front of your chest, your hands intersect and carry forward, your right foot at the same time stepping out forward and your left foot doing a follow step to be about an inch behind your right foot. The toes touch down, slightly pause there, and again withdraw. Your left hand at the same time draws close to your right wrist, and together they circle to the right and rear, at shoulder level, until your right palm is facing outward. The weight has shifted to your left leg and your right toes are lifted. Then your hands push out forward together and your left foot does another follow step to be about two or three inches behind your right foot, toes touching down. Your gaze is toward your right forefinger. See photos 110-119:

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Posture 57: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 120:

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Posture 59: SINGLE WHIP – Same as in Posture 5. See photo 122:

Posture 60: RIGHT THROUGH-THE-BACK PALM

Continuing from the previous posture, your left hand draws an arc upward from the left side and the back of the hand goes close to your forehead. Your body turns to the right, your left toes lifting and going along with the rightward turn, your right foot at the same time twisting outward, but with the toes slightly hooking inward. Your feet do not leave their original location your right hand sinks its wrist but does not otherwise move. Your gaze is toward your right forefinger. See photo 123:

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Posture 61: MAIDEN WORKS THE SHUTTLE

1.Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand draws back, the inside of the wrist toward your chest. As your right hand draws back, your left hand, the wrist turning inward so the palm is facing upward, lowers to be above your right hand, both elbows close to your body. As your hands draw back and lower, your right foot slightly withdraws a step, coming down with the toes slanted outward, both legs slightly bent. Your gaze is toward your left hand. The posture does not pause. See photo 124:

2. Continuing, your left wrist again turns outward, turning over to face upward, the back of the hand close to your forehead. Your left foot steps to the left forward corner and your right foot does a follow step,

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coming down two or three inches away from your left heel. At the same time, your right hand, placed at your chest, gently pushes out forward, but must not go too far, for your elbows are to stay close to your body. See photo 125:

3. Continuing, your left foot twists inward, your body at the same time turning around to the right, and your left hand lowers, palm facing downward [to the right], the inside of the wrist against your chest. As your left hand lowers, your right hand turns over until the palm is facing upward, slightly lifting, but keeping both elbows close to your body. Then your right wrist turns outward and lifts up, turning over so the back of the hand is close to your forehead. At the same time, your right foot steps out to the right forward corner and your left foot does a follow step, coming down about two or three inches behind your right foot, while your left hand goes from in front of your chest, slightly pushing forward, but must not go too far so that your elbows remain close to your body. See photo 126:

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4. Continuing, your right foot steps slightly forward, your right hand at the same time lowering until in front of your chest, the palm facing downward, your left hand turning over so the palm is facing upward and slightly lifting, both elbows close to your body. The posture is the same as in movement 1. Then your left foot steps out to the left forward corner, your left wrist turning outward and turning over upward, and your right foot does a follow step. The posture is the same as in movement 2. See photos 127 & 128:

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5. Continuing, your body turns around to the right, and the rest of the movements and postures of the hands and feet are the same as in movement 3, except that this time your right foot should step out directly forward and your left hand pushes out, elbow slightly bent. See photos 129 & 130:

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Posture 63: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 137:

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Posture 65: SINGLE WHIP – Same as in Posture 5. See photo 139:

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Posture 67: LOWERING FROM CLOUDING HANDS

Continuing from the previous posture, from the CLOUDING HANDS on the right side, your right palm turns to face upward as your left hand continues its arc and lowers to your right hip. Your right hand then pushes out straight ahead. Your waist should sink. Your right foot goes along with your right hand as it pushes forward, coming down about an inch behind your left foot. Your left hand pushes forward from over the top of your right hand, your right hand at the same time pulling back to your right hip. During the movement of your hands, your left foot steps forward, pointing straight ahead. Your legs should be bent and the weight is on your right leg. Your gaze is toward your left hand. See photos 142-144:

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Posture 68: ROOSTER STANDS ON ONE LEG

1. Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand goes forward and upward from your right hip until the fingers are at ear level. At the same time, your right leg lifts up, staying close to your left leg, toes raised up, heel pressed down, waist sinking. As your right hand lifts, your left hand draws an arc

downward, lowering to your left hip, fingers pointing downward. Slightly pause. See photo 145:

2.Continuing, your right foot comes down slightly forward, leg still bent, waist sinking, though your body should be upright. At the same time, your right hand draws an arc downward, lowering to your right hip, fingers pointing downward, as your left hand lifts up from your left hip until the fingers are at ear level,

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and your left leg lifts, staying close to your right leg. The posture is the same as with the right leg lifting in movement 1. See photo 146:

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Posture 70: PLAY THE LUTE (RIGHT)

Continuing from the previous posture, the movement is the same as in Posture 11, except the orientations are reversed. See photo 151:

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Posture 72: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 154:

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Posture 75: PLAY THE LUTE – Same as in Posture 11. See photo 158:

Posture 76: THREE THROUGH THE BACK – Same as in Posture 31. See photos 159-166 [160-166 & 61-65]:

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Posture 78: CLOSING HANDS – Same as in Posture 4. See photo 168:

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Posture 81: RISING UP AND REACHING OUT TO THE HORSE 1. The posture is the same as in Posture 37, section 1. See photo 172:

2. Your right foot turns outward so the heel is next to your left toes and comes down with the toes slanted outward. At the same time, your left hand turns so the palm faces upward and your right hand turns so the palm faces downward, covering your left hand. The palms face each other about three or four inches apart, your hands about one or two inches in front of your chest. See photo 173:

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3.Your left foot goes forward and twists in so the toes of both feet are pointing toward each other. Your hands remain in front of your chest, but flip so the right palm is facing upward, left palm facing downward. Your legs go downward with a slight bending as your hands turn to cross at the wrists, your left thumb slightly nearing your chest. See photos 174 & 175:

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Posture 82: CROSSED-BODY SWINGING LOTUS KICK

Continuing from the previous posture, your right leg lifts, the top of the foot urging downward, the sole of the foot above your left knee and about an inch away. At the same time, your hands spread apart to the sides as in the SINGLE WHIP posture. Your gaze is forward. See photo 176:

Posture 83: ADVANCE, PUNCH TO THE CROTCH

Continuing from the previous posture, your gaze turns to look forward and downward. Your hands then extend forward, again joining together, your left hand covering your right wrist, your right hand grasping into a fist and extending forward. Your gaze is toward your right hand. As your hands go forward,

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extending and joining, your right foot steps out forward, then your left foot steps, then your right foot steps again, coming down pointed straight ahead, and your left foot follows to be about an inch behind your right foot, toes touching down. Your body is making a posture of triple folding [bending at the hips, knees, and ankles]. When stepping, your body is like a flying bird leaving a tree and drawing in its wings as it heads diagonally downward to quickly land on the ground. See photo 177:

Posture 84: RETREAT, TUCK IN THE ROBE

Continuing from the previous posture, first your left foot withdraws, your right toes lift, and your right palm turns to face upward, makes a level half circle to the right and rear, your left hand going along with your right hand’s arc until your right palm is facing outward, then with your left hand supporting your right wrist, push out forward. See photos 178-180:

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Posture 85: OPENING HANDS – Same as in Posture 3. See photo 181:

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Posture 87: SINGLE WHIP – Same as in Posture 5. See photo 183:

Posture 88: LOWERING FROM SINGLE WHIP

Continuing from the previous posture, first your right palm turns to face downward and then the arm bends until the hand is at your right hip, and your left palm faces downward, lowering at the same time as your right palm. Your body sits down as your hands lower, the weight on your right leg. Your gaze is toward your left forefinger. See photo 184:

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Posture 89: STEP FORWARD WITH THE BIG DIPPER

Continuing from the previous posture, your right hand first arcs from your right hip area to extend out from under your left wrist, your wrists crossing to make an X-shape, and together withdraw to be about three or four inches in front of your chest, fingers pointing upward. As your right hand pushes out, your left foot slightly shifts forward, and your right foot follows to be about an inch behind your left foot, toes touching down. Your legs are slightly bent, your upper body should be upright, and your waist should sink. See photo 185:

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Continuing from the previous posture, your hands spread apart, your left hand lowering and brushing back to your left hip, your right palm turning to face upward, then lowering and drawing a circle to the right, rear, side, until by your forehead, palm facing downward, and pushing down to the area of your lower abdomen. At the same time, your right foot withdraws, coming down with the toes slanted

outward. As your right hand pushes down, your left foot withdraws straight back until an inch away from your right foot, toes touching down, your legs bending, your waist sinking. Then your right hand, palm still facing downward, lifts up in front of your chest. Your left leg goes along with your right hand and lifts, toes raised. Body, hand, and foot all lift in unison. See photos 186 & 187:

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Posture 91: TURN-TO-THE-CORNER SWINGING LOTUS KICK

Continuing from the previous posture, your body turns around to the right. When turning, your right heel lifts and goes along with the rightward turn of your body, your left foot coming down when your right foot has turned about forty-five degrees, the toes of both feet pointing toward each other. Your right foot immediately lifts up and swings out to the right, your left toes at the same time lifting for the foot to pivot to the right. As your right foot swings to the right, your hands slap your right knee (left hand first, then right hand), then your right foot comes down to the right rear and your palms turn to face upward, close beside your ribs. In this posture, your body turns a complete circle. See photos 188 & 189:

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Posture 92: BEND THE BOW, SHOOT THE TIGER

Continuing from the previous posture, your hands extend forward at the same time, palms extending and turning over to face downward at shoulder level, arms slightly bent, the weight shifting to your right leg. Your gaze goes between your hands. See photo 190:

Posture 93: DOUBLE RUSHING PUNCHES

Continuing from the previous posture, your left foot withdraws until it is beside your right foot, toes touching down. Your hands grasp into fists, the backs of the hands facing upward, and pull in until they are in front of your chest. Then your left foot steps forward, and your fists rush out forward, arms slightly bent. At the same time, your right foot does a follow step, coming down with the toes slanted outward about two or three inches away from your left heel. Your legs are bent and your waist sinks. Slightly pause. See photos 191 & 192:

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Posture 94: PASSIVE & ACTIVE MERGE INTO ONE

Continuing from the previous posture, your fists go along with your body as it turns to the right, turning and wrapping inward until the palms are facing upward, your right fist close to your left wrist, elbows close to your ribs. As your fists wrap inward, your left foot twists inward and your right foot withdraws, the distance between your feet depending on your height, your right foot coming down with the toes slanted outward. Then your left fist rolls outward from under your right wrist, touching with the inside of the wrist to the outside of your right wrist. Your waist sinks and your legs are slightly bent. Your wrists twist outward in unison at chest level, making an X-shape, about three or four inches away from your

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chest. When your wrists twist outward, your left toes lift and the foot slightly shifts forward, the weight now on your right leg. Your elbows are hanging down and your legs are bent. Your gaze goes between your fists. Slightly pause. See photos 193 & 194:

Posture 95: FINISHING POSTURE

Continuing from the previous posture, your hands in unison spread apart to the sides and lower toward your hips so the palms are beside your thighs. At the same time, your left foot draws close to your right foot, heels touching, feet making a ninety degree angle, your body straightening up. You have returned to the original position. See photo 195:

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PART TWO: TAIJI BOXING’S PUSHING HANDS METHODS

All boxing arts have two aspects: form and function. However, form and function are interrelated, for the training of form embodies function and the training of function cannot be separated from form. The postures in Part One of this book comprise Taiji Boxing in terms of form. The solo set is the practice of knowing the self. Although the function is within it, it is however a solo practice, and so it is not easy to find the subtleties of the function. This section of pushing hands methods emphasizes function. Pushing hands is the practice of knowing the opponent.

There are eight techniques of function in Taiji Boxing: warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping. When practicing pushing hands, two people face other, first using the four techniques of warding off, rolling back, pressing and pushing as the basic training method, patiently drilling them until they are meticulously understood. Once your training has achieved the qualities of “neither coming away nor crashing in”, “stick, connect, adhere, and follow”, your hands and feet moving with nimbleness, inside and outside joined together, then you will be able to reach the point of “guiding him in to land on nothing” and “four ounces moving a thousand pounds”. When you reach this point, your whole body will be able to move naturally, with an unobstructed liveliness, adapting limitlessly, and you will be able to say your Taiji Boxing has both form and function.

1. STARTING POSITION FOR FIXED-STEP PUSHING HANDS

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ii. A [on the right in these photos], begin by advancing with your left foot, left hand forward, palm facing to the rear, right palm placed on your left forearm, right wrist about four or five inches in front of your chest, as in photo 2:

iii. B, your movement is the same as A’s. 2. B – ROLLING BACK, A – PRESSING A, first extend your right hand toward B’s face.

B, lightly cover A’s right wrist with your right hand while your left hand coils around from under her right arm to lightly cover her right elbow, and roll back to the forward right with both hands.

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A, continue by extending your right arm, wrist twisting inward until the palm is facing inward, while your left hand goes to your own right forearm, and press out, your gaze toward B’s eyes.

(Pay attention that the pushing hands movements are even and use intention instead of exertion, and that it be so for the following movements the same as here.) See photo 3:

3. B – WARDING OFF & PUSHING

B, while A presses, let your hands go along with your body as it withdraws to the rear, neither coming away nor crashing in, your front toes lifting. Wait for her force to express and then push down. Continue by sending both hands toward her left arm and push out, your right hand pushing on the back of her right hand, your left hand pushing at her right elbow. See photo 4 [5]:

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4. A – ROLLING BACK, B – PRESSING

A, wait for B’s push to come out, then go along with it by shrinking your body to the rear, lightly covering his left wrist with your left hand as your right hand coils around from under his left arm to lightly cover his left elbow, and roll back to the forward left with both hands.

B, continue by extending your left arm, wrist twisting inward until the palm is facing inward, while your right hand goes to your own left forearm to press out, your gaze toward A’s eyes. See photo 5 [4]:

5. A – WARDING OFF & PUSHING

A, while B presses, let your hands go along with your body as it withdraws to the rear, your front toes lifting. Wait for his force to express and then push down. See photo 6:

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A, continue by sending both hands toward B’s right arm and push out, your right hand pushing on the back of his right hand, your left hand pushing at his right elbow. (This push then continues the sequence and the pushing hands movements recycle.) See photo 7:

6. THE METHOD OF SWITCHING FEET

If you wish to switch from the left posture to the right (i.e. so that you both have your right foot forward): A, when B rolls back, do not press, instead use your own right hand to lead his right hand to the rear, your left hand coiling around to be on his right elbow, and do a rollback outward, same as in the rollback technique on the left side. At the same time, withdraw your left foot and bring it down behind your right foot.

B, now advance with your right foot and apply a press.

Then A again wards off and pushes, and B again rolls back. The practice then recycles. This is the method of switching the feet in the beginning stage of pushing hands. One it has become familiar, you can switch as you please.

7. THE MOVING-STEP METHOD

Once the fixed-step version has become familiar, you can practice with moving steps. The hand techniques are the same as in the fixed-step version, except that when you advance, you first advance with your front foot, and when you retreat, you first retreat with your rear foot. Advance three steps, retreat three steps, and the advancing and retreating footwork should coordinate with the upper body’s hand techniques. The person stepping forward is doing push and press. The person stepping back is doing ward-off and rollback. Go back and forth, recycling these techniques. This is the version for beginners, and once it is familiar, you can then adjust as the situation requires, without any rules to restrict you.

APPENDIX: REFERENCE MATERIAL

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Taiji [“grand polarity”] is born of wuji [“nonpolarity”]. It is the manifestation of movement and stillness, and the mother of yin and yang [the passive and active aspects]. When there is movement, they [passive and active] become distinct from each other. When there is stillness, they return to being

indistinguishable.

Neither going too far nor not far enough, comply and bend then engage and extend. He is hard while I am soft – this is yielding. My energy is smooth while his energy is coarse – this is sticking. If he moves fast, I quickly respond, and if his movement is slow, I leisurely follow. Although there is an endless variety of possible scenarios, there is only this single principle [of yielding and sticking] throughout. Once you have engrained these techniques, you will gradually come to identify energies, and then from there you will work your way toward something miraculous. But unless you practice a lot over a long time, you will never have a breakthrough.

With your headtop pressing up naturally and energy sinking down to your elixir field, there will be no leaning in any direction. Suddenly vanish then suddenly manifest. If he puts pressure on my left side, my left side empties, or if he puts pressure on my right side, my right side disappears. If he tries to find me above, he has to keep reaching higher, or if he tries to find me below, he has to keep reaching lower. When he advances, he cannot get to me, but once he retreats, he cannot get away from me. A feather cannot be added and a fly cannot land. He does not know me, only I know him. A hero is one who encounters no opposition, and it is through this kind of method that such a condition is achieved. There are many other schools of martial arts besides this one. Although the postures are different between them, they generally do not go beyond the strong bullying the weak and the slow yielding to the fast. The strong beating the weak and the slow submitting to the fast are both a matter of inherent natural ability and bear no relation to skill that is learned. Examine the phrase “four ounces moves a thousand pounds”, which is clearly not a victory obtained through strength. Or consider the sight of an old man repelling a group, which could not come from an aggressive speed.

Standing like a scale, move like a wheel. If you drop one side, you can move, but if you have equal pressure on both sides, you will be stuck. We often see one who has practiced hard for many years yet is unable to perform any neutralizations and is generally under the opponent’s control rather than able to control the opponent, and the issue here is that this error of double pressure has not yet been

understood.

If you want to avoid this error, you must understand passive and active. In sticking there is yielding and in yielding there is sticking. The active does not depart from the passive and the passive does not depart from the active, for the passive and active exchange roles. Once you have this understanding, you will be identifying energies. Once you are identifying energies, then the more you practice, the more efficient your skill will be, and by absorbing through experience and by constantly contemplating, gradually you will reach the point that you can do whatever you want.

The basic of basics is to forget about your plans and simply respond to the opponent. We often make the mistake of ignoring what is right in front of us in favor of something that has nothing to do with our immediate circumstances. For such situations it is said: “Miss by an inch, lose by a mile.” You must understand all this clearly.

Long Boxing: it is like a long river flowing into the wide ocean, on and on ceaselessly…

The thirteen dynamics are: warding off, rolling back, pressing, pushing, plucking, rending, elbowing, and bumping – relating to the eight trigrams:

☴☲☷ ☳ ☱ ☶☵☰

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