An International Double-Blind, Peer Reviewed, Refereed Open Access Journal – Included in the International Indexing Directories Page 59 SKILL DEVELOPMENT: A NEED OF HOUR

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An International Double-Blind, Peer Reviewed, Refereed Open Access Journal - Included in

the International Indexing Directories Page 59


Avinash Kaur

Asst. Professor in MLN College, Ynr


As India moves progressively towards becoming a 'knowledge economy' it becomes increasingly

important that the country should focus on advancement of skills. There is a need to further develop

and empower the human capital to ensure the nations global competitiveness. In country like India

where there is a abundance of workforce the main aim should be to transform unskilled workforce

into skilled workforce. The present paper attempts to study the concept of skill development, the

present status and the recent developments for development of skills.

KEYWORDS: Skill Development, Demographic dividend, Dependency ratio.


‘Right from our familiar kitchen to an office or a service center skill is necessary. Lack of skill causes

hurdles and implies loss in every aspect. Even job of a carpenter or cobbler requires specific skills.

Skilled workforce is necessary for economic development. Some sectors such as agriculture, food

processing, heavy industries, textiles, tourism, construction sector, healthcare, infrastructure etc. are

vital for economy and engagement of skilled workforce in such sector is major concern for any


For India, skill development is critical from both socio-economic and demographic point of view. Skill

development acts as an instrument to improve the overall effectiveness and empowers an individual

to work more efficiently. The economy becomes productive, innovative and competitive through the

existence of more skilled human potential and all these advantages can be acquired only through

skill development.


India is fast developing country. In recent years due to accelerated economic growth rate and

increasing purchasing power has resulted in demand of quality of services and for this skill

manpower is required in every sector. India's workforce is second largest in the world after China.


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increasing steadily. The analysis of Indian system displays a grieve picture of current scenario,

although the current primary education enrolment is high but many students does not complete

their higher education due to lack of awareness about right directions and all these resulting into

higher dropout ratio and these conditions leads towards increasing employability without

development of skills. Government has realized that labour workforce is not skilled. To contribute to

the growth of the economy we need to have skilled workforce which can be available by vocational

education and training system.

Skill development in India is very important to support, achieving rapid and inclusive growth through  Enhancing individual employability to meet labour market demand

 Strengthening competitiveness of country  Attracting investment in skill development

 Improving productivity and living standards of people.

In present scenario of increasing pace of globalization and technological changes provide both

challenges and growing opportunities for economic expansion and job creation. The Indian

government created a Ministry of skill development and Entrepreneurship to address skill

development needs and also launched the 'skill India' campaign along with 'Make in India’



In the present context of globalisation, the demand for skilled and multiskilled workers has

increased. Therefore in the context of developing countries such as India, there is critical need for

quality skill development and training. The Indian economy is widely expected to grow at sustained

high rates over the next few decades and emerge as the second largest economy by 2050. Low

dependency ratio (ratio of non-working population to working population) and a surplus workforce

put India at a strong competitive advantage. In order to utilize this 'demographic dividend'

(demographic dynamics) effectively, India needs to impart adequate and appropriate skills to its


 In today's age of globalisation and technological volatility, skill building is an important

instrument which is needed to increase the efficacy and quality of labour for improved -

productivity and economy growth.

 Skill and knowledge development are needed for financial growth and community

development of any country.


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the International Indexing Directories Page 61


 Skill development initiatives need to be coordinated with demand and supply scenario

across geographies, industries and labour markets so that new skills required by industry or

changes in supply of labour are speedily adjusted with adequate & efficient training


A rapid growth in unorganized workforce is observed as compared to organized workforce. Due to

lack of formal training infrastructure the unorganized segment has to rely on informal training or

hereditary practices. There is no contribution by these workers in economy development. Training in

the unorganized segment has become a challenge for Indian skill development ecosystem. Therefore

major challenges are observed

 Lack of motivation for skill training in unorganized sector  Lack of enough training institutes.

 India's large geographical territory and varying social economic conditions make the

implementation of standardized training a huge challenge.

 A large proportion of Indian population lives below the poverty line and lives on less than I

dollar day. They cannot afford even basic amenities so they leave aside education & training.  The focus of vocational training offered in India is not matching with the needs of casual

workers who constitute 90% of labour force, which results in shortage of skilled workforce at

national level.

 The training infrastructure for imparting technical and vocational skills in inadequate.

Another major challenge in front of India's existing skill development system is lack of

linkage between education and placement of that trained workforce.

 Efficient and skilled trainer is very important for skill development framework. But its

absence may pose a great challenge in the success of skill development programme.


The government of India has realized that labour workforce is not skilled. To improve the situation

the Indian government created a ministry of skill development and entrepreneurship to address the

skill development issues. The government has recognized the need for skill development with the

11th five year plan, thus providing a framework to address the situation. The first National skill

development policy was framed in 2009 and subsequently a National Skill Development Mission was

launched in 2010. The government created a Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship to


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the International Indexing Directories Page 62

certification etc. The ministry primarily works through National Skill Development Corporation

(NSDC), National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) and the Directorate of training (DT).

NSDC  Public private partnership entity set up to promote and fund private training

providers and set up skill development centres.

 Facilitate set up of sector skill councils (SSC's) which autonomous industry


 Implement STAR (Standard, Training, assessment & reward) and UDAAN schemes


NSDA  Autonomous body registered under society Act. Rationalize skill development

schemes of Govt. of India.

 Implement the National skills qualification framework

 Create integrated labour market information system engage with states to plan

their skill development and facilitate skill innovation

DT  Training & Apprentice Divisions have been transferred from

labour department from April 2015

 Comprises Govt. and & private ITIs, PPP skill schools and other institutions  25 new advanced training institute to be set up.


The main functions of this council include:

a) Design, development and maintenance of National Vocational Qualification Framework

(NVQF) for quality control mechanism

b) Monitoring and evaluation on the effectiveness and efficiency of national skill development

efforts through appropriate reporting and communication mechanism.


The ministry of rural development has launched schemes that aim at empowering young people

from poor and weaker sections of the society through schemes like 'Special projects for placement

linked skill development of rural BPL youth under Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY-SP)

with an objective of ensuring time through placement services. In addition to this Rural

Development and Self-employment training institutes were launched with an objective of setting up


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This policy is aimed at empowering workers to get employment, to promote inclusive national

growth and to increase competitiveness. The policy covers the following -

a) Institution based skill development

b) Learning initiative of sect oral skill development

c) Formal and informal apprenticeships and other types of training by enterprises.

d) Training for entrepreneurial development and adult learning.

e) This policy promotes E-learning, web based learning and distance learning.  MINISTRY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION:

The ministry of urban development and poverty alleviation had launched the Swarna Jayanti Shahari

Rozgar Yojana to address the skill development issues of urban poor its main objective is to support

skill development and training to urban poor to undertake self-employment.  NATIONAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (NSDC):

It is one of public private partnership in India. It supports quality assurance, information systems and

trains the trainer academies either directly or through partnerships. Its objective is to contribute

significantly (about 30%) to the overall target of skilling 500 million people in India by 2022, mainly

by fostering private sector initiatives in skill development programmes.

Despite of these corporation and initiatives taken by different ministries, our present Honourable

prime minister Shri Narendra Modi Launched a campaign named 'SKILL INDIA' on 15 July,2015 with

an aim to train over 40 crore (400 million) people in India in different skills by 2022. It includes

various initiatives of the government like "National Skill development and Entrepreneurship 2015" ,

"Pradhan Mantri Kaushal vikas Yojana (PMKVY)" and "skill Loan Schemes."

NATIONAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT MISSION: The aim of National skill development mission is

to rapidly scale up skill development efforts in India by creating an end to end, outcome

focused implementation framework, which aligns demands of the employers for a

well-trained skilled workforce with aspiration of Indian citizens for sustainable livelihoods. The

mission seeks to:

a) Build capacity for skill development in critical un-organized sectors.

b) Establish and enforce cross-sectorial, nationally and internationally acceptable standard for skill


c) Ensure sufficient high quality option for long term skilling benchmarked to internationally

acceptable qualification standards which will ultimately contribute to the creation of highly skilled


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the International Indexing Directories Page 64

d) Promote coordination between skill development efforts of all central ministries/

departments/states/ implementing agencies.


The objective of this policy is to meet the challenge of skilling at scale with speed, standard (quality)

and sustainability. It aims to provide an umbrella framework to all skilling activities being carried out

within the country to align them to common standards and link skilling with demand centres. The

policy encourage companies to spend at least 25% of corporate social responsibility (CSR) funds on

skill development, seeks to introduce fee paying model along with skill vouchers and set up a credit

Guarantee fund for skill development.

Thus , there are various initiatives as explained above taken by government from time to time

promote development of skills in India which ultimately aims at contributing in overall economic

development of country.


India is a fast developing country. From primary sector of agriculture, we are moving to secondary

sector of manufacturing, construction and also tertiary sector of trade, transport and finance. A

skilled workforce is essential to make India internationally competitive and to accelerate its

economic growth. As India is moving towards the knowledge economy, it becomes increasingly

important for it to focus on advancement of the skills and these skills have to be relevant to the

emerging economic environment. For transforming its demographic dividend an efficient skill

development system is a need of hour. As new jobs & job titles, job enlargement, job enrichment is

emerging. Hence it is necessary for India to move up the skill ladder and produce a large number of

people with higher education & training. India suffers from skilled manpower deficiency due to

absence of required skills among the workforce. If this gap is removed, India can become the global

manpower hub for skilled manpower. Skill development efforts need to be accelerated and existing

challenges before skill development initiatives needs to be minimized, skill development mission or

"Skill India" programme is a right step in this direction as it will overcome the obstacles coming in

the path of skill development. Government should provide voucher based support to the learner to

persue skill training, learners-centric training and apart from this government should collaborate

with NGOs/Panchayats to inform women and their families regarding value education and training.

With these initiatives of govt. India will not only be ahead in the race but can also be a game


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the International Indexing Directories Page 65





4. www.skillindia/com





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