in Open, Distance, and Flexible Learning

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Tian Belawati The 29th AAOU Annual Conference

Kuala Lumpur, 30 November – 2 December 2015

in Open, Distance, and

Flexible Learning

(2)

To ensure inclusive and equitable quality

education and promote lifelong learning

opportunities for all

SDG and Education 2030

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9. We commit to quality education and to improving learning outcomes.

10. We commit to promoting quality lifelong learning

opportunities for all …… the provision of flexible learning pathways, as well as the recognition, validation and

accreditation of the knowledge, skills and competencies acquired through non-formal and informal education, is

important. …. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) must be harnessed to strengthen education systems, knowledge dissemination, information access, quality and effective learning, and more effective service provision.

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WHY?

 67 million children are out of school (ASEAN: 3 million)

 74 million adolescents are out of school (ASEAN: 2.7 million)

 500 million adults are still illiterate (ASEAN: 27.3 million)

 We need an extra 8.4 million primary & lower secondary education teachers by 2030 (ASEAN: >1.5 million teachers)

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WHY?

Need re-education of the existing in-service

46 million teachers with relevant

competencies for the 21st century

learning-teaching environments and students.

The number of students enrolled in HE is

forecast to over 414 million in 2030  need

100 – 150 million new places for HE are needed before 2025

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We need an educational system that:

 can go beyond mortar and bricks, flexible to accommodate anyone to study anywhere, anytime ……

beyond walls

 to duplicate teachers and professors for massive education

Solution?

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 In the US in 2013, 7.1 million students taker at least one online course

 In Europet, at least 2 million students are enrolled in distance teaching universities alone, much more in dual mode

institutions.

 In Asia, there are at least 70 HE

institutions providing services to almost

8 million students

 In ASEAN, there are at least 8 open

universities providing services to almost

1 million students

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 2014 – Bali Message (ICDE–UNESCO Policy Forum)

 2015 – Education 2030 ( World Education Forum)

 2015 – Paris Message (UNESCO-ICDE Policy Forum)

 2015 – Pretoria Message (ICDE–UNESCO Policy Forum)

 Key Points:

Access to, and success in, open, online and flexible learning are key solutions to the pressing development challenges and needs of 21st century societies

Urge governments and stakeholders in regions and nations to address existing challenges related to the adoption of Online, Open and Flexible learning and take concrete and urgent action

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… an attribute to distinguish a “product/process”

displaying good attributes from one displaying bad … … related to the management processes used in the provision of education and their deployment with the

purpose of improving performance from key stakeholder perspectives.

.. Quality e-learning system [is] one in which the learner has a reasonable opportunity for success in reaching

their learning goals.

(Ossiannilsson et.al., 2015)

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 … a systematic management and assessment procedures in order to monitor performance against objectives, and to ensure achievement of quality outputs and quality

improvements (Harman in Belawati & Zuhairi, 2007).

… methods that successfully help learners develop the

knowledge and skills they will require … (Bates, 2015)

Putting the learner at the heart of the system (Tait, 2015)

WHAT IS QUALITY ASSURANCE?

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STUDENT SUCCESS

ICDE study on Student Success in ODEL (Tait et.al, 2015)

• Acknowledges that student success rates in ODEL is lower than in f2f

• Proposes a framework of practice to:

– Mitigate dropout at course, program, and qualification levels

– Ensure assessing the issues affecting student success jointly by the whole institutions’ units: curriculum producers, student support,

student admissions and learning advisors, tutors and instructor cohorts am

– Data on student success must be distributed and acted on in order to underpin interventions

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FRAMEWORK OF PRACTICE

Emphasizes the importance of:

• Pre-study advice and guidance

• Interventions at key points

• Individualized and personalized support systems

• Comprehensive and integrated information and logistics systems

• Whole institutional strategies for managing student success

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GLOBAL OVERVIEW OF ODFL QUALITY

ICDE study on Quality Models in ODEL Around the Globe

(Ossiannilsson et.al., 2015) - based on 40 existing Quality Standards/Guidelines

• many existing schemes and models for quality assurance of open, distance, flexible and online education, including e-learning

• many common elements and area

• differences are in the grouping of criteria and the granularity of the detail performance indicators

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Most common structure of QA:

Presents criteria for performance in aspects of institutional

management, curriculum design, student support and other elements of educational provision

 The most general categorization of activities

 Management (Institutional strategy, visions, and resourcing)

 Products (processes of curriculum and module development)

 Services (student, staff support, information resources etc.)

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Purposes of Existing Quality Standards Models

Accreditation: a form of mandatory certification or licensing of institutionss/programs

Certification/Label: recognition from the body originating the quality model (non-mandatory bodies)

Benchmarking: comparison of institutional performance with that of others

Advisory: documents review offering structured guidance

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 Most governments had systems in place for accreditation and QA of HE addressing DE and online provision (Tynan, 2011)

 QA systems emphasize the creation of a quality culture & continuous improvement (Jung, Wong, & Belawati, 2013)

 Involving all staff in the creation of shared definition of

quality and development of QA system – creating ownership

 Focus on pedagogy, learner support and management

 Gradually move towards performance/outcome-based approach

 Importance of institutional leaderships

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UNIVERSITAS TERBUKA

years of serving

the nation

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UNIVERSITAS TERBUKA

Established in 1984, single mode university, the only tertiary

institution using exclusively distance education mode of delivery.

Mission: to provide Accessible,

Affordable, Flexible quality higher education

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Implementation Policies on: Policies on: Open admission No age limit No Entrance Test No Dropout system Multi Entry - Exit

Admission by : Study Program OR

Loosed Courses

Open registration

Registration :

• by course package OR individual course • regularly OR irregularly

• from the beginning OR by credit transfer

 1.2 million enrolled students

 550 active students  426.503 registered students in 2015.1  12% of national HE participation rate

Universitas Terbuka

Open Policy

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LEARNING SUPPORT SYSTEM

Digital Library : e-books, e-journals, thesis, OERs/SUAKA, dissertation, research reports, Virtual Reading Room

>4000 virtual classes/online/ mobile tutorial per semester

Face-to-face Tutorials in 446 cities

>1000 Learning Material Packages

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In Indonesia Abroad

# of Student-Course Exam

Processed # of City # of Exam Rooms Students # of City # of Students # of

741 21,781 456,231 12 369 2,136,259 # of Exam Supervisors/Proctors 40,421

UNIVERSITAS TERBUKA

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INTERNAL QA SYSTEM - history

2001

Establishment of a QA Committee & Searching for QA framework

2002

AAOU’s draft of QA Framework (9 components)

Development 107QA Policies & 117 Manuals

2003

Establishment of a QA Centre (known as Pusat Jaminan

Kualitas or PUSMINTAS)

2012

New AAOU QA Framework + National QA indicators + ICDE Quality Checklist

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Draft of AAOU QA FRAMEWORK: 9 COMPONENTS

107 Statement of Best Practices

SIMINTAS UT 2002: 9 COMPONENTS

107 Statement of Best Practices

AAOU QA FRAMEWORK 2010: 10 COMPONENTS

132 Statement of Best Practices

SIMINTAS UT 2012: 10 Components

110 Quality Policies

ICDE Review checklist ISO standards National Accreditation Board for HE HE-Quality Assurance Standards

QA 2012

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1. Policy and planning (7 Policies – statement of best practices) 2. Human resources (8 Policies)

3. Internal Management (15 Policies)

4. Learners and Learner Profiles (8 Policies)

5. Program Design and Development (12 Policies) 6. Course Design and Development (11 Policies) 7. Learning supports (10 Policies)

8. Infrastructure, Media and Learning Resources (4 Policies) 9. Student Assessment (22 Policies)

10. Research and Community Services (13 Policies)

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Exp. Program Design and Development

QA Policies

Programs are developed on the basis of needs of learners

either through market research, or consultation with industry and profession.

 Programs reflect institutional mission and objectives.

Access requirements for the program are as open as

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Coordinated and monitored by the QA Center 110 QA Policies QA Manuals Business Processes Working Units Matrices of QA Responsibilities Working Procedures - Indicators of Quality

QA Implementation Scheme

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EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT, CERTIFICATION & ACCREDITATION

 In Indonesia, QA in higher education is enforced through both self-evaluation monitored directly by the Ministry of National Education and

accreditation processes by an independent accreditation agency (BAN-PT).

 UT has decided to invite other external assessors: the International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE) and the International

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CONCLUSION

DE sectors has BETTER developed QA processes than face-to-face institutions

(Ossiannilsson et.al., 2015)

Face-to-face teaching is NOT better than distance or online learning

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Jung and Latchem (2102), make sure that we:

• take a

systemic approach

to quality assurance;

• see QA as a process of

continuous improvement

;

• place the

focus on outcomes

as the leading measure of quality;

• move the institution from external controls to an

internal culture of quality

.

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Simply because:

Poor quality has very high costs

so investment in quality is worthwhile.

QUALITY IS THE KEY TO OUR EXISTENCE

CONCLUSION

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