BCI-1. ) = 0 BCI-2. = 0 BCI-3. = 0 BCI-4. = 0 and = 0 implies that BCI-5. 0= 0, for all

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On m-Derivation of BCI-Algebras with Special Ideals in


Hail Suwayhi . H *, Abu baker **, Ismail Mustafa Mohd **

* Math, Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Education ** Math, Alimam alhadi College

*** Math, Academy of Engineering and Medical sciences

DOI: 10.29322/IJSRP.9.03.2019.p8704


Abstract- We collect some important concepts on BCK,BCI and BCL-algebras which are useful to develop the main results in subsequent topics. The left-right m-derivation of a BCI-algebra is introduced, and some related properties are investigated. Using the idea of regular m-derivation , we give characterizations of a p-semi-simple BCI-algebra .We introduce the useful properties of m-derivation in BCI-algebras and commutative and maximal ideals in BCK-algebras .

Index Terms- BCI- algebra, BCK-algebra, BCL-algebra, m-derivation in BCK-algebra, ideals in BCK-algebra.


o develop the main results in the following topics we need the following notions

1.1. Defintion.[1].

Let X be a set with binary operation βˆ— and a constant 0. Then

(𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0) a BCI-algebra if it satisfies the following properties: BCI-1. οΏ½(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ—(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑧𝑧)οΏ½ βˆ—(𝑧𝑧 βˆ— 𝑦𝑦) = 0 ;

BCI-2. (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦))βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0 ; BCI-3. π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0 ;

BCI-4. π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0 and 𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯= 0 implies that π‘₯π‘₯=𝑦𝑦 ; BCI-5. 0βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯= 0 , for all π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦,𝑧𝑧 ∈ 𝑋𝑋 .

For brevity we also call 𝑋𝑋 a BCK-algebra. In 𝑋𝑋 we can define a binary relation≀ by putting π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦 if and only if π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0. Then

(𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0) is a BCK-algebra if and only if satisfies that BCK-1 (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ—(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑧𝑧)≀(𝑧𝑧 βˆ— 𝑦𝑦),

BCK-2 π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)≀ 𝑦𝑦, BCK-3 π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ π‘₯π‘₯ ,

BCK-4 π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦 π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Ž 𝑦𝑦 ≀ π‘₯π‘₯ β‡’ π‘₯π‘₯=𝑦𝑦, BCK-5 0≀ π‘₯π‘₯ .

1.2. Definition.[1].

A subset 𝑆𝑆 of a BCI-algebra 𝑋𝑋 is called an ideal of X if it satisfies

(i) 0∈ 𝐼𝐼 ;

(ii) π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑆𝑆and𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐼𝐼 imply that π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐼𝐼 for all π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐼𝐼 . A subset 𝑆𝑆 of a BCI-algebra 𝑋𝑋 is called sub algebra of 𝑋𝑋 if π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—

𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑆𝑆 for all π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑆𝑆. 1.3. Definition.[1].

A mapping 𝑓𝑓 of a BCI-algebra 𝑋𝑋 into itself is called an endomorphism of 𝑋𝑋 if 𝑓𝑓(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦) =𝑓𝑓(π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— 𝑓𝑓(𝑦𝑦) for all π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑋𝑋 . 1.4. Remark.

A BCI-algebra 𝑋𝑋 has the following properties: (1) (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ— 𝑧𝑧= (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑧𝑧)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ;

(2) π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦 β‡’ π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑧𝑧 ≀ 𝑦𝑦 βˆ— 𝑧𝑧 and 𝑧𝑧 βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ≀ 𝑧𝑧 βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯; (3) π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— οΏ½π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)οΏ½=π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦;

(4) (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑧𝑧)βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— 𝑧𝑧)≀ π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦; (5) 0βˆ—(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦) = (0βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ—(0βˆ— 𝑦𝑦);

(6) π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—0 = 0 β‡’ π‘₯π‘₯= 0 .

For a BCI-algebra 𝑋𝑋, denote by 𝑋𝑋+οΏ½π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ. ,𝐺𝐺(𝑋𝑋)οΏ½ the BCK-part (π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ. ,π‘‘π‘‘β„Žπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ΅π΅π΅π΅πΌπΌ βˆ’ πΊπΊπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘‘π‘‘) of 𝑋𝑋, that is 𝑋𝑋+= {π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋|0≀ π‘₯π‘₯}

(π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ. ,𝐺𝐺(𝑋𝑋)= {π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋|0βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯=π‘₯π‘₯}). Note that: 𝐺𝐺(𝑋𝑋)∩ 𝑋𝑋+= {0}.

If 𝑋𝑋+= {0} then 𝑋𝑋 is called a p-semi-simple BCI-algebra.

In a p-semi-simple BCI-algebra 𝑋𝑋, the following hold: (7) (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— 𝑧𝑧) =π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦;

(8) 0βˆ—(0βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘₯π‘₯;

(9) π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(0βˆ— 𝑦𝑦) =𝑦𝑦 βˆ—(0βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯); (10) π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0 β‡’ π‘₯π‘₯=𝑦𝑦 ; (11) π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Ž=π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑏𝑏 β‡’ π‘Žπ‘Ž=𝑏𝑏 ; (12) π‘Žπ‘Ž βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯=𝑏𝑏 βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯ β‡’ π‘Žπ‘Ž=𝑏𝑏 ; (13) π‘Žπ‘Ž βˆ—(π‘Žπ‘Ž βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘₯π‘₯.

Remark. For any π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑋𝑋 we denote π‘₯π‘₯ ∧ 𝑦𝑦=𝑦𝑦 βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯) . And π‘₯π‘₯ ∧ π‘₯π‘₯=π‘₯π‘₯ , π‘₯π‘₯ ∧0 = 0∧ π‘₯π‘₯= 0 . But in general π‘₯π‘₯ ∧

𝑦𝑦 β‰  𝑦𝑦 ∧ π‘₯π‘₯. 1.5. Definition.[1]

Let 𝑋𝑋 be a p-semi-simple BCI-algebra. We define addition

+ as

π‘₯π‘₯+𝑦𝑦=π‘₯π‘₯+ (0 +𝑦𝑦) βˆ€π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑋𝑋 . Then (𝑋𝑋, +) is an a belian

group with identity 0 and π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ’ 𝑦𝑦=π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦. 1.6. Example.

Let 𝑋𝑋= {0,1,2, … } and the operation βˆ— be defined as follows:

π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦=οΏ½1 otherwise0 if π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦


Then (𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0) BCI-1, BCI-3, BCI-4 and BCI-5, but it does not satisfy BCI-2.

1.7. Theorem. [1].

In any BCK-algebra, we have π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 ∧ π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 .


Since 𝑦𝑦 ∧ π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦, by properties of BCI-algebra we get π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ≀

π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 ∧ π‘₯π‘₯).

On the other hand, by BCI-2 we have π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 ∧ π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—

οΏ½π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)οΏ½ ≀ π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦.

This means π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦=π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 ∧ π‘₯π‘₯). # 1.8. definition.[1].

An algebra (𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0) of type (2,0) is said to be a BCL-algebra if and only if for any π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦,π‘§π‘§π‘–π‘–π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘‹π‘‹ , the following conditions: (1) BCL-1 : π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯= 0;

(2) BCL-2 : π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0 and𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯= 0 imply π‘₯π‘₯=𝑦𝑦 ;

(3) BCL-3 : (((π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ— 𝑧𝑧)βˆ—(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑧𝑧)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦))βˆ—((𝑧𝑧 βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯) = 0 . 1.9. Definition.[1].

Let (𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0) is a BCL-algebra. A binary relation ≀ on 𝑋𝑋 by which π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦 if and only if π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0 for any π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦,𝑧𝑧 ∈ 𝑋𝑋 , we call the BCL-ordering ≀ is partial ordering on 𝑋𝑋.

1.10. Definition.[1].

Let π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦 if and only if π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0, the definition (1.8) can be written as

(1) BCL-1βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ π‘₯π‘₯ ;

(2) BCL-2βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦 and 𝑦𝑦 ≀ π‘₯π‘₯ imply π‘₯π‘₯=𝑦𝑦 ; (3) BCL-2βˆ— οΏ½(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ— 𝑧𝑧� βˆ—((π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑧𝑧)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ≀(𝑧𝑧 βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯. 1.11. Theorem.[1].

(1) Any a BCK-algebra is a BCL algebra . (2) π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0 if and only if π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦.


Assume that (X,βˆ—,0) is a algebra, then the BCL-ordering ≀ is a partial ordering on 𝑋𝑋. By definition of ≀, (2) is valid. Also, BCL-3 and (2) imply (1). Conversely, assume that ≀ a partial ordering on 𝑋𝑋, and satisfying (1) and (2) Also, by reflexing of ≀, we see that π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ π‘₯π‘₯, then (2) β‡’π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯= 0. Moreover, if

π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦= 0 and𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘₯π‘₯ = 0 , then π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦 and π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ 𝑦𝑦 and 𝑦𝑦 ≀ π‘₯π‘₯ by (2) , and so the anti-symmetry of ≀ gives π‘₯π‘₯=𝑦𝑦 . Therefore

(𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0) is a BCL-algebra.


Derivation is a very interesting and important area of research in the theory of algebraic structures in mathematics. Over the last some decals an interest for this topic has increased, many well known algebraists like K.I.Besdar, J.Bergen, M.Bresar, I.N.Hersteim.

In what follows, let π‘šπ‘š be an endomorphism of 𝑋𝑋 unless otherwise specified. The derivations of BCI-algebras in different aspects as follows: in 2005 [8] , Zhen and Liu have given the notion of π‘šπ‘š-derivation of BCI-algebras and studied p-semi-simple BCI-algebras by using the idea of regular π‘šπ‘š-derivation in BCL-algebras.


Let 𝑋𝑋 be a BCI-algebra. Then for any π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋 , we define a self map π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š:𝑋𝑋 ⟢ 𝑋𝑋 by: π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘šπ‘šπ‘“π‘“π‘“π‘“π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋 . 2.2. Definition.[2].

Let 𝑋𝑋 be a BCI-algebra. By a left-right π‘šπ‘š-derivation (briefly , (π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ)βˆ’ π‘šπ‘š βˆ’derivation of 𝑋𝑋, a self –map π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š of 𝑋𝑋 satisfying the identity

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦) =οΏ½π‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(𝑦𝑦)οΏ½ ∧ οΏ½π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— π‘šπ‘š(𝑦𝑦)οΏ½ for all ∈ 𝑋𝑋,

then it is said that π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is a right-left-m-derivation . Moreover, if

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is both an (π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ,π‘Žπ‘Ž) and an (π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ)-m-derivation, it is said that π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is

an π‘šπ‘š βˆ’ derivation. 2.3. Example.

Let 𝑋𝑋= {0,1,2,3,4,5} be a BCI-algebra with the following

Cayley table (1):

βˆ— 0 1 2 3 4 5

0 0 0 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 2 1 0 0 0 4 4 2 1 1 0 1 5 5 2 1 1 1 0

Define a map π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š:𝑋𝑋 ⟢ 𝑋𝑋 by

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =οΏ½0 otherwise2 if π‘₯π‘₯= 0, 1 ,

And define an endomorphism of 𝑋𝑋 by

π‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =οΏ½0 if 2 otherwiseπ‘₯π‘₯= 0 , 1 .

Then it is easily checked that π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is both derivation and π‘šπ‘š βˆ’ derivation of 𝑋𝑋.

2.4. Theorem.[2].

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š be a self-map of a BCI- algebra 𝑋𝑋 defined by π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =

π‘šπ‘šπ‘₯π‘₯ ⩝ π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋. Then π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is an (π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ)βˆ’ π‘šπ‘š βˆ’derivation of 𝑋𝑋.

Moreover, if 𝑋𝑋 is commutative, then π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is an (π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ,π‘Žπ‘Ž)βˆ’ π‘šπ‘š βˆ’ derivation of 𝑋𝑋 .


Let 𝑋𝑋 be an associative BCI -algebra, then we have

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦) = (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ— π‘šπ‘š= {π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)}βˆ—0 by property (6) and (2)

= {π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)}βˆ—[{π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)}βˆ—{π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)}] by property (iii)

= {π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)}βˆ—[{π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)}βˆ—{(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ— π‘šπ‘š}] by property (6)

= {π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)}βˆ—[{π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)}βˆ—{(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦}] by property (1)

= ((π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)∧ οΏ½π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(𝑦𝑦 βˆ— π‘šπ‘š)οΏ½ = (π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)∧ οΏ½π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—


2.5. Theorem.[2].

Let π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š be a self map of an associative BCI-algebra 𝑋𝑋. Then, π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is a π‘šπ‘š βˆ’derivation of 𝑋𝑋.

2.6. Definition.[2].

A self map π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š of a BCI-algebra 𝑋𝑋 is said to be π‘šπ‘š βˆ’regular if π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0) = 0.

2.7. Proposition.[2].

Let π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š be a self map of a BCI-algebra . Then :

(i) if π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is a (π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ)-π‘šπ‘š- derivation of 𝑋𝑋, then π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)∧ π‘₯π‘₯ for all π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋.

(ii) π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is a (π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ,π‘Žπ‘Ž)- π‘šπ‘š - derivation of𝑋𝑋 if and only if π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is

π‘šπ‘š βˆ’regular.


(i) Let π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š be (π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ)-π‘šπ‘š- derivation of 𝑋𝑋 , then π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—0) = (π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ—0)∧(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)) =π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)∧{π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)}

= {π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)}βˆ—{π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)}βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) = {π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)}βˆ—[{π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)}βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)]

≀ π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—{π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)} by property (3) =π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)∧ π‘₯π‘₯.

But π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)∧ π‘₯π‘₯ ≀ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) is trivial (i) holds.

(ii) Let π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š be a (π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ,π‘Žπ‘Ž)βˆ’ π‘šπ‘š βˆ’ derivation of𝑋𝑋 π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘₯π‘₯ ∧ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) , then

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0) = 0∧ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0) =π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)βˆ—{π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)βˆ—0} =π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0)

= 0 there by implying π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is π‘šπ‘š βˆ’regular. Conversely, suppose that π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š is π‘šπ‘š βˆ’regular, that is π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0) = 0, then we have

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—0) = (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(0))∧(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ—0)

= (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—0)∧ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘₯π‘₯ ∧ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) #. This is complete the proof.

2.8. Example.

Let 𝑋𝑋= {0,π‘Žπ‘Ž,𝑏𝑏} be a BCI-algebra with the following Cayley table (2):

βˆ— 0 a b

0 0 0 b a a 0 b b b b 0

For any π‘šπ‘š ∈ 𝑋𝑋 , we define a self map π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š:𝑋𝑋 ⟢ 𝑋𝑋 by

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘₯π‘₯) =π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘šπ‘š=�𝑏𝑏0 if if π‘₯π‘₯= 0 ,π‘₯π‘₯=π‘π‘π‘Žπ‘Ž .

(i) Then it is easily checked that π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šπ‘–π‘–π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ (π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ) and (π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ,π‘Žπ‘Ž)βˆ’ π‘šπ‘š βˆ’ derivation of 𝑋𝑋, which is not π‘šπ‘š βˆ’ regular.

(ii) For any π‘šπ‘š ∈ 𝑋𝑋, define a self map π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² =π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘šπ‘š=

οΏ½0 if 𝑏𝑏 if π‘₯π‘₯π‘₯π‘₯= 0,=𝑏𝑏 .π‘Žπ‘Ž

Then it is easily checked that π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² π‘–π‘–π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ (π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ) and (π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ,π‘Žπ‘Ž)βˆ’ π‘šπ‘š βˆ’ derivation of X, which is π‘šπ‘š βˆ’ regular.

2.9. Definition.[2].

Let 𝑋𝑋 be a BCI-algebra and let π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š ,π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² be two self maps of

𝑋𝑋. Then we define

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβˆ˜ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² ∢ 𝑋𝑋 ⟢ 𝑋𝑋 by: (π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβˆ˜ π‘Žπ‘Žβ€²π‘šπ‘š) =π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (π‘₯π‘₯))⩝π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋 .

2.10. Proposition.[2].

Let X be a p-semi-simple BCI-algebra and let π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š ,π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² be

(π‘Žπ‘Ž ,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ) -m-derivations of 𝑋𝑋. Then , π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβˆ˜ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² of 𝑋𝑋. Then, π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβˆ˜ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² is also a (π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ)- m derivation of 𝑋𝑋.


Let X be a p-semi-simple BCK-algebra. π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š andπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² are

(π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ)βˆ’m-derivations of 𝑋𝑋. Then ⩝π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑋𝑋, we get (π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβˆ˜ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² ) =π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šοΏ½π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)οΏ½=π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š[(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)∧(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—

π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (𝑦𝑦))]

=π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š[(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (𝑦𝑦))βˆ—{(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (𝑦𝑦))βˆ—(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)}] =π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦) by property (7) = {π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (𝑦𝑦))}βˆ—[{π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (𝑦𝑦))}βˆ—

{π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)}]

= {π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)}∧ οΏ½π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šοΏ½π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² (𝑦𝑦)οΏ½οΏ½ =οΏ½(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβˆ˜ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² )(π‘₯π‘₯)βˆ— 𝑦𝑦� ∧ οΏ½π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ—(π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘‘π‘‘βˆ˜ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² )(𝑦𝑦)οΏ½ . Therefore, (π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβˆ˜ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² ) is a (π‘Žπ‘Ž,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ)βˆ’ π‘šπ‘š βˆ’derivaion of 𝑋𝑋. 2.11. Proposition.[2].

Let 𝑋𝑋 be a p-semi-simple BCI-algebra and let π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘š,π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² be

(π‘Žπ‘Ž ,π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ )β€“π‘šπ‘š-derivation of X. Then, π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβˆ˜ π‘Žπ‘Žπ‘šπ‘šβ€² is also a (π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ,π‘Žπ‘Ž)βˆ’ π‘šπ‘š βˆ’ derivation of 𝑋𝑋.


We deal with the study of some ideals in BCK-algebras. 3.1. Definition.[3].

Anon empty subset 𝐴𝐴 of a BCI-algebra 𝑋𝑋 is called a left (resp. right ) 1-ideal of 𝑋𝑋 if :

(1) π‘₯π‘₯.π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐴𝐴 (resp. π‘Žπ‘Ž.π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐴𝐴 ) whenever π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋 and π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐴𝐴. (2) for any π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝑋𝑋 π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐴𝐴 and 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐴𝐴 imply 𝑦𝑦π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐴𝐴. Both a left and a right 1-ideal is called 1-ideal.

3.2 Definition.[3].

Anon-empty subset 𝐴𝐴 of a BCI-algebra𝑋𝑋 is called a left (resp. right) associative of 𝑋𝑋 if :

(1) π‘₯π‘₯.π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐴𝐴 (resp. π‘Žπ‘Ž.π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐴𝐴 ) whenever π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐴𝐴and π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐴𝐴 .

(2) for any π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦,𝑧𝑧 ∈ 𝑋𝑋, (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ— 𝑧𝑧 ∈ 𝐴𝐴and 𝑦𝑦 βˆ— 𝑧𝑧 ∈

𝐴𝐴imply thatπ‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐴𝐴. 3.3. Example.

Let 𝑋𝑋= {0,1,2} in which βˆ— is given by the table (3)

βˆ— 0 1 2

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 2 2 0

Then (𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0) is an implicative BCK-algebra, and

{0},𝑋𝑋 , {0,1} and {0,2} are all ideals of 𝑋𝑋.

3.4. Definition.[3].

Given a BCK-algebra (𝑋𝑋.βˆ—,0), a nonempty subset 𝐼𝐼 of 𝑋𝑋 is said to be a positive implicative ideal if it satisfies, for all π‘₯π‘₯,𝑦𝑦,𝑧𝑧 in

𝑋𝑋, (i) 0∈ 𝐼𝐼 .


3.5. Example.

Let 𝑋𝑋= {0,1,2,3,4} in which βˆ— is given by table (4)

βˆ— 0 1 2 3 4

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 0 2 0 3 3 1 3 0 3 4 4 4 4 4 0

Then (𝑋𝑋 ,βˆ—,0) is a BCK-algebra. Clearly,

{0,1,3} and {0,1,2,3} are positive implicative ideals of 𝑋𝑋.

{0}, {0,2} and {0,2,4} are ideals of 𝑋𝑋, but not positive implicative.

3.6. Theorem.[3].

If we are given an 𝐼𝐼 of a BCK-algebra, then 𝐼𝐼 is positive implicative if and only if any π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝑋𝑋, then

𝐴𝐴𝑛𝑛= {π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋:π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐼𝐼}

is and ideal of 𝑋𝑋.


Suppose that 𝐼𝐼 is positive implicative and π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ∈

𝐴𝐴𝑛𝑛and𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐴𝐴𝑛𝑛. Then

(π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ πΌπΌπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘Žπ‘¦π‘¦ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐼𝐼. By (ii) we obtain π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈

𝐼𝐼,𝑖𝑖.π‘Ÿπ‘Ÿ. ,π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐴𝐴𝑛𝑛. This says 𝐴𝐴𝑛𝑛 is an ideal.

(⇐) Suppose that for any π‘Žπ‘Žin𝑋𝑋, 𝐴𝐴𝑛𝑛 is an ideal of 𝑋𝑋. If (π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦)βˆ—

𝑧𝑧 ∈ 𝐼𝐼 and

𝑦𝑦 βˆ— 𝑧𝑧 ∈ 𝐼𝐼, then π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐴𝐴𝑧𝑧 and 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐴𝐴𝑧𝑧. Since 𝐴𝐴𝑧𝑧 is an ideal of 𝑋𝑋,

π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐴𝐴𝑧𝑧, and so π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑧𝑧 ∈ 𝐼𝐼. This means that 𝐼𝐼 is positive implicative


If 𝐼𝐼 is a positive implicative ideal, then 𝐴𝐴𝑛𝑛 is an ideal, as well as the least ideal containing 𝐼𝐼 and n. In fact, if B is any ideal containing 𝐼𝐼andπ‘Žπ‘Ž, then ⩝π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐴𝐴𝑛𝑛 , we have π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐼𝐼. If follows that π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐡𝐡 anπ‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐡𝐡, hence π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐡𝐡. This shows that π΄π΄π‘›π‘›βŠ† 𝐡𝐡. The assertion holds. Thus we have

3.7. Corollary.[3].

If 𝐼𝐼 is appositive implicative ideal of 𝑋𝑋 then for any π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝑋𝑋,

𝐴𝐴𝑛𝑛= {π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝑋𝑋:π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— π‘Žπ‘Ž ∈ 𝐼𝐼} is the least ideal containing I and π‘Žπ‘Ž .


Given a BCK-algebra (𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0), an ideal 𝐼𝐼 of 𝑋𝑋 is called a maximal ideal if 𝐼𝐼 is a proper ideal of 𝑋𝑋 and not a proper subset of any proper ideal of 𝑋𝑋.


Let 𝑋𝑋= {0,1,2,3,4}, in which βˆ— is given by the table (5)

βˆ— 0 1 2 3 4

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 1 1 3 3 3 3 0 3 4 4 4 4 4 0

Then (𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0) is a BCK-algebra, {0,1,2,3} and {0,1,2,4} are two maximal ideal of 𝑋𝑋.

3.10. Theorem.[3].

Suppose (𝑋𝑋,βˆ—,0) is a bounded BCK-algebra and |𝑋𝑋|β‰₯2 . Then 𝑋𝑋 at least have one maximal ideal.


First we prove that an ideal 𝐼𝐼 of 𝑋𝑋 is proper if and only if

1βˆ‰ 𝐼𝐼 .In fact, if 1βˆ‰ 𝐼𝐼 then 𝐼𝐼 β‰  𝑋𝑋, and so 𝐼𝐼 is a proper ideal. Conversely, assume that 𝐼𝐼 is proper . If 1∈ 𝐼𝐼 thenπ‘₯π‘₯ ≀1 for all π‘₯π‘₯ in𝑋𝑋, hence π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐼𝐼. This means that 𝐼𝐼=𝑋𝑋, which contradicts to the hypothesis . Therefore 1βˆ‰ 𝐼𝐼. The second step. We prove that every ideal A is contained in π‘Žπ‘Ž maximal ideal. The set of all proper ideals containing A is denoted by S. Obviously, (𝑆𝑆,βŠ†) is partially ordered set and

𝑆𝑆 β‰  πœ™πœ™. Let 𝑆𝑆0 be a totally ordered subset of 𝑆𝑆and denote by𝐡𝐡=βˆͺ{𝐼𝐼:𝐼𝐼 ∈ 𝑆𝑆0} . Noticing that A is the least element of (𝑆𝑆,βŠ†) we have 𝐴𝐴 βŠ† 𝐡𝐡. Hence 0∈ 𝐡𝐡.

Let π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐡𝐡and 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐡𝐡. Then there are 𝐼𝐼1,𝐼𝐼2∈ 𝑆𝑆0 such that π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐼𝐼1and𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐼𝐼2. We can suppose 𝐼𝐼2βŠ† 𝐼𝐼1 without loss of any generality. Thus π‘₯π‘₯ βˆ— 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐼𝐼1,𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐼𝐼1 and 𝑦𝑦 ∈ 𝐼𝐼1. It follows that

π‘₯π‘₯ ∈ 𝐡𝐡. This means that 𝐡𝐡 is an ideal. Since every ideal of 𝑆𝑆0 does not contain the element 1, we have 1βˆ‰ 𝐡𝐡. By the first step B is a proper ideal, hence 𝐡𝐡 ∈ 𝑆𝑆. This proves that every totally ordered subset of S have an upper bound in S. By Zorn's Lemma S have a maximal element M. Clearly, 𝐴𝐴 βŠ† 𝑀𝑀. Therefore M is indeed a maximal ideal. The proof is completed. As an immediate consequence of above theorem we have.

3.11. Theorem.[3].

Suppose 𝑋𝑋 is a bound BCK-algebra and let 𝐼𝐼 be a proper commutative (resp. implicative, positive implicative ) ideal, then there is a maximal commutative (resp. implicative, positive implicative ) ideal containing 1. In the next theorem some of equivalent conditions of maximal ideals are given.


In this paper, we have considered the definition of BCK , BCI, and algebra , we get that any BCK-algebra is a BCL-algebra, we introduced the notation of m-derivations in BCI-algebras and investigated the useful properties of m-derivations in BCI-algebras. We discuss commutative and maximal ideals in BCK-algebras, the notion of maximal ideals in BCK-algebras is also given.


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[8] Dar, K.H. and Ahmed, B, : Endomorphisms of BCK-algebras, Math. Japon., 31(1986), 955-957.

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First Author – Hail Suwayhi Alrashdi*, Bachelor of mathematics, TABUK UNIVERISITY

(Saudi Arabia), hailaldyabai@gmail.com, +966509810643

Second Author – Abu baker Mukhtar Ibrahim** , PH.D in mathematics , BAKHT ALRUDA UNIVERISITY (Sudan), abukhalid2063@gmail.com ,+966507921383


table (2):
table (2): . View in document p.3