Performance Comparison of Various Single Patch Microstrip Patch Antenna for High Speed Wireless Applications

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

221

Performance Comparison of Various Single Patch Microstrip

Patch Antenna for High Speed Wireless Applications

F. Shobana

1

, K. Ashwini Priyanka

2

, K. Meena Alias Jeyanthi

3

1,2PG Student, 3Professor, PSNA College of Engineering &Technology, Dinidigul, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract-In this paper we propose a simple, low cost and accurate model of microstrip antennas which is suitable for applications in GHz range. The design parameters are optimized to achieve the compact dimensions as well as the best possible characteristics such as return loss at center frequency, high radiation efficiency and high gain. In this paper,various shapes of antennas are designed, simulated, analyzed and fabricated on a FR4 substrate and its performance is tested interms of return loss. The proposed structures shows VSWR <2 with omni-directional characteristics and good radiation efficiency for the centre frequency of 800MHz to 3.925GHz. The simulation has been performed using ADS momentum simulator. It has been observed that the printed antennas shows better performance for MIMO, multi band and RFID applications.

Keywords-Micro strip antenna, ADS (Advanced Design System), Rectangular patch, FR4 substrate.

I. INTRODUCTION

MIMO transmission is one of the promising antenna technologies used for wireless communications. When the transceiver uses more than one antenna, the antennas must be placed atleast half of the carrier wavelength apart, in order to transmit/receive uncorrelated signals. Not only for the MIMO applications, there numerous applications are quotable for microstrip antennas such as medical, defense, radar and RFID etc. Among many applications, RFID technology has a bright future for wireless communication through a network such as the internet. But the design of the antenna suffers from narrow bandwidth in both bands. An antenna is an electrical device which converts electric power into radio waves and viceversa. It is usually used with aradio transmitter or radio receiver. Antennas are essential components of all equipment that uses radio waves.Among many types of antennas, microstrip antenna have attracted a lot of attention due to rapid growth in wireless communication due to its lightweight,low volume,low profile, low fabrication cost and ease of integration with microwave integrated circuits (MICs). A Patch antenna (also known as a rectangular microstrip antenna consists of a radiating patch of any geometry ( e.g Rectangle, Square, Triangle, Circle, Ring etc) on one side and dielectric substrate in the other side.

The Patch is made up of conducting material of Gold or Copper, which can take any possible shapes. The Radiating Patch and the feed lines is photo etched on the dielectric substrate.

Different Shapes of the Patch Antenna

Rectangular patch Square patch

Isosceles right angled Equilateral triangular Triangular patch patch

Circular patch Ring shaped patch

II. DESIGN AND SIMULATION

A. Design equations of rectangular patch antenna

The rectangular patch antenna is the simplest form of patch antenna and usually designed to operate the resonance.[1] It is very easy to analyze using both the transmission line and cavity models which are most accurate for thin substrates.

Calculation of the width (W)

The width of the Patch antenna is should satisfy the condition

r

W

/

----(1) Where,

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

222

The width of the Patch is given by

----(2) Where,

C –velocity of light (3*108 meter/sec)

Calculation of Effective Dielectric Constant (εreff) The Effective Dielectric Constant of the substrate is defined as the fraction with which the dielectric constant of the substrate varies when the metal patch is placed or embedded in it. The Effective Dielectric Constant is given by

---(3)

Calculation of the Effective Length (Leff)

The Effective Length of the Patch is defined as the length over which the electric field exists. The Effective Length of the Patch is given by

---(4) H field pattern:

cos

2

sin

cos

2

sin

2

) (

W

k

W

k

r

e

hWE

jk

F

o o r jk O O o ---(5)

cos

2

cos

cos

2

cos

2

sin

2

) (

k

h

h

k

h

k

r

e

hWE

jk

F

o o o r jk O O o ----(6)

B. Design of rectangular patch antenna with actual dimensions

Figure 1 Return loss curve for rectangular patch antenna

C. Construction of modified rectangular patch antenna with modified dimensions

Figure 2 return loss curve for rectangular patch antenna

Figure 2 represents return loss for rectangular patch antenna which shows simulated s11 value of -33 dB

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

223

D. Triangular Patch Antenna

The triangular geometry of microstrip antenna is one of the most common shapes having a wide range of wireless applications ranging from circuit element to wireless antennas. It has the advantage of occupying less metalized area on substrate then other configurations.

E. Design of triangular patch antenna with actual dimensions

Figure 4 return loss curve for triangular patch antenna

Figure 5 triangular patch antenna is tested and fabricated by using network analyzers

F. Circular Patch Antenna

Circular patch antenna is a popular patch antenna used for various purposes in modern technology. Itis used not only the single element but also in array form and it is analyzed by treating the patch, ground plane and the material between the two as a circular cavity.[2]

The electric field equation for circular patch antenna ,

sin

cos

cos

2

cos

2

sin

sin

2

sin

sin

sin

kL

kW

kW

E

---(7)

sin

cos

cos

sin

2

cos

2

sin

sin

2

sin

sin

sin

kL

kW

kW

E

---(8) G. Design of circular patch antenna

Figure 6 return loss curve for circular patch antenna

H. Construction of a modified circular microstrip patch antenna

Figure 7 return loss curve for circular patch antenna

Figure 7 represents return loss for circular patch antenna which shows simulated s11 value of -22 dB

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

224

I. Construction of actual semi-circle patch antenna:

Figure 9 return loss curve for semi-circular patch antenna

J. Construction of modified semi-circular patch antenna:

Figure 10 return loss curve for semi-circular patch antenna

Figure 11 return loss curve for semi-circular patch antenna is measured

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1:

Comparison of Various Microstrip Antennas

Table 2:

Comparison of Various Microstrip Antennas

Parameters Circular Semi Circular

Resonant Frequency 801.8040MHz 801.808MHz Dielectric Constant Of

The Substrate (Εr) 4.32 4.32

Tangent Loss 0.01 0.01

Height Of Dielectric Substrate (H)

4.5mm 1mm

Simulated S11 (dB) -22 -22

Measured S11 (dB) -20 -19 Parameters Rectangular Triangular

Resonant Frequency 3925.6MHz 1.4071GHz Dielectric Constant Of

The Substrate (Εr) 4.32 4.32

Tangent Loss 0.01 0.01

Height Of Dielectric Substrate (H)

3.5mm 2.6mm

Simulated S11 (dB) -33 -38

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2014)

225

Various shapes of the antenna are designed using ADS momentum simulator. The performance of the antenna can be characterized by return loss and radiation efficiency. These parameters are simulated and tested by using Agilent on-field Vector network analyzer N9926A and the results are tabulated below. From the table both the simulated and measured values are similar. Hence it is validated.

IV. CONCLUSION

These designed antenna are very simple, cost effective and high efficiency for the applications in GHz frequency ranges. The optimum design parameters (i.e. dielectric material, height of the substrate, operating frequency) are used to achieve the compact dimensions and high radiation efficiency. The measured results agreed with the simulated values. The antenna presented here proves to be electrically small and is the best candidate for MIMO, RFID and all other wireless applications. It would also be possible to design an antenna operating in any other frequency bands by changing the design parameters.

In future, we will investigate the spiral designs and slots in the existing design with different feeding techniques which seem to be having more improved performances for the specified applications. At the same time we will merge more than two patch elements operating at different frequencies by using quarter wavelength transformer method within an

arraynetwork configurations to get multiband support.

REFERENCES

[1] Magthoom Fouzia Y, Dr.K.Meena alias Jeyanthi, 2014Design of a Novel Microstrip Patch Antenna for Microwave Imaging Systems [2] Dr. K. Meena alias Jeyanthi , E.Thangaselvi , A.S. Prianga, 2013,

Simulation of Rectangular Microstrip Antenna using Nylon Fabric Material

[3] Jigar A soni, Anil K Sisodia,, 2014 Design of Dual band Antenna for Indian Regional Naviagtional Satellites

[4] C.A.Balanis “Antenna Theory : Analysis And Design,3rd Edision, John Wiley,2009.

[5] Circular patch antenna design with switchable polarization, 2013, Rahim M.K.A, Yussof M.F.M, Hamid M.R

Figure

Figure  3: screenshot for the measure of s11 paramter using Agilent on-field Vector network analyzer N9926A

Figure 3:

screenshot for the measure of s11 paramter using Agilent on-field Vector network analyzer N9926A p.2
Figure 1 Return loss curve for rectangular patch antenna

Figure 1

Return loss curve for rectangular patch antenna p.2
Figure 2 represents return loss for rectangular patch antenna which shows simulated  s11 value of -33 dB

Figure 2

represents return loss for rectangular patch antenna which shows simulated s11 value of -33 dB p.2
Figure 2   return loss curve  for rectangular patch antenna

Figure 2

return loss curve for rectangular patch antenna p.2
Figure 6 return loss curve for circular patch antenna

Figure 6

return loss curve for circular patch antenna p.3
Figure 7 represents return loss for circular  patch antenna which shows simulated  s11 value of -22 dB

Figure 7

represents return loss for circular patch antenna which shows simulated s11 value of -22 dB p.3
Figure 8 measured return loss curve for circular patch antenna

Figure 8

measured return loss curve for circular patch antenna p.3
Figure 4 return loss curve for triangular patch antenna

Figure 4

return loss curve for triangular patch antenna p.3
Figure 7   return loss curve for circular patch antenna

Figure 7

return loss curve for circular patch antenna p.3
Figure 10  return loss curve  for  semi-circular  patch antenna

Figure 10

return loss curve for semi-circular patch antenna p.4
Figure 11   return loss curve for  semi-circular patch antenna is measured

Figure 11

return loss curve for semi-circular patch antenna is measured p.4
Table 1: Comparison of Various Microstrip Antennas

Table 1:

Comparison of Various Microstrip Antennas p.4
Table 2: Comparison of Various Microstrip Antennas

Table 2:

Comparison of Various Microstrip Antennas p.4

References

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