Composite materials. Thesis: composite materials: bamboo Hanneke Crezee Denise Hak Gymnasium Camphusianum, Gorinchem

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There are nine million bicycles

in Beijing

That's a fact...

–Katie Melua

soon, they will all be made of

bamboo!

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Index

page

Prologue 4

Thanks to… 5

Why China? 6

Why the province Sichuan? 7

Why this bamboo species? 8

Our plan 9

Costs 11

Appendix: 12

-Pictures of bamboo-made bicycle frames -List of costs

-Lyrics of Michael Jackson’s: ‘heal the world’ -Lyrics of Katie Melua: ‘Nine million bicycles’

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Prologue

We are Hanneke Crezee and Denise Hak, both 17 years old, from the Camphusianum Grammar School in Gorinchem. We’re in the 6th form of Secondary School and we have to make a kind of graduation paper. Our science teacher showed us a handout about this project, a great project. We thought this project is a good way to combine school with the Third World, because we can use our business plan as our graduation paper, and this also makes you realise there are people at the other side of this world who need our help. Helping people with making a business plan makes us feel good, so this would be a great thesis for us!

First we will tell you something about China, and the province Sichuan. Then we will talk about bamboo, and the species we chose: Phyllostachys bambusoides. After that we will show our plan, using bamboo to make China a better place.

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Thanks to…

During this project we have been helped by many people. We would really like to thank our families, for listening to our ideas about the project. A special thanks goes to:

Mrs. Suppers-van Dinter, our chemistry teacher. She told us about the imagine contest. Without her we wouldn’t have known about its existing.

Marloes Borsboom, who told us everything about foundations who could help us realise our project.

Lieke Smits and Bas v.d. Berg, who could tell us everything about Imagine.

Bob Ursem, who helped us with our project.

Mr. Kogelbauer, who showed us the composite material department at imperial College, London

Vikki Mendosa, our exchange student in Dartford, London.

Mr. Osseforth, our vice principal, who lead us during our trip to London.

Mr. and Mrs. Hak, who supported Denise, during her trip to China.

Albert-Jan Shi, who Works for Rural China Education. He told us more about China.

Lulu Fan, who also gave us information about China.

(Thanks)

Denise Hak Hanneke Crezee

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Why China?

China, or officially Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo, is the third biggest country in the world, after Russia and Canada, and has a surface of

9.571.300 km2. China has 1.2 billion inhabitants. It is a country with a lot of poor people at the country side. About 29% of the inhabitants live near the cities, where there is more prosperity. The other 71% lives at the country side. At the country side, there is poverty because the missing of employment. That’s why the country people try to reach the city, where there is more chance to improve the prosperity. Because of this

urbanization, the government adjusts a prohibition to people who live in the city but don’t have a job.

We chose China for our project to create more employment, especially at the country side.

Our project is about composite materials, and we want to use the natural fibres of bamboo. So China is also qualified because in China we find the most useable bamboo species. When we place our bamboo-bicycle fabric in China, we create more employment at the country side and we can have our own field with bamboo, so the transport costs are low or lack. Besides that the Chinas economy is a fast growing economy. It is a

country which has to deal with a large part of the large percentage of the total CO2-emission. In 2005 the CO2-emission was about 18.1012 Kg.

Although the Chinese government did not want to sign the Kyoto alliance. Plants might be a solution to reduce the CO2 emission in the world. Plants

absorb CO2 and convert the CO2 into O2. By planting bamboo plants, we

should be able to help reducing the CO2-emission. That is important for

China, so we also chose China, to be the country of our project, for that reason.

http://www.milieuennatuurcompendium.nl/indicatoren/nl0533-Koolstofdioxide-emissie-door-gebruik-van-fossiele-brandstoffen,-mondiaal.html?i=9-20

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Why the province Sichuan?

We want to make our project successful, so we have to build our fabric at a place where our bamboo species Phyllostachys bambusoides can grow optimal. We have to find out among which circumstances we can get most out of our bamboo species, to find a good location for the bamboo and for our fabric. We want our bamboo to grow near the fabric to keep the costs for transport low.

We have to take into account: -climate

-woodland and especially on lower cleared slopes.

Those qualities are findable in Sichuan. Sichuan is the best province for agriculture. This is because of the climate; the winters are softly and the summers are warm with lots of rain.

Sichuan

— Capital city: Chengdu — Location: Southwest China

— Surrounding provinces: Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Hubei, Hunan, Guizhou, Yunnan

— Surface: 570.000 km2 — Population: 100 million

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Why did we choose the bamboo species

“Phyllostachys

bambusoides”?

Bamboo is a grass and is one of the fastest growing plants on earth.

Considering the structure, it is just like wood. A big difference is that in a short time bamboo might be useful for any kind of production. It is a strong material, very durable and comparative cheap. Because of its strength, it is possible to use

bamboo as a fibre in composite materials. A large profit of bamboo used in composite materials, is that bamboo is a natural fibre. This means that it is long lasting and environmentally friendly.

The stalk of bamboo consists of internodes and partitions. If you want to make

optimally use of your bamboo, you have to choose a species with very long internodes and as less partitions as possible.

We choose the bamboo species “

Phyllostachys bambusoides”, because it is the fastest growing bamboo species. The Phyllostachys bambusoides, also named as giant bamboo, doesn’t have many

partitions, so not much bamboo will get lost. For our project, we use the

internodes of the bamboo, and the

internodes of this bamboo species are very long, so that we can use most of the

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Our plan

Our plan is to build a fabric in China, in the province Sichuan, to produce bicycles from bamboo composite materials.

Because the Chinese people are not very tall, we decide to produce small bicycles.

For one bicycle we need:

Size top tube length TT seat tube angle ST set back SB chain stay length stand over height b.b. drop head tube angle HT head tube length HT wheel base 46 50 75 11.9 39 71.5 4 72 9.1 93.4 50+75+11.9+39+71.5+4+72+9.1= 425.9 cm.

So for one bicycle we need 425.9 cm, which is about 14 feet.

The average height of the Phyllostachys bambusoides is about 50 feet. This way we could make 3 bicycles out of one bamboo plant.

To make the bicycles strong, we will use not just bamboo, but composite materials out of bamboo. That way the bamboo will be long lasting. To make a composite material, we use the bamboo slice, and pour epoxy (or another thermosetting matter) into it. The epoxy needs to dry, and then it will become very strong. To be sure the epoxy is hard enough, to use the bamboo composite, we will wait at least one week. After that week, the composite materials will be useful to produce bicycles.

To connect bamboo slices, we will use hemp-robe. For one bicycle we need about 2 metres.

To produces the bicycles, we need three months maximum (including the drying of the epoxy).

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Costs

First months of our project, we will try to reduce the costs.

Because our project is in China, the salary we have to pay is not much, compared to European norms.

Before using the bamboo we have to wait at least 3 months, during those months we need just one or two employers to spud out weeds. After one month we can plant a second field with bamboo. This way we could

harvest the bamboo, when we are also making bicycles already. The time from planting the bamboo till producing bicycles, we call a project.

When we are going to produce the bicycles we need more employers. First time we need to keep our project small, so we do not need many

employers. To start producing we think we should use about twenty employers. The costs of one employer is €40 a month, so we have to pay (20. 40.3)+(2.40.3)=€2640 per project.

Besides that we need to buy enough bamboo. First years we want to keep our project small. The first time we are going to plant bamboo, we want to use 100 bamboo plants. We need 1 plant for making three bicycles. So this way, we are able to make at least 300 bicycles.

The cost of one plant is €14. So the costs for bamboo are 100. €14= €1400.

To connect to slices bamboo used for our bicycles we need hemp. For one bicycle we need about 2 metre. Hemp-robe costs €50 per 10 metre. For our project of 300 bicycles that might cost €30000.

We also have to buy a field. The bamboo grows best if we plant a slice 1 metre besides another one. Because we want to plant 100 slices of

bamboo, a field which has a surface of 100m2.

To produces the bamboo we need machines. First of all we need a tractor to harvest the bamboo. A Dutch tractor costs about €40000.

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Appendix

Bicycle frame, made of bamboo

Bamboo Frame Sizing

Pro / Cross / Triathlon / MTB and Custom

Frames

Pro Road: 46 to 66cm stock frames see table

Cross Frame: less steep seat and head tube angles see table

Triathlon / TT: 650c wheels (700c on option), steeper seat tube, longer top tube, shorter stem see table

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Custom: frames built to order from 30cm to 70cm. Around 1 in 8 people need a full custom frame, most people can fit a stock frame in comfort.

Pro Frame Geometries

Size* top tube length TT seat tube angle ST set back SB chain stay length stand over height b.b. drop head tube angle HT head tube length HT wheel base 46** 50 75 11.9 39 71.5 4 72 9.1 93.4 48 51.5 74.5 12.7 41.5 74.0 7 72 9.1 97.0 50 52.5 74.5 13.4 41.5 76.2 7 72.5 10.0 97.1 52 53 74 14.3 41.5 77.4 7 73 11.3 97.2 54 54.8 73.5 15.3 41.5 79 7 73 12.8 98.0 56 56 73 16.4 41.5 81.3 7 73.5 15.0 98.8 58 57 73 17.0 41.5 82.3 7 74 16.0 99.4 60 58.3 72.5 18.0 41.5 84.4 7 74 18.0 100.0 62 60 72.25 19.0 41.5 85.8 7 74 20.0 101.0 64 61 72 19.8 41.5 87.3 7 74 22.0 102.0 66 63.3 71.5 20.8 41.5 88.0 7 74 24.0 104.3

*Frame size is measured from centre of bottom bracket to bottom of binder. Measure stand over height (ground to top of top tube) and add 1 to 2cm to be sure of proper fit.

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Michael Jackson Heal the World

There's a place in your heart and I know that it is love And this place could be much brighter than tomorrow And if you really try you'll find there's no need to cry In this place you'll feel there's no hurt and sorrow

There are ways to get there if you care enough for the living Make a little space

make a better place Heal the world

make it a better place

For you and for me and the entire human race

There are people dying if you care enough for the living Make a better place for you and for me

If you want to know why there's a love that cannot lie Love is strong it only cares of joyful giving

If we try we shall see in this bliss we cannot feel Fear or dread we stop existing and start living

Then it feels that always love's enough for us growing Make a better world

So make a better world Heal the world

Make it a better place

For you and for me and the entire human race

There are people dying if you care enough for the living Make a better place for you and for me

And the dream we were conceived in will reveal a joyful face And the world we once believed in will shine again in grace Then why do we keep strangling life?

Wound this earth crucify its soul

Though it's plain to see this world is heavenly Be God's glow

We could fly so high let our spirits never die In my heart I feel you are all my brothers Create a world with no fear

Together we'll cry happy tears

See the nations turn their swords into ploughshares

We could really get there if you cared enough for the living Make a little space

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Heal the world

Make it a better place

For you and for me and the entire human race

There are people dying if you care enough for the living Make a better place for you and for me

Heal the world

Make it a better place

For you and for me and the entire human race

There are people dying if you care enough for the living Make a better place for you and for me

Heal the world

Make it a better place

For you and for me and the entire human race

There are people dying if you cared enough for the living Make a better place for you and for me

There are people dying if you care enough for the living Make a better place for you and for me

There are people dying if you care enough for the living Make a better place for you and for me

You and for me (make a better place) You and for me (make a better place) You and for me (make a better place) You and for me (heal the world we live in) You and for me (save it for our children) You and for me (heal the world we live in) You and for me (save it for our children) You and for me (heal the world we live in) You and for me (save it for our children) You and for me (heal the world we live in) You and for me (save it for our children)

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Katie Melua - Nine Million Bicycles

There are nine million bicycles in Beijing That's a fact,

It's a thing we can't deny

Like the fact that I will love you till I die.

We are twelve billion light years from the edge, That's a guess,

No-one can ever say it's true

But I know that I will always be with you. I'm warmed by the fire of your love everyday So don't call me a liar,

Just believe everything that I say

There are six BILLION people in the world More or less

and it makes me feel quite small

But you're the one I love the most of all INTERLUDE

We're high on the wire With the world in our sight And I'll never tire,

Of the love that you give me every night There are nine million bicycles in Beijing That's a Fact,

it's a thing we can't deny

Like the fact that I will love you till I die And there are nine million bicycles in Beijing And you know that I will love you till I die!

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