leoyl CoA s and dioleoylglycerol solutions (1:1 ratio) were added and the reaction was initiated by the addition of 67 μL of microsomes. The reaction was incubated in a 37 °C water bath for 60 min. The reaction was stopped by the addition of 1 mL of extraction solvent (isopropanol:di- chloromethane (1:1 v/v) with 2.4 % formic acid) contain- ing 1 μg/mL internal standard (glyceryl triolein, Sigma) to each tube and mixed by vortexing. The tubes were centri- fuged at 10,000Xg for 3 min. 500 μL of the bottom phase was filtered through a Millex-HV syringe driven filter unit with tube outlet (PVDF @ 0.45 μm, Millipore) and trans- ferred to LC-MS vials (12x32 mm glass screw neck, preslit cap & PTFE/silicone septa, Waters). Phytochemicals (Sigma), botanical extracts and positive control were di- luted in DMSO and added to the reaction with the sub- strates at the desired concentration. The DGAT1 inhibitor A922500 (Tocris) was used as positive control at a con- centration of 40 nM.
14CO2 and of glycerol phosphorylation, in contrast to control studies with leukocytes collected from normal subjects. Homogenates of the patient's leukocytes contained negligible activity of ATP:glycerol phosphotransferase (glycerokinase EC 126.96.36.199) as measured by a direct spectrophotometric method. Marked hyperglycerolemia has thus far been detected in one brother and in one son of the daughter of this patient. This evidence suggests an x-linked recessive inheritance pattern of the trait. There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus in this family.
With the growing capacity in biodiesel production and the resulting glut of the glycerol by- product, there is increasing interest in finding alternative uses for crude glycerol. One option may be to burn it locally for combined process heat and power, replacing fossil fuels and improving the economics of biodiesel production. However, due to its low energy density, high viscosity, and high auto-ignition temperature, glycerol is difficult to burn. Additionally, the composition of the glycerol by-product can change dramatically depending upon the biodiesel feedstock (e.g., vegetable oils or rendered animal fats), the catalyst used, and the degree of post-reaction cleanup (e.g., acidulation and demethylization). This work reports the results of experiments to characterize emissions in 1) a variable, high swirl burner
and increased AMP concentration lead to adenosine accumulation to increase energy supply and demand and eventually increase cAMP . Consistent with this study, four weeks of endurance training with intensity of 50 to 60% of running speed had a significant effect on serum glycerol levels and the expression of insulin pathway proteins . In one study, researchers argued that increase in adenosine acts as a progressive loop and increases the expression of cAMP to activate thermogenic genes . They concluded that the accumulation of adenosine increases the metabolism of the heart, which increases the cAMP and lipolysis .
Figure 4: Variations of the acyl chains esterified at the two glycerol positions sn-1 (left panels) and sn-2 (right panel) of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG; A-C), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG; D-F), sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG; G-I) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG; J-L), as induced in response to a shift from 22°C to 30°C, in Synechococcus sp. WH7803. The results are expressed in percentages of total acyl chain esterified at the stereospecific position of the glycerolipid. The experiments were repeated three
The same apparatus and software were employed for contact angle measurements using the sessile drop technique (Muszyński et al., 2016a; 2016b). A drop of the examined liquid was placed on the surface of the selected material via a 1 ml syringe equipped with Type 3 (90°) stainless- steel chromatographic needle with an internal diameter of 0.51 mm (Hamilton Co., Reno, USA). The readings of contact angles for each drop were taken 20 s after the formation of the drop. The mean value of the contact angle measured on both sides of the droplet was taken as a result of the measurement (Muszyński et al., 2017b). The presented data are the mean of eight independent determinations at different sites of each surface type. The selected test surfaces were stainless steel, Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE), glass and acrylic glass (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA). For samples tested on the glass surface, the recordings were taken at the intervals of 2 s for the period of first 24 s after drop formation.
In oleaginous microorganisms, NADPH is critical for fatty acid synthesis and is primarily generated from the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) [18, 19]. In the absence of glucose, the PPP may be affected in several ways to cause a shortage of NADPH for fatty acid accumulation. This insufficiency can hardly be compensated by malic enzyme (ME, EC 188.8.131.52), because it is down-regulated at the transcriptional level during the fatty acid accumulation stage . Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH, EC 184.108.40.206) is believed to be another important NADPH source, but its role during fatty acid syn- thesis needs to be further characterized . This may be another possible reason for the insufficient accumulation of fatty acids when organisms are cultured with glycerol as sole carbon source. For instance, NADPH also plays an impor- tant role in preventing cell damage caused by reactive oxy- gen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides and heavy metals [22, 23]. In cultures with raw glycerol, the insufficient NADPH generation may exacerbate the inhibi- tory effect of residual components such as soap, sodium or potassium salts, methanol and heavy metals on cell prolifer- ation and metabolism [24, 25]. As the purification process is uneconomical for the downstream industrial utilization [3, 24], directly using raw glycerol as feedstock for fermentation will remain the most reasonable choice for future applica- tions. Thus, improvement of the NADPH supplementation is required for oleaginous microbes to accumulate fatty acids when cultured with raw glycerol.
There is an increasing demand for biofuels alternatives to petroleum-based fuel due to the health and environmental problems of the latter. Moreover, fossil fuel is not renew- able; Campbell and Laherrere (1998) predict that petro- leum reserves will be completely depleted by 2050. Recently, there has been a significant increase in the production and use of bioethanol and biodiesel. These biofuels - apart from being alternatives to fossil-derived fuels - are secure, renewable, non toxic, have a favorable energy balance and lower harmful emissions and are, therefore, environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is produced from the transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats using simple alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and alkali catalysts. The process generates a lot of glycerol as a by- product. Specifically, the amount of glycerol generated is
While further attempts are in progress using different isola- tion and buffer conditions in an attempt to stabilize any such complexes, it is also as likely that the native VP22 peak 1 form is not associated with VP16 and thus is an independent oli- gomer or an assembly with components other than VP16. On the other hand VP22 peak 2 migrated in an overlapping pat- tern with VP16 by both size exclusion and sedimentation anal- ysis. It was evident, particularly from the sedimentation anal- ysis, that VP22 peak 2 was larger than VP16, and it is possible that the higher size range within this peak, i.e., around 90 to 100 kDa, could contain a complex of VP16 and a monomer (perhaps dimer) of VP22. We attempted to precipitate each of the fractions after size fractionation to determine the profile of associated proteins and whether it altered across the size range but the analytical-scale experiments reported here were not sensitive enough. However, in transfected cells expressing the proteins in the absence of other virus proteins, VP22 and VP16 clearly form some type of VP22-VP16 complex (12), and bac- terially expressed VP16 and VP22.159–301 also coprecipitate (data not shown). Future analysis of infected cells on a more preparative scale and the use of purified proteins should there- fore help characterize the size and stoichiometry of VP16- VP22 complexes.
solvent was extracted rapidly from the inner layers of the PLGA microspheres. Figure 4 is an optical microscopic image of the microparticles and Figure 5 is an SEM image of the recovered microspheres, showing that encapsulation of bovine serum albumin and dextran water solution into the microspheres formed freely aggregated microparticles 1–5 µ m in size. This was possibly because bovine serum albumin and dextran led to freezing-induced phase separa- tion and self-formed microparticles during freeze-drying. 18–20 Figure 1 Optical microscopic images of free solidified microspheres. (A) PLGA (3A50/50), (B) PLGA (3A50/50)/LPLA = 40/80, (C) PLGA (3A50/50)/HPLA = 40/60, (D) PLGA (3A50/50)/HPLA = 40/80, (E) PLGA (2A50/50)/HPLA = 40/80, and (F) PLGA (2A50/50)/LPLA = 40/80. W 1 , 5% w/w BSA and dextran (BSA to dextran
A puzzling aspect of the growth in synthetic glycerol medium is the extraordinarily long lag phase observed for all analyzed S. cerevisiae isolates, even for those strains showing a relatively high growth rate after enter- ing exponential growth phase. Transcriptional changes induced by the shift in carbon source are not expected to result in such a long adaptation phase. Roberts and Hudson  showed that the genes encoding for the main glycerol utilization pathway (STL1, GUT1, and GUT2) as well as other differentially expressed genes are strongly upregulated within 30 minutes after changing the carbon source from glucose to glycerol. Although this work had been carried out in complex medium it is unlikely that the absence of supplements in the medium used for the current study would cause such a remark- able delay in regulating global gene expression. Recent work published by our group found that the prolonged lag phase is accompanied by defects in mitochondrial distribution and inheritance associated with increased mitochondrial oxidation . Interestingly, toward the end
The student decides to produce 40.0 mL of O 2 (g) at a pressure of 0.988 atm and a temperature of 298 K using the reaction represented above. The student uses the equipment shown below. The student sets up a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask fitted with a one-hole stopper. The flask is connected to a 50 mL gas-collection tube that initially is completely filled with water.
Animals of Group I (untreated) received normal saline (8 ml/kg BW). Animals of Group II (A, B, C, D, and E) received different concentrations of glycerol 25%, 30%, 35%, 40% and 50%. Rats of Group D and E having higher dose of glycerol (40% and 50 %), died within 3h of glycerol administration, without any urine output showing severe decrease in the creatinine clearance rate. However, rats with lower doses (25%, 30%, 35%) showed significant hematuria in the first 2-4 h. Degree of hematuria increased with increasing concentration of glycerol. Initially urine had reddish brown appearance for 2 h and after that it attained normal colour. Renal function tests after 48h showed concentration dependent increase in serum urea and creatinine. In normal group, serum urea was 36 mg/dl and it rose to 71.3% in 35% glycerol. Similarly serum creatinine was 0.34 mg/dl in untreated group and rises to 112.96% at 35% (Fig 2 mentioned later part). Thus 35% glycerol dose was considered as an optimum dose in our experimental conditions as there were greater chances of survival of rats with AKI for the study.
High-performance liquid chromatography (SHI- MADZU 10A, Shimadzu International Treading Co. Ltd., Japan) was used for the analysis of composition of biohydrogen fermentation broth. The model of liq- uid chromatographic column was Aminex HPX-87 h. The temperature of chromatographic column was 65 °C. The flow phase was 5 M dilute sulfuric acid with the flow rate of 0.6 mol/min. The detector model was RID-10A, 8.6 Pa. The amount of sampling was 20 μL. The UV spectrophotometric was used to determine the glycerol concentration.
corresponding arterial glycerol levels were 54 +/- 4 vs. 75 +/- 14 microM (NS). Abdominal ATBF was greater in lean subjects (3.2 +/- 0.6 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.3; P less than 0.05), whereas femoral ATBF was similar in both groups (2.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.7). Estimated mean local glycerol release (mumol/100 g.min) was similar in the lean and obese group (0.16 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.20 +/- 0.05 and 0.18 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.17 +/- 0.04) in the abdominal and femoral site, respectively. We conclude that glycerol production from the subcutaneous tissue is increased in obesity, […]
proteins under optimal culture conditions has been re- ported for T. reesei strains . High-yield production of the bulk of plant cell wall-degrading machinery in T. reesei is, however, dependent on the induction by insoluble sub- strates that include cellulose, hemicellulose, or mixtures of plant polymers. Considering the ease of manipulation and the complication of separating enzymes from insoluble plant cell wall materials, soluble inducing substrates are usually preferred or required. These soluble inducers are, however, either non-economic (for example, sophorose) or with low efficiency (for example, lactose).