1/f noise calculations

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Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise

Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise

choices. A shortcoming is that it can be difficult, and some- times impossible, to estimate the values of interest, for example the WTP for noise reduction at different times of the day [17]. The methods that use the SP approach offer flexibility, but the hypothetical scenario is their weakness. 4 The SP method most often used to evaluate noise is the “contingent valuation method” (CVM) [43], in which the respondents directly state their WTP for the good, here a reduction of the noise level. The strength of the CVM and other SP methods, as mentioned above, is that the analyst him/herself constructs the study and may therefore ask ques- tions he/she wants answers to and control for how various factors, such as study design, may have affected the results. We start this overview of evaluation studies on noise abatement by focusing on Swedish studies. Table 1 con- tains Swedish WTP studies for traffic noise. As shown in the table, two studies use the hedonic approach and thereby market data [28, 71], while four studies use a hypothetical approach, either CVM [12, 35, 70] or “stated choice mod- elling” (SCM) [17]. The two hedonic studies employ the effects of traffic noise on property prices in T¨aby [28] and
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Fundamental Properties and Optimal Gains of a Steady State Velocity Measured α β Tracking Filter

Fundamental Properties and Optimal Gains of a Steady State Velocity Measured α β Tracking Filter

VM-α-β filter and conventional α-β filters. We then investigated the filter performance of the derived RV-VM and RA-VM filters using numerical calculations based on the derived equations. These calculations confirmed that both the tracking and smoothing performance could be improved using the derived filters when the ratio of position and velocity measurement noise RB is sufficiently small and/or the gains are relatively large. Moreover, numerical simulations showed the effectiveness of the VM-α-β filter in a realistic situation. The variance of pre- dicted errors given by the VM-α-β filters was approximately 3/4 that of the conventional α-β filters, even when the reliabilities of the position and velocity sensors were the same (RB = 1). Moreover, we confirmed the cor- respondence between our theoretical analysis based on the derived properties and the application results. This implies that the derived properties will be useful for the practical design of tracking systems. However, for sim- plicity, this paper assumed that the only non-zero elements in the gain and covariance matrices were on the main diagonal. Further analysis without these assumptions is an important future task. Moreover, another possible topic for future work is to analyze properties of tracking filter using other measured parameters such as accele- ration.
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Using dose response functions to improve calculations of the impact of anthropogenic noise

Using dose response functions to improve calculations of the impact of anthropogenic noise

A significant benefit of functions that relate the probability of response to acoustic exposure is that they enable the selection of a probability of response that is appropriate for each specific policy con- text. In contrast, the use of a single threshold, such as the RLp50, hinders this calibration of risk in terms of the proportion of the population that is impacted. Malme et al. (1984) selected the RLp50 avoidance value ‘ rather than the customary 0.95 level since the 0.95 level is not adequately defined by the available data ’ . This may be reasonable from a scientific perspective, but limiting the focus to RLp50 to estimate the number of takes not only prevents the correct calculation of impact, but also narrows the criterion to a value that may be inappropriate for many regulatory functions. The acceptable percentage of animals impacted depends upon the policy context. For example, Norwegian support for the Miller et al. (2014) study was motivated by concerns expressed by a whale watch industry that Norwegian naval exercises caused killer whales to vacate the whale watch area, harming whale watch companies (Kuningas, Kvadsheim, Lam, & Miller, 2013). In this case, maintaining half of the whales avail- able for whale watching might meet the needs of the industry. In con- trast, the southern resident population of killer whales in Puget Sound is listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act, in part because of the risk of behavioural disruption by anthropogenic noise (Krahn et al., 2004; NMFS, 2011). Here it is unlikely that regulators would select an RLp50 threshold of impact that allowed half of the animals exposed above the threshold level to be adversely impacted. Similarly, acoustic criteria are used by many regulators to establish shut ‐ down zones – an area around a sound source where the source must be shut down if animals are sighted within it to prevent them being harmed. If such a shutdown zone were established using an RLp50 based upon hearing damage, then the shutdown would only protect the least sensitive half of the population. There are few juris- dictions that would accept protective criteria that allow half of the population to be harmed even when exposure is limited to below the threshold level.
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Lévy Flights, 1/f  Noise and Self Organized Criticality

Lévy Flights, 1/f Noise and Self Organized Criticality

A complex system [30] is a special type of dynamical composite system [31], where under critical circum- stances new collective behavior emerges from the short- range interactions between the constituent parts. Intui- tively, complexity is inversely related to a simple behav- ior, i.e., the more we are able to provide a simple de- scription of a phenomenon, the less complex it is. Un- correlated random signals (white noise) may be highly unpredictable even in cases where the past history is fully known but, at a global level, they admit a very simple de- scription and, therefore, are not really “complex”. From a complex-systems approach, random uncorrelated series are among the least complex signals, and those with long- range correlations are among the most complex [29].
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Reduced 1/f noise in p Si0 3Ge0 7 metamorphic metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor

Reduced 1/f noise in p Si0 3Ge0 7 metamorphic metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistor

300 nm p-type (5 ⫻ 10 19 cm ⫺ 3 ) polycrystalline silicon gate. The LF noise was measured using an HP 35670A dy- namic signal analyzer and custom-made preamplifier con- taining OPA637 共 Texas Instruments 兲 and LT1028 共 Linear Technology 兲 operational amplifiers in the first stage. All measurements were done on MOSFETs with an effective gate length of 0.55 ␮ m and gate width 50 ␮ m in an electri- cally shielded room at 293 K.

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Computer algorithms for Euclidean lattice gauge theory calculations

Computer algorithms for Euclidean lattice gauge theory calculations

The fact remains, however, that this algorithm has not yet been extended to calculations in 3+ 1 dimensions, the algorithm presented in this thesis is still the only existing algorithm f[r]

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Prioritizing sub-watersheds flooding intensity for structural Damaging Flood control and managing

Prioritizing sub-watersheds flooding intensity for structural Damaging Flood control and managing

Prioritizing calculations were made for the sub-basin of north of Neyshabour by the DSM method for the mentioned situations and results are demonstrated in Table 3. In this method, regarding priority in weighting coefficient (here more weight for damage), if amounts of damage in these two rivers were equal, then their rating would be determined by comparing the minor values of other criteria (here as lag time and specific flood) in linear form. Results shown in Table 3 suggest that in order to perform effective flood operations, structural or non-structural, performance must start from units 13, 17-1, 19, 9- 1 and 2-3 as the first five suggested choices made by the DSM method. Information from local reviews and consultation with resident experts, it was found that the mentioned units were considered as the top priorities of the region in terms of erosion and sediment and flood damage. This conformity was calculated for acceptable rating of the other lower level priorities. By looking closely at Tables 1 and 3, it is clear that although more weight was given to damage criteria, sub-basin 19 was assigned with damage percentage of 25%, lag time as 0.35 hour and specific flood as 2.5 cubic meters per second on the square kilometers, as such it was higher than sub-basin 2-3 with damage percentage of 49%, lag time as 0.67 and specific flood as 0.6. This is logical. Because just one criteria in a multi criteria decision making (MCDM) problem, would not be appropriate to determine the top priority appropriately. Another consideration of the results from Table 3 is that the first 11 priorities of the DSM method were placed steadily in up of kenic line (upstream) and the final priority such as units 1-10, 4, 1-9 under kenic line and were placed in lowland areas. So flood control in this area must be started by a combination of watershed management involving implementation of check dams and time of concentration engineering methods from upstream according to priorities of the DSM method. It should also be noted that around 70% of prioritized units were rated from 12 to 44 in various points of the basin. So,
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The Application of a Sound-Intensity Analysis and an Experimental Modal Analysis for Determining the Noise Emissions of a Diesel Engine

The Application of a Sound-Intensity Analysis and an Experimental Modal Analysis for Determining the Noise Emissions of a Diesel Engine

In the frequency spectra o f the emitted noise shown in Figure 2, the area above 1000 Hz does not change its position or its shape during the change o f operating conditions; only the m agnitude o f the acoustic pressure changes. This proves that the sound waves in this area o f the spectrum occur due to the natural oscillation o f the engine parts. In order to improve this, comprehensive examinations o f the natural vibrations o f the engine parts were made, especially o f the block and the sump. The modal testing was carried out by excitation w ith the method o f impact and by measuring the vibrations as a response.
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Low noise narrow band amplification with field effect transistors

Low noise narrow band amplification with field effect transistors

The noise factor F is defined as the ratio of the total output noise power in the amplifier load to the noise power at the output due to the thermal noise of the source resistance... The[r]

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ON HORIZONTAL AND COMPLETE LIFTS OF (1, 1) TENSOR FIELD f SATISFYING STRUCTURES f11 – 2 f 9 = 0 AND f 10 – f = 0

ON HORIZONTAL AND COMPLETE LIFTS OF (1, 1) TENSOR FIELD f SATISFYING STRUCTURES f11 – 2 f 9 = 0 AND f 10 – f = 0

Abstract. The horizontal and complete lifts from a differentiable manifold of class C ∞ to its co- tangent bundle T * (M n ) have been studied by Yano and Patterson [4, 5]. Yano and Ishihara [6] studied lifts of an f-structure in the tangent and co-tangent bundle. f-structures manifolds of degree 8 have been studied by Kim, J.B. [2]. The present paper deals with some problems on horizontal arid complete lifts of structures mentioned above in tangent and co-tangent bundles and the prolongation in the second tangent space T 2 (M
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Car Roof Rack Cavity Noise

Car Roof Rack Cavity Noise

Vertical standing waves form in ‘deep’ cavities. Howe [2] explained how the pulsating vortex sheet pushes on the standing wave, pulsing air in and out of the cavity. Changing the depth of the cavity changes both the quarter wave/depth tone of the cavity but also affects the general turbulence noise. As the depth tones, which are the only thing changing from the base case, are a minor component in sound production, it makes sense for the sound output to be similar. However, the significant change in turbulence around the throat is surprising. It was expected that it would be similar to the base case. The change in depth, which effects the frequency of resonation (and interference with the shear layer), is obviously enough to affect airflow into the cavity. The plot of turbulence above the cavity centreline (Fig C.6) has a similar shape to the ‘-2mm Depth’ cavity, but has a slightly higher peak.
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NOISE PERFORMANCE OF A PATCH VOLTAGE CLAMP AND A BILAYER VOLTAGE CLAMP

NOISE PERFORMANCE OF A PATCH VOLTAGE CLAMP AND A BILAYER VOLTAGE CLAMP

The f 2 noise term arises primarily from the white noise component of the input voltage noise of the JFET in series with the capacitance that is associated with the input.. This capa[r]

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Fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index $H=0$ and the Gaussian unitary ensemble

Fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index $H=0$ and the Gaussian unitary ensemble

square-root singularities at the edges of the spectrum, arising from the Chebyshev– Fourier coefficients of the logarithm outside [− 1, 1 ] ; see Lemma 5.1. Most bounds and concentration inequalities for linear statistics rely on the test function having at least C 1 ( R ) regularity (see, e.g., [1, 38, 43]), while ours is only C 1/2 ( R ) (even the recent extension [50] of such bounds to test functions from the C 1/2 + ε ( R ) class does not suffice here). Making use of fine asymptotics of orthogonal polynomials and Airy functions, we prove that this linear statistic converges to zero, a problem that did not appear in [30].
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Digital Device Fenometer F-1680 for Noise Measurement at Kosovo Mines

Digital Device Fenometer F-1680 for Noise Measurement at Kosovo Mines

Initial efforts have already been made by the INKOS to measure the noise level around existing mines as well as within the scope Sibovc SW. These measurements should be continued and intensified to create the basis for further evaluation information. Additional noise measurements should be made in the surrounding villages to create the basis for subsequent assessments about increasing noise caused by mining equipment and noise caused as a result of the change of the road for traffic.

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Acoustic Environment in the Bus: an Empirical Study

Acoustic Environment in the Bus: an Empirical Study

(NR-17), a level of exposure exceeding 65 dB (A) within 8 hours of work is considered uncomfortable (Portela and Zannin, 2010; Zannin et al., 2003). Nadri et al. (2012) found that the drivers’ level of noise exposure was 79 dB for 8 hours of work in the metropolitan area of Kerman, Iran. In this study, however, the noise exposure levels in all bus types was relatively similar, having just a slight variation. According to Brazilian national standard, drivers' eight hours of work at such noise exposure level is highly detrimental for their health. Although the researchers did not conduct an audiometric study in this study, it can be said that the drivers' hearing ability was in danger. Organization of training, workshops, and awareness programs in order to use of ear muff are some necessary measures to be taken for the drivers.
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Analysis and Synthesis of Pseudo Periodic Like Noise by Means of Wavelets with Applications to Digital Audio

Analysis and Synthesis of Pseudo Periodic Like Noise by Means of Wavelets with Applications to Digital Audio

Voiced musical sounds have nonzero energy in sidebands of the frequency partials. Our work is based on the assumption, often experimentally verified, that the energy distribution of the sidebands is shaped as powers of the inverse of the distance from the closest partial. The power spectrum of these pseudo-periodic processes is modeled by means of a superposition of modulated 1/f components, that is, by a pseudo-periodic 1/f -like process. Due to the fundamental selfsimilar character of the wavelet transform, 1/f processes can be fruitfully analyzed and synthesized by means of wavelets. We obtain a set of very loosely correlated coefficients at each scale level that can be well approximated by white noise in the synthesis process.
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Studies of HeH: Dissociative Excitation

Studies of HeH: Dissociative Excitation

both the direct and the resonant process. Thus, we would have to include both direct DE and resonant processes, as well as any interactions of the Rydberg states with the continuum, to exactly describe the full reaction mechanism. However, since the experiment will only measure the direct DE cross sec- tion, the contribution from the resonant states can be removed. There are more and less sophisticated methods to deal with the resonances. Here, a somewhat "brute force" method, consisting of removing any data points in the scattering output where there are resonance behavior, is employed. The data set without the resonances are then splined onto the same R-grid as the original data. These results at 1.45 a 0 (near equilibrium distance) for A 1 symmetry are displayed in Fig. 2 as the dashed lines. Using the
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LHD Bootstrap Current Coefficient Calculations with the VENUS+δ f code

LHD Bootstrap Current Coefficient Calculations with the VENUS+δ f code

For high collisional regime, the negative bootstrap current is also predicted in the torus-outward shifted mag- netic axis configuration. The magnetic axis location, of which bootstrap current is negative, moves more torus- outwardly. However, the IDB/SCD plasma, with ν/V = 0 . 03 - 0.10 [1 / m], which is the typical high collisionality plasmas in LHD, poses additional di ffi culties for the boot- strap current calculations connected with the complicated island structure of the magnetic surfaces. The bootstrap current coe ffi cient, calculated for this regime with nested magnetic surfaces by VENUS+δ f is relatively small. This result confirms the DKES code calculations, performed for the LHD model configuration. However, accurate calcula- tions of the total bootstrap current for such configurations with an island structure and with real experimental col- lisionality profiles constitute a future programmatic task. This task is considered as part of a more general problem, meaningful both for tokamaks and stellarators — the prob- lem of transport calculations in real 3D configurations with self-consistent island equilibria [22].
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1 / f α noise and generalized diffusion in random Heisenberg spin systems

1 / f α noise and generalized diffusion in random Heisenberg spin systems

quency ∆. Note that, at T = 0, ∆ is defined as the energy difference between first excited state from the ground state of the F/AF spin pair, while, at infinite tempera- ture, the notion of a gap still holds—entropic considera- tions dominate and the relevant gap is approximately the gap associated with the largest few total-spin states. The form implicitly assumes a dynamical exponent z = 1/β; the scaling of the spin size with the exponent − β/2 oc- curs because it scales as the square-root of the cluster size n (as long as the chain is not purely F or AF); n scales with the exponent − β ) at both high and low tem- peratures. The reason that both F and AF spins scale in the same way is attributed to the fact that proportion of F and AF bonds in the limit that the RG converges is a finite, intermediate value. Additional requirements of finiteness of h ∆ i /∆ 0 and normalization fix the form of
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Very low 1/f barrier noise in sputtered MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with high tunneling magnetoresistance

Very low 1/f barrier noise in sputtered MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with high tunneling magnetoresistance

5/Ru 5 (thickness in nm). After deposition of the bottom electrodes by dc sputtering in the HV chamber with a base pressure of 1 10 7 Torr in our Sharmrock cluster deposi- tion system, the MgO layers were grown by RF sputtering from two MgO targets in a target-facing-target gun, in another chamber of the same system having a base pressure less than 1 10 8 Torr. Then top electrodes were sputtered. All MTJ layers were deposited without breaking the vacuum during the growth process. The growth pressure for the MgO layer was varied from 1.3 to 4.0 mTorr. Here, we select two series of MTJs for noise and TMR study, A-series MTJs are these with t ¼ 1.8 nm grown at 1.3 mTorr, and B-series MTJs have t ¼ 2.0 nm grown at 4 mTorr. The MTJs were fabricated by UV lithography and Ar ion milling with junction area ranging from 10 to 1000 lm 2 . High vacuum post-annealing was performed in the temperature range of 325–425 C in an applied magnetic field of 800 mT for 0.5 h. Both the TMR ratio and noise become stable when the annealing time is several tens of minutes (e.g., 15 min). 13 All measurements were made at room temperature.
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