1st Century AD

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Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

Climate, people, fire and vegetation: new insights into vegetation dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean since the 1st century AD

Abstract. Anatolia forms a bridge between Europe, Africa and Asia and is influenced by all three continents in terms of climate, vegetation and human civilisation. Unfortunately, well-dated palynological records focussing on the period from the end of the classical Roman period until subrecent times are rare for Anatolia and completely absent for south- west Turkey, resulting in a lacuna in knowledge concerning the interactions of climatic change, human impact, and envi- ronmental change in this important region. Two well-dated palaeoecological records from the Western Taurus Moun- tains, Turkey, provide a first relatively detailed record of veg- etation dynamics from late Roman times until the present in SW Turkey. Combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal, sedimentological, archaeological data, and newly developed multivariate numerical analyses allows for the dis- entangling of climatic and anthropogenic influences on veg- etation change. Results show changes in both the regional pollen signal as well as local soil sediment characteristics match shifts in regional climatic conditions. Both climatic as well as anthropogenic change had a strong influence on veg- etation dynamics and land use. A moist environmental trend during the late-3rd century caused an increase in marshes and wetlands in the moister valley floors, limiting possibilities for intensive crop cultivation at such locations. A mid-7th cen- tury shift to pastoralism coincided with a climatic deteriora- tion as well as the start of Arab incursions into the region, the former driving the way in which the vegetation devel- oped afterwards. Resurgence in agriculture was observed in
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Carakas Approach to Knowledge

Carakas Approach to Knowledge

Although, the period of Caraka and even his name are not certain, there is a consensus among scholars that he lived in the 1st century AD as a contemporary of King Kanika in his realm. He redacted Agniveśa tantra which had been the standard text of Āyurveda for centuries earlier because Agniveśa was already a historic figure according to Pāini’s references to him in the Aādhyāyi (4th century BC). By the 4th century AD, seventeen chapters of the cikitsāsthāna and kalpa- and siddhi- sthāna-s of Caraka Sahitā were lost and a Kashmiri physician, Dhabala, reconstructed the text which is in current use. It enjoyed immense authority and was translated into Arabic and Persian in the 10th century and into English in the 19th century. A group of senior physicians led by Sir William Osler set up a ‘Caraka Club’ in New York in the 19th century to celebrate Caraka’s heritage in the advancement of medicine.
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ἀπονέμοντες τιμήν: 1 Peter as subversive text, challenging predominant gender roles in the 1st century Mediterranean world

ἀπονέμοντες τιμήν: 1 Peter as subversive text, challenging predominant gender roles in the 1st century Mediterranean world

The omnipotence of God is revealed from a position of apparent weakness. The crucifixion per se is the best example of this theological notion and still is Christianity’s greatest challenge: how did it Although the tension which Christianity, in continuance with the Sache Jesu, first displayed with its surrounding culture, gradually conformed to the predominate culture of the ancient Mediterranean world, probably to avoid further conflict, it seems that the author of 1 Peter, despite my preference for a later dating (circa the turn of the 1st century AD), was set on maintaining this tension. 1 Peter employs a ‘revolutionary subordination’. When the author of 1 Peter urges wives to be submissive or slaves to obey their masters, he is not perpetuating normative conservatism. Rather, wives and slaves as followers of Christ were to subvert injustice the same way Jesus did. Wives therefore do not submit to their non-believing husbands because they buy in to society’s evaluation of them as inferior to their male counterparts. Rather, wives can submit to their non-believing husbands because they are triumphant in Christ and therefore emancipated moral agents, who may win over their non- believing husbands by their moral and godly conduct.
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The Chronology of Roman Trade in the Indian Ocean from Augustus to Early Third Century AD

The Chronology of Roman Trade in the Indian Ocean from Augustus to Early Third Century AD

Pius and one of Commodus. However, these coins arrived into the Madras Museum as a result of the purchase of the ‘Collector of Canara’, raising questions whether this is a ‘genuine hoard or specimens from a private collection’ (P. Turner 1989: 57). The Daremavaripalem hoard contains one genuine coin each of Tiberius, Nero and Domitian, the remaining are all cast (rather than die struck) Indian imitations (Nero – 1, Hadrian – 2, Antoninus Pius 17, and Commodus – 1, two unidentified), included alongside Indian gold jewellery (Suresh 2004: 59, 61, 64, 79-80, 166). Similarly only a single coin of Tiberius from the Veeravasaramu hoard is genuine, the rest are all Indian imitations of second century coins, bar one imitation of Caracalla or Geta (Turner 1989: 80-1). These imitations coins cannot be used as an indicator of when the first century coins arrived in India, only when they were finally buried. This leaves the 193 (or more) aurei from the Sorayapattu hoard ranging from Tiberius to Caracalla, with an unknown number of imitations. The coins are reported as being in fairly good condition, but there is an indication that some of these coins were pierced and used as jewellery, again raising the question, as with those from Vinukonda, about whether they were acquired from different sources within India (Suresh 2004: 59, 75, 77).
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• Baking Helpers ~ we will be baking shortcake at school on Thurs, April 30

• Baking Helpers ~ we will be baking shortcake at school on Thurs, April 30

Leah and Patrick Numair (Kindergarten family) have a new band ORA and they are playing with Wendell Rand (1st grade Dad/ Afrolicious) Sat, April 18, 8pm. Fourchette 1435 N McDowell Blvd, Petaluma. $10 suggested donation includes music, food & open bar all night. Pre-order ORA’s debut album. Come dance and still get home by 11pm! www.oratheband.com

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Islam in Europe and its Contribution to the West Nations

Islam in Europe and its Contribution to the West Nations

Mediterranean and Sicily and Ibn Batuthah of Tangier (1304-1377 AD) reached Pasai Ocean and China. Ibn al-Khatib (1317-1374 AD) compile a history of Granada, while Ibn Khaldun of Tunis is the formulator of the philosophy of history. All of the above historian residing in Spain, which then movedto Africa. Geography. Zamakhsyari (d. 1144) of a Persian, wrote Kitaab Amkina waljibal wal Miyah (The Book of Places, Mountains and Waters). Yaqut write Mu’jamul Buldan (The Persian Book of Places), 1228, in the form of an extensive list of geographical data in alphabetical order, including the facts of human and natural geography, archeology, astronomy, physics and geography history. Aja’ib al-Buldan (The Wonders of Lands), the work of al-Qazwini, the year 1262, written in seven sections related to climate. Muhammad ibn Ali az-Zuhri from Spain, wrote a treatise on the theory of geography after the year 1140. Al-Idrisi of Sicily, wrote to the king of Normandy, Roger II, who became known as a geographical description of the most rigorous in the world. He also composed the encyclopedia of geography between the years 1154 and 1166 to William I. Al-Mazini in Granada has written a geography of Islam East and Volga regions. Music and Art
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Power Politics in the Xiongnu Empire

Power Politics in the Xiongnu Empire

The comparison of different groups of sources and their investigations may yield either correlative or contrasting results, and the collaborative interpretation of both manners of analytical outcome provides the fullest examination of the society or peoples in question. Rather than present distinct counterparts between individual elements of varied narratives, correlation correspondences search for similar patterns in the overall dynamics of distinct sources. Falkenhausen (2006: 326-369) evidences a progressive differentiation between upper and lower strata of ranked élite in late Bronze Age China, manifested in a shift from gradated quantitative differences in grave structure and goods assemblages to a distinct qualitative gap. Billowing changes from the eighth to fifth in order to examine the Chinese text, and what unfolds is the use of historical and archaeological critiques and comparative data to test hypotheses formed by Chen’s statements. Instead of reconstructing third and fourth century Japan according to a set of validated – as opposed to those invalidated – descriptions within Chen’s accounts, one might proceed first from a research question not couched in the concepts of a third century Chinese chronicler but from social theoretical models that would frame a line of inquiry asked of both the Chinese accounts and the Japanese mortuary record. Rather than attempting to match entire sets of elements from different sources, one might appose the dynamics evident within one corpus of information to those of another.
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The Norse landnám on the North Atlantic islands: an environmental impact assessment.

The Norse landnám on the North Atlantic islands: an environmental impact assessment.

earliest widespread anthropochore in both the Faroese and Icelandic landscapes (Buckland 1992). What is surprising, particularly in view of the dung faunal footprint that appeared later across North America (Buckland and others 1995a), is the failure of the dung fauna to establish itself in the settlement areas of Norse Greenland. This may be a reflection of the general paucity of dung processors in the real Arctic, but equally it may be indicating that the winter stalling of animals, or the utilisation of dung as fuel, was more complete in the harsh environment of southwest Greenland. It should be noted, however, that fossil insect work on farms in the Eastern Settlement is currently limited, with one site E34, close to Qagssiarssuk (Brattahl´ıð) currently under investigation. The fodder and dunnage fauna appears to have rapidly established itself in the farms of the landn´amsmenn. At Holt, on the south coast of Iceland, faunas that are characteristic of farms and barns through to the last century were established shortly after landn´am (Buckland and others 1991a), although differences from the modern, pre-plastic roll silage faunas have been the source of some discussion (Buckland and others 1991b). These faunas are dominated by the processors of hay, largely feeding on the fungi on the decaying plants, and their predators. The faunas include the beetles Laemostenus terricola, Omalium rivulare, O. excavatum, Xylodromus concinnus, Philonthus politus, P. cephalotes, Quedius mesomelinus, Cryptophagus spp., Atomaria spp., Lathridius minutus and L. pseudominutus. This fauna appears to be largely absent in the one landn´am farm examined on the Faroes, at Toftanes, perhaps a reflection of the lack of stored hay for the winter (Edwards and others 1998). Part of this synanthropic fauna reached Greenland, and became extinct along with their involuntary hosts (B¨ocher 1988). In the more foul residues, including house floors in Greenland, the carrion-feeding fly, Heleomyza serrata, is so common that it has been christened the ‘Viking Housefly’ — the true housefly, Musca domestica, is a much later emigrant across the North Atlantic (Skidmore 1996). In Greenland, the fly Telomarina flavipes is also an occupant of house floors (Buckland and others 1994), introduced at landn´am and destined for extinction as the farms cool down on abandonment and the outdoor fauna moved in.
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Tota Liguria? Mechanisms of 'Romanization' in Albingaunum, Albintimilium, Luca and Luna

Tota Liguria? Mechanisms of 'Romanization' in Albingaunum, Albintimilium, Luca and Luna

51 importance. This can be confirmed by the relatively long term of alliance with Rome, before having been granting the municipal status. It was only under Caesar when its inhabitants received the Roman citizenship and the city its municipal status, which indicate that Rome had for a long time no need to change their relationship which consisted of, after the Roman conquest of course, an alliance. Rome exploited and benefited from Albingaunum, and inserted its inhabitants in an imperial discourse, imposing fiscal, economic and political structures to which people had to adapt. By accepting ‘conquered’ Albingaunum into Rome’s ‘friendship’ and making them allies, Rome offered incentives for collaboration and participation that would facilitate integration. 257 This integration was further stimulated by the imposition of a Roman-style administration in Albingaunum. On the other hand, models B and C could be in progress simultaneously, since Albingaunum appears to show signs of indigenous continuity, which means that there were internal factors or motivations in progress with the aim of becoming ‘Romanized’ (suggesting model B). Furthermore, a dedication found in Albingaunum to the local civus optimus shows that there probably existed some community (koinè) feelings, and that in the public sphere Latin was probably common in the 1 st century AD., instead of the indigenous ‘Ligurian’ language. However, this does not have to mean that all people spoke Latin, since not everyone was literate, except for the elite (therefore suggesting model C). Another confirmation of model C is the allowance of members of the local ‘bourgeoisie’ in the city council (ordo decurionum), among whom were elected the magistrates. This implies that the elite could gain (or rather ‘maintain’?) social superiority, although by the means of Rome. Before the Roman invasion their social prestige was visible in symbols and tools and weapons (as found in the indigenous pre- Roman necropoleis). These were no longer used, but public offices probably became more prestigious as the urbanisation continued.
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Our experience of teaching value education to medical students   in rural medical college

Our experience of teaching value education to medical students in rural medical college

In Datta Meghe Institute of Medical sciences Deemed University, value education classes for 1st year MBBS, 1st year BDS, 1st year Nursing and 1st year Ayurvedic students are conducted fo[r]

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Use of fuzzy edge single-photon emission computed tomography analysis in definite Alzheimer's disease - a retrospective study

Use of fuzzy edge single-photon emission computed tomography analysis in definite Alzheimer's disease - a retrospective study

Edge contours with high intensity can help in image decomposition based on brain activity. The process of seg- mentation was automated using a standard 3D watershed transform (v) and constituted step five. The watershed method [13] is a tool for the digital image segmentation, which is based on the study of local minima and their basins of attraction. Watershed shapes in 3D consists of points where two basins of attraction are at least in their neighborhood. Sub-results of this procedure are demon- strated in Figure 1 for a central slice of the whole SPECT image of typical AD and control brains. The resulting 3D image of a parietal ROI was labeled to demarcate the regions and watershed borderlines (Figures 2, 3).
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Catastrophe, Chaos and Complexity: The Death, Decay and Rebirth of Towns from Antiquity to Today

Catastrophe, Chaos and Complexity: The Death, Decay and Rebirth of Towns from Antiquity to Today

BYRNE uses statistical analysis and Chaos Theory to reveal these two divergent attractors, i. e. a butterfly attractor model (Fig. 14). His first, Factor 1 population, is high in unem­ ployment, rented homes and often car-less. His Factor 2 population is rich in employment, mainly home-owners and car-owners. Byrne also suggests that global sociology indicates a fractal perspective to these observations in particular towns. In place of the 19th-early 20th Century world of First, Second and Third World economic belts, core-periphery areas of wealth and poverty spatially segregated by country and even continent, our Post-Fordist world of Flexible Capital and Multinational companies operates through a dislocation into rich and poor societies within every town and every country. The dual society runs right across the world at all spatial scales.
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‘A green thought in a green shade’; Compositional and typological observations concerning the production of emerald green glass vessels in the 1st century A.D.

‘A green thought in a green shade’; Compositional and typological observations concerning the production of emerald green glass vessels in the 1st century A.D.

These discrepancies can now be re-examined in the light of the analytical results. If certain common 1st-century vessel forms, such as monochrome ribbed bowls of Isings form 3, or blown ribbed bowls of Isings form 17, are not being produced in emerald green glass, and no technological reason can be provided, then a possible explanation lies in the supply or use of this particular colour to the secondary workshops where these particular forms were being made. If this explanation is accepted, then the implications for the organisation of the 1st-century A.D. industry are profound. Firstly, it might suggest that there was workshop specialisation in certain forms or groups of forms and that some of these workshops were not acquiring emerald green glass, either because it was deliber- ately avoided, or as a result of the types of transactions which brought un-worked glass from primary to secondary workshops (an idea suggested by Thirion-Merle (2005) and Foy (2005)). Alternatively, within individual workshops glass workers were perhaps choosing, or avoiding emerald green in the production of certain forms. These ideas are presently being explored in more detail.
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The image of a Christian in Sidonius Apollinaris’ letters

The image of a Christian in Sidonius Apollinaris’ letters

Abstract. The paper deals with the collective image of a Christian reconstructed by comparing several portraits described in the 5th century Gallo-Roman writer’s epistles and verses Sidonius Apollinaris. This source was chosen due to the fact that Sidonius himself combined the features inherent for both the representative of the highest social stratum of the Late Antique society and for the Christian shepherd. The method of cultural and historical reconstruction with combination of biographical and retrospective methods is used for the formation of the image of a Christian of the Late Antiquity. The authors come to the conclusion that during the 5th century AD as a true Christian was deemed such person who observes the biblical commandments and church rites, distinguished by patience and mercy. The image of a Christian evolved in this period from the weakly expressed version presented by Germanicus, a man for whom, more important the ancient cult of the body, despite belonging to Christian flock, to the ideal, seeking to asceticism, who embodied the bishop Faustus.
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Chronostratigraphy of an eroding complex Atlantic Round House, Baile Sear, Scotland

Chronostratigraphy of an eroding complex Atlantic Round House, Baile Sear, Scotland

A high-resolution chronostratigraphy has been established for an eroding Atlantic round house at Sloc Sàbhaidh (North Uist, Scotland), combining detailed OSL profiling and dating of sediments encom- passing the main bracketing events associated with the monument, radiocarbon AMS dates on bone recovered from excavated features and fills within it, and TL dates on pottery and burnt clay. Concordant OSL and radiocarbon evidence place construction of the wheelhouse in the first to second centuries AD, contemporary with dates from the primary occupation. Beneath the wheelhouse, clay deposits containing burnt material, attest to cultural activity in vicinity to the monument in the preceding second to first centuries BC. At a later date, the southern wall collapsed, was rebuilt, and the interior spaces to the monument re-structured. The chronology for the later horizons identified from the sediment luminescence dates extends to the second half of the first millennium AD, which goes beyond the
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Preliminary Informative Results on Glass Tesserae from Vth VIth Century AD Mosaics in Albania

Preliminary Informative Results on Glass Tesserae from Vth VIth Century AD Mosaics in Albania

This paper discusses some preliminary results regarding raw materials used in ancient glass mo- saic tesserae. The studied glass tesserae were recovered during the archeological excavation of the mosaics at the Christian basilicas in Byllis, Lin and Elbasan, which according to the archeolo- gists were built between the end of V th and beginning of VI th century AD. In the recent years, sever-

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Theorizing Middle-Way Research Approach from Nagarjunas Mulamadhyamaka Karika of 2nd Century AD

Theorizing Middle-Way Research Approach from Nagarjunas Mulamadhyamaka Karika of 2nd Century AD

IJSRR, 2(4) October - December 2013 Page 40 In research philosophy too, it can be explained and understood easily. Let’s begin from first typology. Research now in non-labor means such research process of the past which used to be in active state. But now which has gone on passive mode. There are thousands of examples which show these phenomena very easily. Where are those research processes that had happened in primitive stage of the human civilization? Where are those research process (act) that had been occurred in (during) 1 st century,2 nd century, 3 rd century, 4 th century, 5 th century, 6 th century, 7 th century, 8 th century, 9 th century, 10 th century, 11 th century, 12 th century, 13 th century, 14 th century, 15 th century, 16 th century, 17 th century, 18 th century, 19 th century, 20 th century ? Where are those research tasks and process that took place even before 1 st century? And furthermore, where is that research process which has happened in recent past years of the 21 st century? The questions are simple but answer is complex. Yes, here in this case I am saying that that research process has gone in non-labor state now. Those are not in labor state. And it happens naturally. It is major law in research labor.
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The Cultural Synthesis in Ladakh

The Cultural Synthesis in Ladakh

However, the mosque has been converted into a deity room of the monastery, but the earlier structure and architectural style still remains intact. It is Buddhist culture and mainly Tibetan Buddhist culture that is all pervasive and even in the main mosque at Leh the most precious relics at the staff and the boots of Lama Stagstang Raspa, first hierarch of the Hemis monastery. This mosque at Leh was founded by a royal decree in the 16 th century as the most favoured religious establishment in Ladakh (Snellgrove, D and Skorupski, T 1977). Before its recent rebuilding, the architecture of the mosque was a mixture of Tibetan, Central Asian and Ladkahi styles. The earlier structure of the mosque did not have a tomb. 
 As a result of the Balti influence, Ladakhi traditional music continues Tibetan vocal traditions with an Indo-Persian instrumental style (Trewin, Mark 1990). 
 Polo is the favourite sport in Ladakh and was introduced by the Baltis.
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Chapter 1: Past and present in Matthean research: A review of the various interpretation models

Chapter 1: Past and present in Matthean research: A review of the various interpretation models

Chapter 1 Past and present in Matthean research A review of the various interpretation models 1 1 INTRODUCilON The period extending from the end of the second century AD to the beginning of the ninete[.]

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'Exertion and pain. Sport, medicine and physiotherapy'

'Exertion and pain. Sport, medicine and physiotherapy'

According to Galen (second century AD), it was not all these trainers and masseurs but the physicians who were the real teachers of gymnastics. Galen spares himself no pains to elevate t[r]

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