The use of the solid- liquid state equilibrium systems including oleic acid - palmiticacid and palmiticacid-pentadecanoic acid for undergraduate chemistry lab is a good alternative to naphthalene-phenanthrene, naphthalene-diphenylamine, or naphthalene-phenol systems. This replacement has several benefits, including: 1- Using them in repetitive educational labs and large groups is not associated with environmental or human health problems. 2. The waste is simply recyclable or can be used in other experiments, and even if not recycled, it simply decomposes in nature. 3. In these methods, all fatty acids have a melting point below 100°C, and testing with them can be done easily with a water bath. 4. Another advantage of these methods is the similarity of the two-component system derived from these fatty acids with respect to their identical structure, their similar structure with a simple system such as naphthalene-toluene, detecting the melting point of palmiticacid from the phase diagram and calculating the enthalpy of melting which is easily possible and provides the desired educational goals.
Egusi melon (Colocynthis citrullus lanatus) is a vegetable oil crop commonly grown in West Africa. In this study, four species of melon seeds, Cucumis melo, Citrullus lanatus, Citrullus vulgaris and Lagenaria siceraria, were analysed for fatty acid composition using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The lipid profile showed that linoleic acid was the most predominant fatty acid in Lagenaria siceraria having the highest value (73.31%), followed by Citrullus vulgaris (67.79%) while Cucumis melo had 20.51% and none was present in Citrullus lanatus. Lauric acid (6.44), palmiticacid (2.80%), methyl esters of stearic acid (2.14%), palmiticacid methyl ester (21.20%), vaccenic acid (16.66%) and myristic acid (49.91%), which are saturated fatty acids, were found in Citrullus lanatus but were absent in the other melon species. In conclusion, this study showed that egusi Cucumis melo, Citrullus vulgaris and Lagenaria siceraria are rich sources of linoleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid that is known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases while Citrullus lanatus contain several saturated fatty acids which can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
It might be said that the high content of β-palmitate in supplemental milk formula positively influences me- tabolism of fatty acids and their absorption from the intestinal lumen with a subsequent energetic improve- ment and mineral balance. Newborns and infants in the first few weeks of life still have some immaturity of the pancreatic lipase system and therefore, adding β-palmitate to the supplemental milk formula by-passes this transient physiological insufficiency by providing sufficient absorp- tion of fatty acids, as well as calcium. Similar results with improvements in absorption of fatty acids, lowering of calcium waste in the stool due to its increased resorption, and subsequent softening of the stool has been observed by other authors [11, 24, 27]. Several studies have shown that palmiticacid can be efficiently absorbed, thus avoiding fatty soap formation if it is present in the sn-2 position . Observations that an increased content of β-palmitate leads to lower absorption of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have not been confirmed subsequently The formula with a higher content of β- palmitate was well tolerated and had no negative im- pacts on growth [20, 22].
Fatty acid composition can be expressed as different quality parameters of oil. The magnitude of these parameters are directly proportional to the activity of individual enzyme systems (Cherif et al., 1975) believed to be responsible for desaturation of oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively. Stearic acid is one of the component fatty acids ranging from 2 to 4% of the total oil fraction of groundnut. Stearic acid has a neutral effect on blood serum LDL cholesterol concentration and is therefore a desirable constituent of oils for food use (Byfield et al., 2006). Stearic acid was associated positively with behenic acid and O/L ratio whereas it was negatively correlated with eicosenoic acid, lignoceric acid, polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio and palmitic to stearic acid ratio in both generations. Consumption of saturated fatty acids with a chain length of 8 to 16 has been related to increased blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol content, which is main cause of coronary heart diseases (Scarth and Tang, 2006). Total saturated fatty acids was associated positively with palmiticacid, linoelic acid, behenic acid, lignoceric acid, total long chain fatty acids, polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio, iodine value and palmitic to stearic acid ratio and it exhibited negatively association with oleic acid, O/L ratio, unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio and oleic acid desaturation ratio.
Methods: Chemical compounds from Dendrocalamus asper bamboo shoots were purified and identified as major palmitic acids mixed with other minor fatty acids, palmiticacid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, lauric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and cholest-4-ene-3-one. The response of synthetic 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was tested on Kv1.4 potassium channel which was injected into viable oocytes that was extracted from Xenopus laevis. The current were detected by the two-microelectrode voltage clamp, holding potential starting from −80 mV with 20 mV step- up until +80 mV. Readings of treatments with 0.1% DMSO, 4-hba concentrations and K channel blockers were taken at +60 mV. The ratio of tail/peak amplitude is the index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channels with n ≥ 6 (number of oocytes tested). The decreases of the ratios of five different concentrations (1 µM, 10 µM, 100 µM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) were compared with 0.1% DMSO as the control.
Soybeans (i.e., Glycine max L. Merr.) possessing a novel genetic determinant for the enhanced production of palmiticacid in the endogenously formed vegetable oil of the seeds are provided. Such genetic determinant is the homogeneous recessive fap5fap5 gene pair that has been found to be capable of formation through mutagenesis. Once formed, such genetic determinant can be readily transferred to other soybean lines and cultivars where it is similarly expressed on a reliable basis under conventional field growing conditions. In a preferred embodiment when a soybean plant possesses the combined presence of the homogeneous recessive genes (1) fap2-bfap2-b, (2) fap4fap4, as well as (3) fap5fap5 for enhanced palmiticacid formation in the seeds, it has been found that an unusually high expression for palmiticacid production in the resulting vegetable oil of the seeds is provided that is in excess of 30 up to approximately 37 percent by weight based upon the total fatty acid content. A resulting vegetable oil is made possible in this instance that is particularly well suited for margarine preparation in absence of the need for hydrogenation.
C2C12 cells (mouse skeletal muscle cell lines: ATCC CRL- 1772) was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD, USA). Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM), Dulbecco’ s phosphate buffered saline (D-PBS), fetal bovine serum and antibiotics were purchased from Gibco (Grand Island, NY, USA). 5, 5’, 6, 6’- tetrachloro-1, 1’, 3, 3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and BODIPY FL C16 fatty acid were from Molecular Probes (Leiden, The Netherlands). 2-[1,2- 3 H]- deoxy-D-glucose was from Amersham Biosciences (Piscataway, NJ. USA). Eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) was from Calbiochem (San Diego, CA, USA). DNA purifica- tion system and cytotoxicity detection kit (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) were available from Gentra systems (Minneapolis, MN, USA) and Roche Diagnostics (Indianapolis Mannheim, Germany), respectively. The anti- phospho-Akt-ser473 and anti-Akt antibodies were from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA, USA). Nile red, lipid standards and all other chemicals were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, Mo, USA).
The widespread reports in recent years on useful biological activities of tritepenes, indicate their potential. Triterpenes are found to show antitumor, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory activity (Mahato et al., 1997). In the present investigation hexane and chloroform extracts of Rhizophora apiculata were found to contain triterpene hydrocarbon, urs-12 ene (>30 and 10%, respectively). Ursolic acid was reported to be cytotoxic against A- 549, L-1210 and KB tumour cells (Yamagishi et al., 1988). 23-Hydroxy-3-oxo-urs-l 2-en- 28- oic acid was found to exhibit anti-ulcer properties (Fourie et al., 1989). So, the antimicrobial activity of present study may be due to terpenes and sesquiterpenes (Bryon and Eric, 2003). The fatty acids composition of the leaf is also studied by FAME analysis. It mainly contains palmiticacid as major constituent (54.65%). Two important poly unsaturated fatty acids i.e., Linoleic acid (w-6, 1.54%) and 9, 11-0ctadecadienoic acid (3.25%) are also present along with arachidic acid (2.56%).
Cell viability and death were assessed as described pre- viously by measurement of the enzymatic conversion of the yellow tetrazolium salt 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) into purple formazan and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from lysed cells, respectively . Primary rat hepatocytes were stained with Hoechst 33342-propidium iodide (HPI) to assess cell death by apoptosis and necrosis, respectively . Specifi- cally, apoptotic cells were distinguished as those with char- acteristic nuclear fragmentation and intense staining of condensed chromatin. Propidium iodide does not enter cells with intact plasma membranes, however, after entering damaged apoptotic or non-apoptotic cells it stains nuclear DNA pink. One thousand, randomly distributed nuclei were counted per sample and were scored as morphologi- cally normal, apoptotic and necrotic using an inverted fluor- escence microscope (Axiovert 25, Zeiss) set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 and 397 nm, respectively.
The separation and identification of the components of the M. ferrea L. Oil was performed by analytical TLC method using some probable standard components along with the test sample (Asha 2015). TLC plates were prepared by pouring thick slurry of silica gel G on a glass plate (15cm×20 cm) followed by activation of the plate by heating at 120˚C for 30 minutes. Standard components (oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, stearic acid, palmiticacid, myristic acid, cholesterol, vitamin E) and the sample were dissolved in petroleum ether and the spot was applied on the TLC plate with capillary tubes (Sasidharan et al., 2011). The spots were air dried and TLC was run with ternary mixture of n-Hexane, diethyl ether, acetic acid (70:30:1) as the mobile phase. The diluted sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 :H 2 O = 1:9) was
Neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) collected in southwest Senegal were characterized. The physical characterization revealed an average seed weight of 0.28 g with 50.89% of kernel and 49.11% of hull. These seeds contain 29.27±0.06% of lipids, 12.10±0.32% of proteins and 43.98±2.67% of parietal constituents (celluloses, hemicelluloses and lignins) with 30.33±1.12% of cellulose containing 68.96% of fibers. The study of the constituent(s) distribution showed that 96.82% of the lipids and 92.20% of the proteins are localized in the kernel, while 92.22% of the parietal constituents are localized in the hull. The azadirachtin is localized in the kernel (99.35%). Neem seeds also contain 14.99±0.37% of hydrosoluble, 0.11±0.05% of polyphenols and 0.76‰ of essential oil. The composition of the proteins revealed 17 amino acids with the predominant compound being glutamic acid (23.65%). The oil fatty acids are oleic acid (41.91±0.69%), linoleic acid (19.59±0.44%), stearic acid (18.71±0.46%) and palmiticacid (15.59 ± 0.27%). The oil is predominantly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (63% in the fatty acids composition). The oil is mainly composed of triglycerides (97.69%). These are mostly made up of SOL (52.93%) and POL (36.61%). The sterols being present at 2.04 g.kg -1 in the oil are mainly composed of β-sitosterol, which represents 61.08% of the total sterols. The total tocopherol content is 33.87 mg. 100g -1 and the γ- tocopherol is the major compound with 68.69% of total tocopherols.
The fatty acid composition of the alga was estimated per unit lipid vide Materials and Methods. Thirteen fatty acids, namely undecanoic acid, lauric acid, tridecanoic acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, palmiticacid, heptadecanoic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, cis-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid were detected in GC in the lipid sample of the alga (Table 2). Palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, cis-linoleic acid and arachidonic acid are the unsaturated fatty acids present in the sample and they constituted nearly 64% of the total fatty acid fraction. cis-linoleic acid and the saturated arachidic acid formed the bulk of total fatty acids. Cis-linoleic acid alone constituted 50% of the total content while arachidic acid took a share of 26%. The rest of the fatty acids were present in quantities less than 6.0 mg/g.
Cells were washed in ice-cold PBS twice, and lysed in buffer with protease inhibitor, and phosphatase inhibitor, and then centrifuged at 13000×g for 25 min at 4 °C. The supernatant was collected and total proteins were quan- tified using bicinchoninic acid (Pierce, Rockford, AL, USA,) method. The protein samples were loaded onto polyacrylamide gel and subjected to sodium dodecyl sul- fate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proteins were then transferred onto a polyvinylidenedi- fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The membrane was blocked with Tris-buffered saline and Tween 20 (TBST) contain- ing 4% BSA for 1 h at room temperature. The mem- branes were incubated serially with primary antibodies at 4 °Covernight. After washing with TBST 3 times for 8 min each, the membranes were incubated with second- ary antibodies for 1 ± 2 h at room temperature. The density of the corresponding bands was measured quan- titatively using image analysis software (Bio-Red, Hercules, CA, USA) and corrected by reference to the value of β -actin.
The results indicate that OA treatment is protective against the negative effects of PA treatment. Additional research should be conducted through our mouse model both in vitro and in vivo to explore the extent of this protective effect. Exposing mouse 2-cell embryos to NEFA for a prolonged period and altering the culture period timing and stage of culture in NEFAs will help us understand differences in the preimplantation embryo at different stages as well as differences with brief and prolonged NEFA exposure. For example, a future experiment could entail briefly culturing mouse preimplantation embryos in OA for a few hours and transferring these embryos into a PA-only treatment for the remainder of the 46-hour culture period. Such an experiment provides insight into whether OA treatment has long term protective effects in the embryo and whether such a treatment could be used in clinics for obese future mothers’ embryos. This experiment is directly translatable and makes use of our in vitro mouse system to model how in vitro exposure to OA could developmentally predispose an embryo for success once transferred into the high PA maternal environment. A key limitation of these NEFA treatment experiments is that uptake of PA and OA was not confirmed. Such experiments would have been too resource and time intensive to complete in the time that was available. It is possible that PA and OA are differentially taken up by mouse preimplantation embryos. This could be assessed by treating embryos with radioactively labeled PA and OA and quantifying their abundance in the embryos after the culture period.
From Table 1, the highest rotatable bonds were present in oleic acid (15 ), palmiticacid and linoleic acid (jyotishmathi) (14), bacoside a, bacoside b and asiaticoside (10), glycyrrhizinic acid (7), trans asarone and cis asarone (4) jatamansin and withafirin a (3) withanolide d (2), glycyrrhizic acid, wedalolactone, valeranone, gamma gurjunene and licoisoflavanone (1) demethylwedalolactone, beta- caryophyllene, alpha humulin does not have any nrotb. Rotatable bond count is now a widely used filter following the finding that greater than ten rotatable bonds correlates with decreased rat oral bioavailability (Veber DF Johnson et al., 2000).
Quantitative Model. Support vector machine [8-9] regression (SVR) is applied to establish quantitative model because it’s often used in quantitative prediction analysis. Studies have shown that error penalty factor C and radial basis function (RBF) kernel function [10-11] parameter g in SVM are the key factors affecting SVM performance(the transformed formula of SVM follows as(2)),Therefore, obtained a high prediction correlation coefficient regression model by selecting the optimal parameter combination (C, g)that is optimized using a grid search algorithm  (CV).
Both leaf and fruit of the Carica papaya L. possess carotenoids namely β-carotene, lycopene, anthraquinones glycoside, as compared to matured leaves and hence possess medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory hypoglycaemic, anti- fertility, abortifacient, hepatoprotective, wound healing, recently its antihypertensive and antitumor activities have also been established [4-5]. The papaya seeds are small, black, round and covered with gelatinous aril (Figure 1). There are many health benefits of the seeds. Beside this it has been proven to be a good source of oil (25.6%) that may be useful for medicinal, biofuel, and industrial purposes . The physicochemical properties of oils determine their quality and whether they are suitable for consumption [7-8]. The papaya seed oil possessed a reddish yellow colour. Oleic, palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids are the most abundant fatty acids found in the papaya seed oil [9-10]. The papaya seed oil is used in biodiesel production. Biodiesel is a nontoxic, biodegradable and renewable fuel consisting of mono-alkyl esters of long fatty acid chains. Recently, the utilization of biodiesel as a promising substitute to petroleum diesel has grown considerably. Many researchers have tried a variety of plant oils to develop new possible feedstock sources . Fatty acid composition of seed oil is used to calculate the biodiesel properties. Papaya is important for its fruit and it is cultivated mainly for eating purpose. The seeds of papaya fruits are generally discarded. Hence our main focus on the use of papaya seeds. This research was aimed to extract oil from Carica papaya L. and to investigate the fatty acid composition in extracted oil. Beside this, additional aim was to assess the activity of BF 3 -methanolic solution as
The plant is known to contain imidazole, lepidine, semilepidinoside A and B, β-carotenes, ascorbic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmiticacid, stearic acid, sinapic acid and sinapin. Lepidium sativum is reported to exhibit antihypertensive, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticoagulant, antirheumatic, hypoglycemic, laxative, prokinetic, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic properties. It has been shown to possess antiasthmatic and bronchodilatory potential in preliminary studies, but there is no report available in the literature on the pharmacological basis for its medicinal use. Traditional sources of medicinal plants can be extended for future investigation into the field of pharmacology, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and other biological actions for drug discovery.
1984, Hiltunen and Holm 2000, Rudnik et al. 2001). Hydrogenation can be used to improve the stability of oils containing α-linolenic acid. How- ever, because of the high α -linolenic content of linseed oil compared to many other oils, a better method of improving the taste of linseed oil is the elimination of linolenic acid from the oil e.g. by breeding. The effect of linolenic acid on aroma sta- bility has been studied with soybean oil. Cowan et al. (1970) reported that when the content of lino- lenic acid was reduced to less than 3%, the stabil- ity of the taste properties increased, and that in order to obtain good stability the content of lino- lenic acid should be below 1%. In the study by Wie- senborn et al. (2004) sensory analysis of clarified and stored (7 days in the dark) oil from screw- pressed linseed indicated that sensory scores for nutty, paint-like, and bitter flavours and overall ac- ceptability of the oil were not related to its free fatty acid content and peroxide value. According to the study by Hadley (1996), linseed oil can be used in stir-frying without the development of ob- jectionable taste. However, stir-frying with linseed oil conducted at 177°C and 191°C generated odours indicative of the presence of significant lev- els of oxidation products. Sensory analysis indi- cated preference for oils heated at low temperature below 150°C stir-frying.
A common constituents of glycerides of human adipose tissue, found in high concentration in liver, is palmitoleic acid. It is biosynthesized from palmiticacid, which is also detected in this fish species. Palmitoleic acid is present in considerable amount in Monopterus chuchia. It is a beneficial fatty acid which increases insulin sensitivity by suppressing inflammation and inhibits the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells which are known to secrete insulin 27 . Linoleic acid, which is a precursor of n-6