During the late 1900s and early 2000s the Olympics’ bid cities became evenly ranked in terms of capabilities and power with respect to sport infrastructure. Where technology and knowledge are rapidly growing and becoming more available for all nations, it is difficult for them to distinguish superiority, power, and wealth amongst one another. A constant arena used to express such dominance throughout history has been war and sport, as witnessed within major news headlines and other media sources (Kinkema & Harris, 1998, pp. 1; Carruthers, 2011, pp. 5). Moreover, sport is becoming ever more popular and important to society, specifically in the westernized developed nations. Financially developed nations worldwide seek to prove their dominance; their ability to compete towards political superiority in the western world, more rapidly than others. Sport and the associated venues, provide the opportunity and site for governments to flex their metaphorical muscle over others. Success in international sport competition both participative and hosting is a tool of domestic policy that can attract benefits to the country (Reiche, 2015). This need for perceived power specifically through the hosting of international sporting events has escalated the financial, environmental, and social limits governments and cities are willing to push their communities in order to attract the eyes of the world for a remarkably short period of time.
The Vancouver Organizing Committee effectively produced the WinterOlympics in the city of Vancouver, Canada. They worked with the city to implement a functional and efficient risk management plan, consisting of market, credit and operational risk management. By hosting the Olympics, Vancouver built and renovated sustainable structures that are still in use today, despite many previous run down Olympic city sites. They properly managed operational risks through contracting with the WorkSafe British Columbia organization to create a safe and healthy working environment. The City of Vancouver now runs a not-for-profit, organized during the games, to support future athletes and grow relationships through the community. In addition to these
Increasing physical activity among children was a strong focus of the Vancouver2010 OG. In 2005, the British Columbia (BC) provincial government announced their five major goals for the next decade and among these was “to lead the way in North America in healthy living and physical fitness” . The objective to increase the propor- tion of British Columbians who were physically active by 20% was linked to the new ActNow BC program as a means to make ‘British Columbia the healthiest jurisdic- tion to host the Olympic and Paralympic Games’ . BC had previously reported high physical activity participation rates among adults and children, compared to other parts of Canada [10-13] and was among the healthiest provinces in the nation . The launch of ActNow BC prior to host- ing the 2010Winter OG provided children and adults in BC with increased opportunities to become more physic- ally active and to access recreational physical activity and sport through additional infrastructure .
Why our athletes glitter at Games – just six years ago, Canadian athletes failed to win even one gold medal at the WinterOlympics in Calgary. Today, early in the second week of the Lillehammer Games, two gold medallions are already in the bank, along with two silver and two bronze. Star sports editor Dave Perkins examined the reasons behind the turnaround, including the sporting legacy of those Calgary Games, the introduction into the Olympics of new medals sports such as freestyle skiing, and the breakup of the East Bloc. Why is Canada doing so well at these Winter Olympic Games? It was only six years ago at Calgary, remember, that Canada suffered the embarrassment of failing to win even one gold medal, settling for two silvers and three bronzes. Without getting into the minutiae, let’s credit a few of the reasons for 1994’s exceptional results… Clearly, for Canada, the vast amount of money spent on the Calgary Games is paying off. Susan Auch, to cite one example, has a world-class facility on which to practice in Calgary. The Calgary Olympics also turned out to be something of an organizational jumping off point. Strong governing bodies are in place in most disciplines now, where there might have been only a handful before. 37
On 2 July 2003 during the 115 th IOC Session in Prague, the city of Vancouver was elected as host city for the XXI Winter Olympic Games, set to be held 12 February 2010 through to 28 February 2010. 1 As more than 80 countries and 2500 athletes gathered in Vancouver for the quadrennial festival, 3 billion viewers watched the events unfold over the coming 17 day period. 2 Stemming from Pierre de Coubertin’s founding vision and the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, the Olympics are a celebration of internationalism and athletic excellence, which have grown into a global spectacle. 3 To distinguish the Olympics from other world championships, Coubertin worked towards establishing a unique set of ceremonies. 4 Beginning in 1896, the ceremonies highlighted music and established a few ceremonial protocols. It was not until the 1920s that most of the traditional components of the Games recognized today were instituted. Complete with rituals, protocols, and sentimental moments, the opening and closing ceremonies captured the attention of those around the world with the introduction of television.
As Collins shows, the Japanese were eager to host the 1940 Olympic Games for both external and internal reasons. They hoped that staging these games would establish Japan's status as a first-rate modern power, an Asian empire, and leader of the non-Western world. Against growing international criticism of Japan's aggression on the continent, the Olympic Games were considered to be a form of 'people's diplomacy' that would generate foreign good will. The Tokyo Olympiad was to coincide with the 2,600th anniversary of the legendary establishment of the Japanese empire by Emperor Jimmu (kigen) in 660 BC, planned for 1940. The combination of these two splendid celebrations was expected to boost nationalism, enhance the prestige of the emperor, and mobilise the Japanese masses for national causes. Thus, from the beginning, the Tokyo Olympics carried a double message: They were to advance modernisation and internationalisation on the one hand, but also to foster tradition and national pride on the other.
3 Observational data and examples of data analysis Real time images from the cameras were available on-line at web-sites http://aurora.pgia.ru/ and http://db.pgia.ru/cam/. Automatically generated web-archive for each camera con- tains monthly overviews, daily and hourly keograms, and in- dividual images in JPG format with 10 s resolution. Orig- inal uncompressed frames with 1 s resolution are avail- able by request. On-line journal of hardware modifica- tions is accessible at web-site http://sites.google.com/site/ auroraobservations/. The same site contains keograms from North-directed color camera (#5), where auroral activity was observed during nearly all nights under good weather con- ditions. Unfortunately, because of bad weather conditions and low solar activity during 2010–2011 winter season there were few days of aurora observations near zenith in Ap- atity. One of them was a day of magnetic storm on 4 Febru- ary 2011. Figure 3 presents samples of auroral structures observed simultaneously by the camera set during this event (see also file AP 2011-02-04-18-16-30 1min.avi in the Sup- plement).
Dwain Chambers, a famous British 100 m runner, tested positive for THG (tetrahydrogestrinone) in 2003 and was banned from competition for 2 years. The British Olympic Association, on the basis of a bylaw, excluded him for life from participation to the Olympics. The Court of Arbitration for Sports (CAS) overruled this decision in April 2012 after an appeal by WADA, opening the way for Chambers to compete in this summer’s Olympics. The case is illustrative for several reasons. First because of the substance THG (aka ‘The Clear’). It was designed by a clandestine laboratory specifically for doping purposes, and by consequence unknown to the scientific community and anti-doping laboratories in particular. It was dis- covered when a coach sent a syringe containing traces of the substance to the USA anti-doping agency. Sec- ond because there are no published experimental data confirming the alleged performance enhancing effects of the substance. Third, since WADA convinced CAS to overturn the ruling of BOA on the basis of non- compliance to universally applicable WADA rules. And fourth, because of the strong condemning of this CAS ruling by many prominent members of the British sports-establishment which seemed to indicate that a doping offence is not seen in the same way as most other offenses in society; if in general, upon pun- ishment for transgression of a rule, one is offered a second chance, a doping offense is deemed essentially unforgivable and worth exclusion of sports for life. As Sebastian Coe, chairman of the London Organising
The susceptibility of elite wheat varieties to take-all root infection was investigated in the third wheat field trials. In common with previous literature, a range of susceptibilities of hexaploid wheat varieties to take-all were found but differences were generally small and not very consistent between sites and years. This is in contrast to the TAB trait where consistent differences between varieties have been demonstrated within the WGIN trials (McMillan et al., 2011). In this study the performance of the elite varieties in the first and third wheat trials was not closely associated suggesting that the TAB trait is not related to the susceptibility of wheat varieties to take-all root infection. Take-all intensity in the 2009 third wheat trial was generally high for all varieties, and although there were significant differences between varieties, none of the varieties were highly resistant. In 2011, a moderate disease pressure year, there was a bigger difference between varieties, with some varieties having more than double the take-all index of others. However it was not clear whether these differences would result in a significant improvement in yields for the least susceptible varieties. In both 2009 and 2011 the winter wheat variety Hereford stood out as displaying some potential partial resistance to take-all disease (Hereford was not included in 2010 trial due to limited seed availability).
As the Olympics ended, BBCWN faced another dilemma. The Ukraine crisis was characterized throughout by confusion and uncertainty and unfolded as a series of questions which still lack undisputed answers: ‘How did ex-President Yanukovich escape?’; ‘Who fired on the demonstrators in Kiev?’; ‘Who shot down Malaysian Airlines Flight MH 17?’ In a networked world, multiple media platforms disseminate competing narratives which the BBC must navigate, unable to occupy its habitual vantage point. Because the 24-hour news environment exacerbated the urgency of the need to extrapolate from them an impartial ‘meta-narrative’, BBCWN paid more attention than usual to what outlets on all sides were reporting, forced to mediate hesitantly between contingent ‘partialities’ rather than speak from its traditional position beyond contingency; it attracted recriminations from RT for clumsily pulling an interview with the channel’s Abby Martin about her unexpected criticism of Russia’s annexation of Crimea (Martin 2014).
in examining differences in the diet of Great Horned Owls between agricultural and suburban sites, we quan- tified the amount of urban land (residential, industri- al, and transportation) within a 1-km radius (3 km² or 300 ha) of each nest or roost site from digitized data layers using geographic information system software (Arcmap 10, Esri, Redlands, California, USA). We used a 1-km radius, as the average home range of the Great Horned Owl is approximately 3 km² (Petersen 1979*; Houston et al. 1998*). Data on land use within the home ranges were obtained from a 2006 Vancouver Regional District land-use layer map that categorized land parcels based on zoning (metro Vancouver 2008*). We compared the 2006 land-use layer map with 2010 Bing Ortho photos (Bing maps, microsoft, Redmond, Washington, USA) to control for any recent changes in land use or discrepancies between current land use and zoning.
of an intense precipitation episode (the “paroxysm”, in 20 February 2010), but also controlled by antecedent and longer duration rainfalls, providing crucial pre-existing con- ditions to the disaster (the anomalous wet 2010winter in Madeira). In fact, the intense rainfall event responsible for the 20 February 2010 flash-floods in Madeira occurred dur- ing a particularly anomalous wet winter affecting most sec- tors of southern Iberian Peninsula (Andrade et al., 2011; Ball, 2011; Vicente-Serrano et al., 2011), and also the Madeira archipelago. As described in detail below, several stations registered more than the triple of the average precipitation during the winter (DJF) months. Moreover, the extreme rain- fall event of the 20 February was preceded by very high precipitation during the previous months and, among others, an intense precipitation episode occurred three weeks earlier (2 February), affecting mostly the central mountain range with severe flooding impacts being felt in a stream of the northern coast (Faial). Undoubtedly, the accumulated pre- cipitation registered throughout the winter contributed to sat- urate soils, inducing favourable conditions to increase and accelerate surface runoff, aggravating flash-flood suscepti- bility in the Madeira drainage basins (SRES, 2010). There- fore, the exceptionality of the 20 February rainstorm episode should be analysed within the context of the whole winter, as the impacts observed during the event were clearly amplified by the continuous mounting of these predisposing factors for flash-flood occurrence.
Another limitation of the current study is related to the idea of what defines warmth: a lack of competitiveness (Cuddy et al., 2009). The articles selected were all about Olympic athletes; finding a lack of competitiveness amongst the top tier of sports leaders around the globe was an incredibly difficult task. It could be argued that a lack of competitiveness would prevent these athletes from becoming successful enough to reach the Olympics, therefore finding warmth in athletes of this calibre is a more difficult task. This could explain the lack of phrases found for warmth in the present study.
Willow communities are the primary cover type used by moose during winter, given that an average of 69% of winter tel- emetry locations occurred there (Burkholder 2012). Mixed willow communities included 6 primary species (Keigley and Fager 2006): Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana), Lemmonʼs willow (S. lemmonii), Boothʼs willow (S. boothii), Drummondʼs willow (S. drumondiana), planeleaf willow (S. planifo- lia), and Wolf ʼ s willow (S. wolfii). Bebb (S. bebbiana) and sandbar willow (S. exigua), and red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea) were more sparsely distributed and occurred at lower elevations; snowberry (Symphoricar- pos albus) and bog birch (Betula pumila) also occurred in riparian communities. Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) dominated the forests at lower elevations, with patches of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), and occasional Douglas fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) stands in mesic areas. Scouler ʼ s willow (Salix scou- leriana) and thinleaf alder (Alnus incana)
With a view to shedding light on the above issues, the paper is divided into four sections, including the ‘Introduction’ section above. The second section, using the 'Pharmaceutical Value Equation' (Paul et al., 2010), describes an R&D model that analyzes productivity in terms of its two major constituents - R&D efficiency and effectiveness of drugs. R&D efficiency, which refers to the number of new drugs approved per billion US dollars spent on R&D, has been declining for the past few years. The problem of declining R&D efficiency, as suggested by researchers, emanates from the current level of high attrition rates, particularly in phase II and phase III of the drugs development path. In this part of section 2, the paper reviews some major studies that examine the underlying problems of declining efficiency and suggests proposals for accelerating R&D efficiency. The next subsection of section 2 deals with the drug effectiveness component of R&D productivity. To improve the effectiveness of drugs, two key measures that merit special attention include the value-based pricing principle and the emerging challenge of promoting “ personalized medicines ” . Under value-based pricing agreements, payers and pharma companies agree to link payment for a medicine to value achieved (e.g., outcome or
The UK economy is experiencing a trade-led recovery as greater demand both domestically and in markets in Europe, America and Asia has led to increased exports and investment in the economy in the latter half of 2010. Growth is estimated to have been 1.8 per cent in 2010, and is forecast to be 1.7 per cent in 2011 and 2.0 per cent in 2012. In 2010, growth is expected to be mainly as a result of increased investment as companies seek to restock following the rundown of inventories that occurred during the recession. The growth profile is expected to change in 2011 and 2012, with exports becoming the leading determinant of output growth. Domestic consumption, although robust throughout 2010, is expected to flag over the coming years due to the need for households to repair damaged balance sheets and weak projected disposable income, which will dampen the recovery in the short run. The government’s fiscal consolidation, as set out in the 2010 Spending Review, will also act as a drag on growth in the short run, with government expenditure projected to fall by 8.3 per cent in real terms by 2015. According to the Office for Budget Responsibility, this consolidation will reduce net public sector borrowing from 11 per cent in 2010 to 1.1 per cent of GDP by 2015-2016. In the short run, fiscal austerity is expected to knock off 0.5 per cent off the growth rate. Monetary policy is expected to remain accommodative in 2011 at the cost of higher inflation. The increasing price level, coupled with a sustained recovery, is expected to lead to a tightening of monetary policy in 2012.
One could easily estimate a DD equation for population, but with the availability of the 2000 census numbers, it is quite apparent that the accuracy of county population estimates between the 1990 and 2000 census is questionable. The population estimate for these in-between years has not yet been updated. In addition, to examine the possibility that the VNV*POST coefficient is not merely capturing a one-time impact that is not sustained, we re-estimated the model with an additional dummy variable and interaction for the period after the Olympics. Not only is the Olympic effect sustained during the post-Olympic time period, the impact seems to increase. These results yield a preliminary view of what we find in the next section which explores the rate of change in employment and wages.
Ralph et al., 2004; Neiman et al., 2008a, b), which can produce heavy rainfall when striking the coastal mountains, through orographic lifting. Zhu and Newell (1998) found that the majority of the mid-latitudes moisture flux occurs in the filamentary features, the rivers, and that the fraction of the globe they cover is 10 % or less. In the literature, these struc- tures were often known as warm conveyor belts (Carlson, 1991). From observational studies, Ralph et al. (2004) char- acterized narrow regions of strong horizontal water vapor flux associated with polar cold fronts that occurred over the eastern North Pacific Ocean during the winter of 1997/1998. Neiman et al. (2008b) documented the high impact of ARs on an extreme precipitation event and flooding in the Pa- cific Northwest that occurred on November 2006. On the other hand, according to Ralph et al. (2006), while the pres- ence of an atmospheric river was a necessary condition ob- served in 7 floods on the “Russian River” occurring during a period of 8 yr, it was not a sufficient condition to trigger the phenomena. Recently, Dettinger et al. (2011), investigat- ing meteorological aspects of the connection between floods and water resources in California, observed that atmospheric rivers are a primary meteorological factor in flood genera- tion of many California rivers, as well as a primary source of precipitation and water resources in the State, contribut- ing with 20–50 % to the State’s precipitation and streamflow. Stohl et al. (2008) analyzed an extreme precipitation event on the Norwegian southwest coast, which produced flooding and landslides, and found that it was triggered by the trans- port of (sub)tropical moisture through an atmospheric river rooted in the tropical western North Atlantic. The steep to- pography of the Norwegian coast caused strong orographic enhancement of the precipitation associated with the river. The authors showed that, unlike what has been reported in the literature, in this case some of the moisture was transported across more than 40 ◦ of latitude.