3G and 4G technologies

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Latest Trends in Wireless Mobile Communication (3G to 4G Technologies)

Latest Trends in Wireless Mobile Communication (3G to 4G Technologies)

3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block crypto instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. 3G can implement various network technologies such as UMTS, GSM, CDMA, WCDMA, CDMA200, TDMA and EDGE. 4G Fourth generation (4G) also called Next Generation Network (NGN) offers one platform for different wireless networks. A successor of 2G and 3G, 4G promises a downloading speed of 100Mbps and is yet to shower its wonders on. then with the case of Fourth Generation that is 4G in addition to that of the services of 3G some additional features such as Multi-Media Newspapers, also to watch T.V programs with the clarity as to that of an ordinary T.V. In addition, we can send Data much faster than that of the previous generations. A 4G system is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all-IP based mobile broadband solution to laptop computer wireless modems, Smartphone’s, and other mobile devices. Facilities such as ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services, and streamed multimedia may be provided to users. In 4G the integration of network and its applications is seamless therefore there is no risk of delay. While implementing 4G the cost issue needs to be taken into consideration so that users can benefit from this technological development fully.
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Wireless Communication in 4G Technologies

Wireless Communication in 4G Technologies

Abstract--- Consumers demand more from their technology. Whether it is a television, cellular phone, or refrigerator, the latest technology purchase must have new features. With the advent of the Internet, the most-wanted feature is better, faster access to information. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging, stock quotes, and even Internet access right on their phones, E-mail, video calling. To support such a powerful system, we need pervasive, high- speed wireless connectivity. A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity; Bluetooth, 802.11 and HIPERLAN are examples. These two standards provide very high-speed network connections over short distances, typically in the tens of meters. The goal is the same: long-range, high-speed wireless, which for the purposes of this report will be called 4G, for fourth-generation wireless system. Fourth-generation is characterized by new frequency bands, higher data rates and non backwards compatible transmission technology. The first release of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard does not completely fulfill the ITU 4G requirements called IMT-Advanced. First release LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G, but is a pre-4G or 3.9G technology, however sometimes branded "4G" by the service providers. Its evolution LTE Advanced is a 4G technology. WiMAX is another technology verging on or marketed as 4G
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Small Tweaks do Not Help: Differential Power Analysis of MILENAGE Implementations in 3G/4G USIM Cards

Small Tweaks do Not Help: Differential Power Analysis of MILENAGE Implementations in 3G/4G USIM Cards

The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and Long-Term Evolution (LTE) are respectively third generation (3G) and fourth generation (4G) mobile cellular systems for networks based on the Global System for Mo- bile Communication (GSM) standard. The technologies have been developed and maintained by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), and they have been widely adopted in many countries in Asia, Europe and the USA (see [ 3 , 4 ] for a list of mobile operators who adopt the 3G/4G technologies). For convenience, we only provide a simplified overview of the infrastructure by considering only two parties (omitting intermediate nodes such as Visitor Location Registers), namely, the Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM), which is typically a smart card embedded in a subscriber’s telephony device, and an Authentication Center (AuC), which is a security function running on the operator’s server. The cryptographic protocol engaged between two parties is symmetric, so that USIM and AuC need to share necessary information such as a unique identifier IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity), a symmetric master key K, and operator-defined secrets OPc (operand code), r1, . . . , r5, c1, . . . , c5.
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New Compact Microstrip Patch Filtenna Structures with Partitioned Ground for 3G/4G Applications

New Compact Microstrip Patch Filtenna Structures with Partitioned Ground for 3G/4G Applications

New compact patch filtenna structures have been proposed, analyzed, designed and simulated (narrowband, broadband, dual-band, and ultra-wideband). The results of simulation show that the resonance frequencies of our proposed compact patch filtenna structures can be controlled within different isolated bands. To design such filtenna, three steps are required. First, select a conventional patch antenna to resonate at a specific required frequency in the 3G/4G wireless band. Second, the add slot and array of vies to the patch antenna. Finally, the ground plane is divided into two or three partitions. These steps
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Multiple Access Technologies for Beyond 3G Wireless Cellular Systems

Multiple Access Technologies for Beyond 3G Wireless Cellular Systems

TDD-CDMA is a modified version of the 3G TD-CDMA introduced in [8] as an attractive scheme for B3G systems. An important advantage of TDD-CDMA is that it has better frequency efficiency than UTRA- FDD. Using FDD mode, a large frequency guard band is needed that makes inefficient use of frequency spectrum. Similar to TD-CDMA, it is possible to share the channel information between base station and mobile terminals in TDD-CDMA. The advantage is particularly more visible in high-data-rate transmissions because of rapid changes in the fading environment. In B3G systems the requirement for bursty data communications will increase, which will result in a significant increase in downlink traffic load. TDD provides enough capability to satisfy such a requirement because it can easily achieve asymmetric trans-missions; therefore, TDD-CDMA will become a major MA scheme for B3G systems as an evolved version of TD-CDMA already used in 3G systems. Finally, orthogonal frequency-division MA (OFDMA) has attracted much attention, particularly in the emerging IEEE 802.16 standard, as the last mile for wireless communications. The concept of OFDMA is essentially the same as FDMA, but it has some advantages not included in FDMA. In OFDMA, every user shares the fast Fourier transform (FFT) space for uplink, and the base station can assign subcarriers to users. Thus, transmission with different rates among users is available according to each user’s requirement. On frequency- selective channels, however, performance of a user assigned by a deep faded subcarrier is damaged by fading. To avoid the effect of fading, we usually introduce a frequency hopping (FH) technique with forward error correction (FEC). Furthermore, since OFDMA is a quasi-synchronous MA scheme, a large guard time that compensates for an access delay is required.
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Development Of A 3G Bandpass Filter Using Microstrip Technologies

Development Of A 3G Bandpass Filter Using Microstrip Technologies

This project will develop 2.4GHz Butterworth Band pass Filter by using Micro strip Technologies. This filter will be design and analyze by using microwave office software. Otherwise, the filter will be fabricate and tested using substrate FR4 and build a Butterworth Band pass filter using microstrip technologies.

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A Compact MIMO Antenna with Improved Isolation for 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and UWB Applications

A Compact MIMO Antenna with Improved Isolation for 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and UWB Applications

entire frequency range. The antenna is designed and fabricated on an FR-4 substrate having overall dimensions of 38 mm × 33 . 4 mm × 1 . 6 mm. The measured results show a good correlation with the simulated ones. The envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) of the antenna is less than 0.02 over the entire band. The proposed MIMO antenna is an appropriate candidate for 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and UWB applications.

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User Manual. ---Apply to WL-R210 Series 3G/4G Router. V /03/31

User Manual. ---Apply to WL-R210 Series 3G/4G Router. V /03/31

WLINK industrial Router use industrial grade design, high-powered 32bit MIPS network processor, embedded industrial grade, high powered, multi-band frequency mobile 4G/3G+ communication module, support WCDMA, HSPA+、TD/FDD-LTE、EVDO(CDMA 2000)etc., high-speed mobile, wide band, provide quick, convenient internet access or private network transmission to customer, optional built-in WI-FI module or multi-LAN port, provide wire-line network or wireless WLAN share high speed wide band access, meanwhile, customized high security VPN (Open VPN、IPSec、SSL), to construct safe channel, widely used in financial, electric power, environment, oil, transportation, security, etc..
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Models HP MSR931 Dual 3G Router. HP MSR936 Wireless Router. HP MSR930 4G LTE/3G CDMA Router HP MSR935 3G Router

Models HP MSR931 Dual 3G Router. HP MSR936 Wireless Router. HP MSR930 4G LTE/3G CDMA Router HP MSR935 3G Router

collects, maintains, and distributes dynamic public addresses through the VPN Address Management (VAM) protocol, making VPN establishment available between enterprise branches that use dynamic addresses to access the public network; compared to traditional VPN technologies, DVPN technology is more flexible and has richer features, such as NAT traversal of DVPN packets, AAA identity authentication, IPSec protection of data packets, and multiple VPN domains

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Industrial Grade 2G 3G 4G Cellular Router User Manual. H820 Series

Industrial Grade 2G 3G 4G Cellular Router User Manual. H820 Series

For example, here we set Cellular as secondary line, and WAN RJ45 PPPOE as main line. Then choose as the picture above. Check Count: fill in the number you want to check the line availa[r]

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Optimized Queue Length Schema Implementation for 3g/4g Mobile Data Network

Optimized Queue Length Schema Implementation for 3g/4g Mobile Data Network

The packet variation from the sender to receiver on mobile 3G/4G networks varies on its size as Min, mid and Max with capability of 1024 Bytes, 5120 Bytes and 10240 Bytes in a single transmission unit. The Ls-value and ri value varies with the factor of 100%, 80%, 70%, 50% and X, 2X, 5X and 10X respectively based on JIO/Airtel /BSNL [7] [8] [9] mobile carriers in India Tamilnadu. VOLTE support in JIO contributes more in faster transmission and improved packet handling capability in Tirunelveli District of Tamilnadu, India when compared with Metro city Coimbatore of Tamilnadu, India. The computation implementation strategies are as follows,
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Study of 3G/4G Network Convergence Planning Scheme in High Speed Railway

Study of 3G/4G Network Convergence Planning Scheme in High Speed Railway

the long-term coexistence of GSM, TD-SCDMA and TD-LTE is the main way for our country in the next generation of wireless network. With the develop- ment of LTE, TD-LTE communication technology presents a good prospect in railway communication system. But when the train’s speed is above 200 km/h, Doppler frequency shift, selection and re-election of the cell, shift, and penetra- tion loss have a great effect on the network coverage. It is important for the de- velopment and construction of the high-speed railway to figure out how to use the present 2G/3G network to realize multi-network convergence, satisfy the signal quality requirement of the information transportation of the passenger railway line, guarantee the signal quality, reduce the probability of talk off, and meet the needs of clients’ data volume. At present, high-speed railway signal transport has the following problems.
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Detecting MS Initiated Signaling DDoS Attacks in 3G/4G Wireless Networks

Detecting MS Initiated Signaling DDoS Attacks in 3G/4G Wireless Networks

phone traffic generated by 62 smartphones. We installed a traffic sniffer at the University edge router and captured all packets sent or received by these 62 mobiles phones over a period of one week. Note that the sniffer did not capture any packets when the students who own these smartphones were off campus (e.g. at night). To account for this, all inter wake- up times longer than 8 hours were removed from the analysis. However, when the students were on campus, we believe that all traffic generated by their smartphones was captured in our traces. In India, 3G plans are still very expensive and most students do not enable 3G on their phones. Instead the students prefer to stay connected to the University WiFi network when they are on campus.
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Functional Architecture of 4G Wireless Technologies

Functional Architecture of 4G Wireless Technologies

The development of broadband wireless access technologies in recent years was the result of growing demand for mobile Internet and wireless multimedia applications. Mobile communication plays a most important role in telecommunications industry. Through a common wide-area radio-access technology and flexible network architecture WiMAX and LTE has enabled convergence of mobile and fixed broadband networks. Since January 2007, the IEEE 802.16 Working Group has been developing a new amendment of the IEEE802.16 standard (i.e., IEEE 802.16m) as an advanced air interface to meet the requirements of ITU-R/IMT- advanced for 4G systems as well as for the next- generation mobile network operators.
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New  Privacy  Threat  on 3G, 4G,   and  Upcoming 5G  AKA  Protocols

New Privacy Threat on 3G, 4G, and Upcoming 5G AKA Protocols

In this section, we show how to conduct our attacks in practice on 4G networks using a low-cost and easily available setup. We then explain practical aspects which make our attack easily feasible ( e.g., issues in different operator’s network and security configurations). We fi- nally discuss our PoC and our experimental results. Feasibility in 5G. Due to unavailability of 5G devices and networks, we only demonstrate our attack in a 4G environment. As already mentioned, we know that the 5G, phase 1 specification already suffers from our at- tacks. Moreover, we believe that it will be feasible to demonstrate our attack against real 5G networks soon due to the fast open source developments for 5G [28]. For example, 2G has been launched in 1991 but the first open source software were only made available in 2010 (with OpenBTS [29]). In contrast, 4G has been launched in 2009 [30] and open source 4G software was already supported the same year by OpenAirInterface [31].
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An Enhanced Cognitive Radio Spectrum Sensing Method for 4G Technologies

An Enhanced Cognitive Radio Spectrum Sensing Method for 4G Technologies

Cognitive radio spectrum sensing[12] techniques have been developed considerably as a variety of cognitive radio network systems technologies have increased. While non-cooperative spectrum sensing is applicable for many applications, it has a number of drawbacks for many applications. In cognitive radio applications where a cognitive radio network is present, cooperative spectrum sensing is not only advantageous, it becomes essential if the network as a whole is to avoid interference with any primary users. Cognitive radio cooperative spectrum sensing occurs when a group or network of cognitive radios share the sense information they gain. This provides a better picture of the spectrum usage over the area where the cognitive radios are located.
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How IMS Enables Converged Services for Cable and 3G Technologies: A Survey

How IMS Enables Converged Services for Cable and 3G Technologies: A Survey

PDF (Policy Decision Function). This is logically a cen- tralized entity that makes the policy decision according to the policy rules and the dynamic and static information of the network. This decision will be transferred to the ac- cess router (i.e., GGSN in 3G) which plays the role of Pol- icy Enforcement Function (PEF). Consequently, according to the PDF decision, PEF allocates the resources for the session media. In Release 5, the PDF was enclosed in the P-CSCF. Moreover, the interface between PDF and GGSN which is called Go was based on COPS [17]. But Release 6 introduces a clear separation between the P-CSCF and the PDF function. With this extension, other non-SIP-based ser- vices will also benefit from the resource control mechanisms. Gq interface was defined between P-CSCF and PDF [1] as shown in Figure 1. Go and Gq are used for resource reserva-
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A Performance Optimizing of VANET Communications: The Convergence of UAV System with LTE/4G and WAVE Technologies

A Performance Optimizing of VANET Communications: The Convergence of UAV System with LTE/4G and WAVE Technologies

When a GCS forward a safety information to 4G-enabled vehicles via EPC server or LTE/4G core network, the eNodeB will be used to broadcast the information with EPS to the 4G- enabled vehicles within the eNB cell as shown in Fig 1.4 and Algorithm 4.2. In order for this, all 4G-enabled vehicles present in eNB cell will receive the safety information. In VANET environment, the safety applications require a high data rate and coverage area because they are delay-sensitive applications. Besides, in related work I have discussed that LTE/4G network has a high data rate and coverage area. Due to this, the proposed safety info forwarding model will realize the above mentioned circumstances.
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Composite Ratio Environment Based Re-Configurability Video Streaming 4g Technologies

Composite Ratio Environment Based Re-Configurability Video Streaming 4g Technologies

The proposed scheme is a Neighbor Coverage based probabilistic Rebroadcast protocol that can be used to decrease routing overhead based upon neighbor coverage knowledge and rebroadcast [r]

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A Broadband Planar Quasi-Yagi Antenna with a Modified Bow-Tie Driverfor Multi-Band 3G/4G Applications

A Broadband Planar Quasi-Yagi Antenna with a Modified Bow-Tie Driverfor Multi-Band 3G/4G Applications

Furthermore, the proposed antenna shows higher directivities and narrower 3 dB beamwidths as the operating frequency increases. As confirmed by the simulations of surface current distributions, this is in part because the bow-tie driver can form horn antenna structures, concentrating the electromagnetic energy within the bow-tie driver structure at high frequencies. Finally, the proposed antenna shows a similar or wider bandwidth compared to previous research work, and a compact size of only 1 . 24 λ gc × 0 . 94 λ gc . As this antenna can cover multi-bands for 3G UMTS/CDMA and 4G LTE/WIMAX technologies, it is expected to be used for 3G/4G mobile wireless communications.
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