found that the augmented expression of miR-155 after K-Ras activation was significantly inhibited by an ERK inhibitor U0126 in a dose-dependent manner and a similar inhibitory effect by an NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, which indicated the critical roles of activated MAPK and NF- κB in K-Ras induced miR-155 expression (Figure 2A). Indeed, MAPK activity was found to be markedly elevated as demonstrated by significant increase of phosphorylated Erk after K-ras was activated by doxycyline for 24 hrs, 48 hs and more than one month (Figure 2B). Consistently, the downstream transcription factor JunB and FosB were also upregulated. Similarly, NF-κB p65 was also significantly upregulated after K-Ras activation (Figure 2B). To further test whether MAPK and NF-κB pathway mediate K-Ras induced expression of miR-155, T-Rex/K-Ras cells with K-Ras activation for 24 hrs were transfected with Erk and NF-κB (p65) specific siRNAs. The knockdown of Erk and NF-κB was verified by western blot analysis as shown in Figure 2C. Transfection of siErk and siNF-κB (p65) significantly suppressed the increase of miR-155 expression induced by K-ras activation. In contrast, control siRNA showed no inhibitory effect of miR-155 expression
It was evidenced earlier that the DCs of cancer patients are non-functional, whereas the p38 MAP kinase cascade plays a potential role in regulating the functioning of DCs in tumor environments. 17 In the process to ﬁ nd the miRs involved in regulation of p38 MAPK14 gene and therefore having the capacity to control the activity of DCs, we screened the possible miRs binding sites in the 3 ʹ UTR region of p38 mRNA bioinformatically using TargetScan (www.targets can.org). 15 The ﬁ ndings demonstrated that 4 miRs had bind- ing sites for p38 gene which included miR-155, miR-24, miR-124 and miR-351 (Figure 1A). Ahead we studied whether these miRs could silence the target p38, for this we transfected these miRs mimics in the RAW264.7 cells which is established to be the cell line suitable for establishing intracellular signaling pathway. 18–20 Followed by transfec- tion, we measured the expression of p38 protein levels by Western blot analysis. The outcomes indicated signi ﬁ cant downfall in the protein levels post transfection of miR-155, miR-351 and miR-24 (Figure 1B).
miRNAs were isolated using the mirVana miRNA isolation kit (Ambion, Austin, TX, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions and were reverse transcribed with a TaqMan Mi- croRNA reverse transcription kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA) using miRNA sequence-specific primers for miR-17-3, miR-31, miR-155, and miR-191. Briefly, for the RT reactions, 30 ng of miRNA was used in each reaction (15 μL) and was mixed with the RT primer (3 μL). The RT reaction was performed at 16°C for 30 min, 42°C for 30 min, and 85°C for 5 min. MiRNA levels were quantified via RT-PCR (StepOnePlus; Applied Biosystems) using TaqMan MicroRNA assays. The amplification steps included denaturation at 95°C, followed by 40 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 15 s and then anneal- ing at 60°C for 1 min. All reactions, including controls, were performed in triplicate. Relative expression of miRNAs was analyzed using the 2- ΔΔ Ct method and was normalized via
Based on the interview with the management of Pokdarwis Kampuang, the climbing activity of Mount Talang through Aia Batumbuak was opened since 2014. The length of the climbing path of Mount Talang through Aia Batumbuak is as far as ±8 kilometer within 4-5 hours. Along the climbing path, the view is breathtaking and the path has some resting points such as, in Base camp (R5) on the height of 1554 mdpl, Post I (R14) on the height of 1656 mdpl, Post II (R32) on the height of 1964 mdpl, Post III (R51) on the height of 2108 mdpl and Camping Ground on the height of 2345 mdpl. In 2016, the number of climbers in Mount Talang is as many as ±18.846 orang. It usually increases in numbers on weekends, holidays, Independence Day and New Year (Pokdarwis Kampuang, 2017).
Remark . As an immediate consequence, we get that under the assumptions of Theo- rem ., (.) is asymptotically stable (i.e. its any solution y tends to zero as t → ∞) if all the zeros of Q(λ) are located inside the unite circle. In this connection, we have already mentioned the Schur-Cohn criterion, which can be applied to any polynomial Q(λ) with concrete (ﬁxed) coeﬃcients and order. However, this criterion does not enable us to for- mulate explicit stability conditions in terms of (general) coeﬃcients a j and k. Such explicit
He and Araci Advances in Difference Equations 2014, 2014 155 http //www advancesindifferenceequations com/content/2014/1/155 R ES EARCH Open Access Sums of products of Apostol Bernoulli and Apostol Eu[.]
where L = L/2. The advantages introduced by this approach are twofold: i) the overall computation of the algorithm is reduced, leading to a reduced amount of energy spent for the computation of a single correlation value and ii) the actual sampling rate of the system can be reduced by a factor 1 / D, leading to a further energy sav- ing. Moreover, the reduction of the sample rate could be then paired with circuital solutions, such as dynamic volt- age and frequency scaling (DVFS) to further enhance the energy and power efficiency .
In 1965, Lofti A.Zadeh introduced the concept of a fuzzy subset of a set as a method for representing the phenomena of uncertainty in real life situation. Azriel Rosenfeld introduced fuzzy graphs in 1975, which is growing fast and has numerous applications in various fields. Nagoor Gani and Radha  introduced regular fuzzy graphs, total degree and totally regular fuzzy graphs. Alison Northup  studied some properties on (2, k)- regular graphs in her bachelor thesis. N.R Santhi Maheswari and C. Sekar introduced d 2 of a vertex in graphs  and (3, k)-
immunoblotting was performed. The sera were assayed against separated, purified full length VP1 and NPfl proteins. An intense band of about 40 kDa appeared on the VP1 membrane indicating positive detection for anti-VP1 antibodies (Figure 2C, arrow). As observed in the ELISA study, no band was noted in the pre-immune, as well as the pre-challenge sera from the control group. On the NPfl membrane, a band with approxi- mate size of 55 kDa formed, confirming the presence of anti-NP antibodies (Figure 2C, arrowhead). The ab- sence of a band in the pre-immune sera corroborated the previous ELISA findings. These results showed that the NPt-VP1 1-100 was capable of inducing high
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a group of self- organized mobile nodes that are associated with com- paratively low bandwidth wireless links. Each node has its own area of control, which is called a cell, only within which others can receive its transmissions. In MANET, there is no fixed infrastructure [1-3]. Conse- quently, when nodes are free to ramble, the network topology may change rapidly and randomly over time, and nodes automatically make their own accommodating infrastructures . There is a range of applications of MANET like video conferencing, rescue operations, military applications, disaster management, etc.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we introduce basic concepts and notations to understand this work. Section 3 modifies the struc- ture of a basic partial Fourier matrix and presents a new sensing matrix for deterministic construction. We also discuss the efficient implementation and the the- oretical recovery guarantee of the new sensing matrix. Section 4 describes the signal measurement process and the CoSaMP recovery algorithm by employing the FFT technique. In Section 5, we demonstrate the empirical recovery performance of our new sensing matrices in noiseless and noisy settings. Finally, concluding remarks will be given in Section 6.
of a 6% HCl solution. The crude product simultaneously precipitated from solution, and was collected on filtration of the neutralized reaction mixture. The cream-coloured solid was suspended in methanol and stirred for 24 h, before being filtered from the methanol and dried. The material was chromatographed on silica gel using a chloroform mobile phase, before being stirred once again in methanol, filtered and dried to give the title compound as an off-white solid. (25.90 g, 70%), mp 558–563 K dec. 1 H NMR [CDCl
Cancer Congress in Munich in April 1997. According to this classification, a tumor could be identified into three types (type I, type II, and type III) in terms of the anatomic location of the tumor center. Specifically, type I is adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus with the epicenter located within 1 cm and 5 cm above the anatomic EGJ; type II is true carcinoma of the cardia with the tumor epicenter within 1 cm above and 2 cm below the EGJ; type III is subcardial carcinoma with the tumor epicenter between 2 and 5 cm below the EGJ . Before the UICC classification, type I was usually classified with the esophageal scheme, and types II and III were classified with the gastric carcinoma scheme [4,7,8].
(Fig 1,3) are found to be positive over the entire range of mole fraction of 1,4-dioxane in the mixture at all studied temperatures. The sign of excess properties plays a vital role in assessing the compactness or extent of molecular interactions. The various types of interactions that are operating between the molecules are dispersion forces, which should make a positive contribution to excess values and charge transfer, H-bonding, dipole-dipole interaction and dipole-induced dipole interactions expected to make positive contributions. In the present mixture as ∆K s & L f E are
Convolutional codes are usually described using two parameters: the code rate and the constraint length. The code rate, k/n, is expressed as a ratio of the number of bits into the convolutional encoder (k) to the number of channel symbols output by the convolutional encoder (n) in a given encoder cycle. The constraint length parameter, K, denotes the “length” of the convolutional encoder, i.e. how many k-bit stages are available to feed the combinatorial logic that produces the output symbols . The code of a convolutional encoder is generated by combining certain sequences of the current bit and stored bits. The outputs are generated by an XOR or addition of a certain sequence of bits, which is show in Figure 1.
Classification problems ubiquitously exist in all areas of science and engineering, where the aim is to identify a model that is able to classify observations or measurements into di ff erent categories or classes. Many methods and algorithms are available which include logistic regression [27,28], random forest , support vector machines  and k-nearest neighbors . The latter three are very popular but their major drawback is that they remain as black boxes for which the interpretation of the models may not be straightforward. Although it is possible to obtain an importance index for the predictors in the model, this does not help in understanding the possible inner dynamics of a system. On the other hand, logistic regression is an approach that produces a model to predict categorical outcomes. The predicted values are probabilities and are therefore restricted to values between 0 and 1 . Logistic regression uses the logistic function defined as,
manufacturer’s instructions. For the mRNA quantification, total RNA was transcribed into cDNA with a high- capacity cDNA reverse-transcriptase kit. Real-time PCR was performed by using the reverse transcription–PCR master mix and a FAM (carboxyfluorescein)-labeled minor groove binding TaqMan probe. U6 or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydro- genase (GAPDH) levels were used as en- dogenous control of miR-155 or mRNA levels, respectively. The G-CSFRI and G-CSFRIV primers were purchased from TIB Molbiol (Berlin, Germany). The other materials were purchased from Life Tech- nologies (now Thermo Fisher Scientific). Primers and probes are listed in Supple- mentary Table S1.
The stability of a D-brane is typically due to the charges it carries. Although D-branes were originally discovered as objects carrying Ramond-Ramond (RR) charges under p-form supergravity fields, their charges are more properly classified by K-theory [15, 16] instead of cohomology. An important difference between K-theory and cohomology charges arrises when considering discrete torsion (e.g., Z 2 ) valued charges. In fact, the existence of such K- theory torsion charges (sometimes referred to as K-theory charges) is precisely the reason that certain non-BPS D-branes are stable . Due to the K-theoretical nature of D-brane charges, we expect there are in general some additional discrete constraints on string constructions which are invisible in supergravity. Analogously to the usual RR tadpole conditions, the total torsion charges must cancel in a consistent string compactification. However, unlike the usual integral valued RR charges, there are no supergravity fields to which the torsion charged D-branes are coupled. Hence, the discrete constraints on the cancellation of torsion charges are invisible from the usual tadpole conditions obtained by factorization of one-loop open string amplitudes. Nonetheless, these discrete K-theory constraints can be detected in an indirect way by introducing suitable D-brane probes . From a probe brane point of view, a manifestation of these discrete K-theory constraints is the requirement that there should be an even number of Weyl fermions charged under the symplectic gauge group on its worldvolume, for otherwise the worldvolume theory suffers from global anomalies . Moreover, it was recently shown in  that for some specific simple examples, these discrete constraints from a probe brane analysis are seen to arise from the standard Dirac quantization conditions of 4-form fluxes when lifted to F-theory. Although the probe brane approach