The question is: do these pressures of globalisation and the international community actually cause any significant changes in state-society relations in Sub-Saharan African countries? It is of course not easy to draw such conclusions, and a formal empirical study is out of the scope of our current paper. There are some encouraging signs at first sight, but a deeper scrutiny reveals a more ambiguous picture. In the past 20 years, a wave of democratisation has swept through Sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in the fact that a majority of the continent’s countries now have formally democratic regimes, in the Schumpeterian sense. Nevertheless, these new democracies in Africa are extremely fragile and very far from Western standards and retain many traits of the earlier authoritarian systems. Collier (2007) argues that while most African countries do introduce electoral competition, perhaps the most important formal element of democracy, they often fail to introduce checks and balances on the power of the executives. Without these control mechanisms, the ruling elite (even though they are elected more or less democratically) can still use state resources according to their will. They can use these resources to rig elections and are thus not forced to implement policies that benefit the society.
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Accessibility to all types of healthcare is generally inade- quate in rural settings of resource-constrained countries . Antiretroviral therapies (ART) are still unattainable for most HIV-infected individuals in these countries, mainly due to the scarcity of drugs . One of the greatest remaining obstacles to receiving treatment in rural areas in these countries is scarcity in health care facilities (HCFs) [1,2]. Considerable discussion has surrounded the many logistical and clinical management difficulties associated with the rollout of ART in Africa [1,3,4]. How- ever, the travel distances required for many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in rural areas in Africa to reach an HCF have not yet received much attention. This is the topic of the present work. We address the health policy question 'How far will we need to go to reach PLWHA in rural South Africa?', and specifically, we calculate the dis- tance that PLWHA who live in rural areas in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa, would have to travel to receive treat- ment.
Ngcobo, who had worked at Wentex m ill from 1955. In 1971 he had been elected as Vice- Chairperson of the liaison committee. He related his story: “We stood outside the gates for many days - nearly one week. After that time we went inside again. While I was working at my loom, one of the Indian clerks told me that there were some people who wanted to see me. There were two white men outside with civilian clothes. They told me the government wanted to see me, and they took me to the Special Branch office in Fisher Street. They kept me in
Sustainable development goals (SDGs) are a global agenda consisting of 17 goals which are to be achieved in 2030 by all member states. SDGs are more holistic goals i.e. these goals are closely interrelated and they affect the progress of one another. Sub-Saharan Africa countries are, once more lagging behind in the implementations of SDGs despite the efforts by governments, non-government organisations and international agencies. Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia where the three Sub-Saharan Africa countries on which the study focused. The three countries in this study were chosen on the basis that they cater to the general overview of African countries performance on SDGs. To conduct this study, a desk research method was adopted and secondary data was utilised. An in-depth analysis was done on the on three subs Saharan African countries i.e. Rwanda, South Africa, Zambia. Those goals where serious attention is needed are goals 1-9, 16 and 17. Most Sub-Saharan African countries performed better on goals 11, 12 and 15. It was concluded that the achievement of Sustainable development goals remains a mere dream for Sub Saharan Africa unless serious interventions are made.
The notion of xenophobia bears close links to concepts like racism and ethnic intolerance, its semantic distinctiveness lies in the fact that it is rooted in national identity, citizenship and a rejection of foreigners belonging to other borders, states or nations. Some of the evident manifestations of xenophobia have been the expulsion of foreign nationals, threats of expulsion and, in other instances, violent attacks. The root cause of this growing phenomenon has been attributed by some scholars to the colonial activities in the continent and in particular, apartheid in South Africa where it’s taking a more violent dimension. Some have attributed this to the resultant effect of globalization’s ideal of free trade and global human rights commitments (Njamnjoh 2006: 1). However, in Africa, xenophobic manifestations date as far back as the last decades of colonialism. It started specifically when Ghana deported some Nigerians in 1954 followed by the 1958 expulsion of African migrants in Cote D’Ivoire. The attainment of independence opened door for the long awaited opportunities for several African countries to get rid of ‘strangers’ in their respective states. The first noticeable post - independence xenophobic prejudice was the mass expulsion of African migrants from Cote D’Ivoire in 1964 (Peil, 1971), and since then, xenophobic tendencies have been taking attitudinal dimension until recently in South Africa where it began to take a violent dimension.
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Abstract—There is consensus that rural farmers’ livelihoods are vulnerable to climate change. Also, literature suggests that locally driven adaptations are critical complementary strategies that can be targeted to reduce the negative effects of climate change in the short-run. Thus far, through using a cross sectional survey sample of 200 rural farmers from the Amathole district municipality of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, the paper estimated farmers’ climate change adaptation strategies, adaptation portfolio diversity and factors that condition farmers’ adoption behavior. The results reveal several crop, livestock and non-farm based adaptation strategies skewed in favour of crop and non-farm floral based techniques. The results further indicate that rural farmers in general are low adopters of climate change adaptation strategies with poor adaptation portfolio diversity. Regression estimates reveal several socio-economic and institutional factors as drivers of adoption and adaptation portfolio diversity worth targeting to promote the ability of rural farmers to cope with climate change.
The empirical result from this study provides evidence of the existence of the EKC for West African Countries as a group. The income turning point is estimated to range between US$4,240.83 and US$4,698.91. This shows that West African Countries are still on the upward sloping region of the EKC. Hence carbon emission is still on the increase. The per capita income of Countries in West Africa is still far below this estimated income turning point and as such economic growth is still generally seen as the dominant policy objective in the region. This trend may continue until per capita income reaches a high level sufficient enough to induce development or procurement pollution abatement technology in production. It is important however, to advise at the juncture that developing countries in general should not wait until they reach this high income turning point to reconcile economic growth and environmental improvement. For any given pollutant, an EKC will only exist when policy measures are taken. The pollution income relation will be monotonically rising if the government remains inactive. The strongest link between income and pollution is via the induced policy response.
systems exist in plant species: microbial/pathogen-associated molecular pattern (MAMP/PAMP) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The first type MAMP/PAMP surveillance mechanisms are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) that leads to pathogen-triggered immunity (PTI) referred as to basal immunity, which halts survival and growth of parasites. As a counter-measure to PTI, plant pathogens have evolved number of effector proteins to suppress PTI trough a subset of the effector known as resistance avirulence (Avr) proteins. Plants species have developed resistance genes (R) to recognize and inactivate parasitic effectors, which, leads to the second class ETI (Ahmed et al., 2016). It is known to be a full long-term immune response mediated by programme cell death (PCD) reactions called hypersensitive response (HR). The effector-triggered immunity is also known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) because it results from previous exposure of the host to pathogens (Walters et al., 2008).
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Scientific evidence of the deleterious effect of son preference on the health of female children is scarce, but abnormal sex ratios in infant and young child mortality rates, in nutritional status indicators and even in population figures show that discriminatory practices are widespread and have serious repercussions. Geographically, there is often a close correspondence between the areas of strong son preference and of health disadvantage for females. The girl child who suffers from bigotry at birth put her whole life as second choice in terms of health, education, sanitation, employment opportunity and satisfaction in life.
We undertook focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to understand how human security and its threats are perceived and interpreted by different stakeholders in Cambodia. We have not used the names of the participants in this report; instead, we identify them by their positions. Interviews focused on five main areas: 1) How people define and use the concept of human security; 2) Which different components - ‘Freedom from Fear’, ‘Freedom from Want’, and ‘Freedom to live in Dignity’ - are emphasized and why; 3) What kinds of urgent and long- term threats are important in the Cambodian context; 4) Who is responsible for human security and what is the role of international actors; and, 5) How can we mitigate human security threats in Cambodia. One methodological issue was how to translate the concept of “human security” into Khmer. Khmer language has several words that can be translated as security but each has different nuances. These include ‘santesok’ (referring to peace, and freedom from violence and fear), ‘sawatapeap’ (safety), and ‘sekadae sok’ (a deeper, broader concept of security
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Tests with GMO have to meet requirements differing from tests for chemical plant protection products, due to their specific characteristics [51, 61, 62]. However, the presented case examples revealed critical methodo- logical limitations of such tests, and demonstrated the unwanted consequences of missing quality criteria. Our analysis supports the request for mandatory definitions, standards and quality criteria for GMO pre-release test- ing of non-target organisms [28, 36]. Such standards are essential to assess the potential harm of Bt maize on NT Lepidoptera and to provide confidence in the pre-release environmental risk assessment (see also ). In this respect, classical ecotoxicological protocols for testing pesticides could serve as general guidelines, but do not completely fit the specific requirements for assessing GMO effects, e.g., a whole plant approach , or oral exposure of Bt maize pollen. By presenting the neces- sary quality criteria for testing the effect of Bt maize pol- len consumption on larvae of butterflies and moths, this publication can serve as a common base when planning studies with lepidopteran larvae and Bt maize to ensure quality, reliability, robustness and replicability of the respective experiments. As such, our recommendations should stimulate more precise guidance to the authorities and support further operationalisation.
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The newborns database consists of audio signals of babies .We have collected 10 samples from each type of cry signals of Baby . The Chillanto Data Base is a property of the InstitutoNacional de AstrofisicaOptica y Electronica—CONACYT, Mexico.The database acquisition of newborns took one year to complete and thus it has minor variations in lightning conditions due to changes in weather conditions. The database of each subject is prepared in two different sessions. In the first session data is collected within four hours of birth of a child and the data of second session depends on the type of birth. For example, if there is a case of normal birth then data is collected after 20 hours otherwise in scissoring cases data is collected after 70 hours of the birth. In this data collection, the time for data acquisition is set according to the period that a newborn stays in the hospital after his/her birth.
the involvement of soil microbes in the decline of plant parasitic nematodes during the degradation of complex organic materials and nitrogenous com- pounds. Poultry manure, cow dung, green manure, and crop residues have found wide acceptability among small-scale farmers. These amendments serve the dual purpose of improving soil fertility and reducing the nematode population through the increase of soil microfauna (Poswal & Akpa 1991; Agbenin 2004). In Nigeria, success in nematode disease management was recorded using poul- try manure, cow dung and sawdust (Babalola 1982; Chindo et al. 1991). In Egypt, Korayem et al. (2008) reported the effectiveness of chitins and abamectin in reducing the root-knot problem in oil seed rape in the field. The use of organic amendment in nematode control has gained much acceptability in most developing nations. Reports from India and the region of Pakistan have shown the organic amendment of soil using dried poultry faeces, municipal refuse, cakes of groundnut, neem, mustard and chitin to be effective in the manage- ment of plant parasitic nematodes (Siddiqui et al. 1976; Alam et al. 1980). In India, neem-based products Achook and Suneem G separately and in combination with urea and compost manure proved effective in suppressing a plant parasitic nematode population in Cajanus cajan (Akhtar 1998).
Given that the exercise science curriculum isn’t much different from the physical education, inadequate academic preparation throughout the kinesiology departments has limited career opportunities in healthcare. Another problem is that the exercise science student thinks he/she is actually engaged in an exercise physiology curriculum. This often results in the students referring to themselves as exercise physiologists. In fact, probably 90% of the time they aren’t what they say they are! So, in some ways, it is all too obvious to the employers that they can pay whatever they want to pay to the non-exercise physiology employee. After all, such a person isn’t a board certified exercise physiologists, and isn’t aware of even the importance of a code of ethics, professionalism, and a standards
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We combine wide and deep galaxy number-count data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly, COSMOS / G10, Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) Early Release Science, HST UVUDF, and various near-, mid-, and far-IR data sets from ESO, Spitzer, and Herschel. The combined data range from the far UV ( 0.15 μ m ) to far-IR ( 500 μ m ) , and in all cases the contribution to the integrated galaxy light ( IGL ) of successively fainter galaxies converges. Using a simple spline ﬁ t, we derive the IGL and the extrapolated IGL in all bands. We argue that undetected low-surface- brightness galaxies and intracluster / group light are modest, and that our extrapolated-IGL measurements are an accurate representation of the extragalactic background light ( EBL ) . Our data agree with most earlier IGL estimates and with direct measurements in the far IR, but disagree strongly with direct estimates in the optical. Close agreement between our results and recent very high-energy experiments ( H.E.S.S. and MAGIC ) suggests that there may be an additional foreground affecting the direct estimates. The most likely culprit could be the adopted model of zodiacal light. Finally we use a modi ﬁ ed version of the two-component model to integrate the EBL and obtain measurements of the cosmic optical background ( COB ) and cosmic infrared background of 24 - + 4 4 nW m −2 sr −1 and
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Joseph's evocative imagery of “many lives behind” him and then “something being [...] passed on” clearly shows his profound attunement with the world around him and a sense of flowing with the stream of human continuity. Sitting surrounded by trees in his urban forest campsite, he expresses how it allows him to tap into a primal energy, connecting him to his ancestors or mankind in general. Previous research by Milligan and Bingley (2007) found that trees provide people with a sense of continuity and Watkins (2014) argues that due to the fact they often outlive humans, trees and forests have come to symbolise a sense of continuity, order and security. However, this feeling of continuity for Joseph, that is evoked in, and inspired by, the forest, relates more to his experience of a heritage being passed over to him; he is a link in a chain that perpetually grows with each generation. There is a sense of duty and responsibility implicit within this, in that he feels trusted to carry and eventually pass on this heritage. The way in which the natural world intertwines with culture and heritage is foundational to indigenous beliefs and ways of life. As Rose (2000) highlights in her exposition on Australian Aborigines, their culture is an ongoing and dynamic entity, inseparable from the natural environment, connecting them with who they are, their ancestors and where they belong.
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Post-genomic nomenclature is also a concern for the efficiency of metabolic studies (Fields and Johnston, 2002). Genes have traditionally been named based on phenotypic analysis and this has led to problems when the biochemical function of the gene product is determined (Frodyma and Downs, 1998; Skovran and Downs, 2003; Trzebiatowski et al., 1994). A better solution is the current trend to name genes based on chromosomal location (i.e., YXX, or STM) until a biochemical function can be attributed to the gene product (K. Sanderson and M. Berlyn, personal communication). This is not yet a perfect solution, since, in E. coli, both a “b” designation, and the “yxx” designation exist and are used. Unfortunately, the literature has been permeated by cases where multiple names for the same gene are used. Not only is this is a problem that is tedious and time consuming to fix, it is unclear whose domain such an effort should fall in. An extension of this issue is the realization that a large amount of useful phenotypic information is present in the literature from the time when loci were genetically, but not physically defined. If a a genetic/physical correlation of these genes were generated, it would allow data from the past to be better incorporated in the context of current work, which is preformed with the mindset of physical location. Unfortunately, in both of the above cases, work to clarify the literature, and eliminate redundancies is unlikely to be preformed on more than a case by case basis unless a major emphasis is put on solving these data management challenges.
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The cry signal results from coordination among several brain regions that control respiration and vocal cord vibration from which the cry sounds are produced. Previous work has shown a relationship between acoustic characteristics of the cry and diagnoses related to neurological damage, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, prematurity and substance exposure during pregnancy. Assessment of infant cry provides a window into the neurological and medical status of the infant.
Teachers administered the surveys during regular class time with members of the research team present. Ethics approval was obtained from the Dalhousie University Health Sciences Human Research Ethics Board. Written consent was obtained from participants. Parents were not required to give written consent, but were informed of the study through a letter sent home with their chil- dren and were given the option of informing the school if they did not wish their children to participate.
Policy implication: The data revealed that there was a disjuncture in terms of EAA policy and appointment requirements that excluded women in certain professions. This finding shows that policy makers have the mammoth task of ensuring that these demographics (i.e. women) are not ostracized in the regulatory workplaces, by employers who create barriers that make them not to be appointed and selected into management positions. Since it emerged from the data that there no policies to women appointment and selection into management positions, policy makers have the responsibility to enforce that such a policy is developed and implemented. The policy makers should also deploy officials to closely monitor the implementation of such a policy. Lastly, policy-makers should create avenues or opportunities for women to be capacitated so that they can meet this criterion as an entry into senior management: “I am not going to be a senior manager in flight operations because I need 7 500 flying hours.”
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