Due to the galvanic potential is about -0.73V, region Ⅰ would not be discussed in detail. According to the results of Hakiki 28, the response of capacitance, as region Ⅱ, controlled by electron of inner layer mainly containing chromium oxide. Meanwhile, the spaced charge layer of chromium oxide in the run out of state, the one of iron oxide in an enrich state that equal to conductor. Consequently, the distance between excess electron in the passive film and solution electron is much short, and the film formed on 17-4 stainlesssteel presents as p-type semiconductor for the p-type semiconductor character of chromium oxide 28. However, the region Ⅲ acts as n-type semiconductor, mostly controlled by iron oxide and hydroxides, and the space charge condition is opposite to the one of p-type semiconductor 29. Theoretically, the larger the carrier densities, the greater the conductivity of passive film, the worse the corrosion resistance 30. The shallow acceptor density is almost three times as much as the donor density, based on the results presented in Table 2, which can be attributed to the higher doping density and the worse degree of order of passive film at region Ⅱ, it causes the worse the corrosion resistance of passive film. Thus, it causes the decrease of the stability of passive film on 17-4 stainlesssteel coupled with C110 carbon steel. Based on above mentioned, the results are strongly in agreement with the results of EIS, shown in Figures 3-5. Thus, the potential of (17-4)-C110 couple decrease (as Figure 1).
Shielded metal arc welding which is also known as stick welding uses an electric arc and consumable coated electrodes that act as filler metal for welding a stainlesssteel. Equipment for SMAW is relatively low but it also has a low deposition rates causing it to have a slow welding process due to a repeated replacement of electrodes (The Lincoln Electric Company, 2003).
Cheng Crowns are Stainlesssteel pediatric anterior crowns faced with a high quality composite, mesh-based with a light cured composite. It presents a unique solution for natural- looking Stain-resistant Crowns. It is available for the right and left central and lateral as well as cuspids. Most crown procedures can be completed in one patient visit and with less patient discomfort (Baker et al., 1996). It is available in short and regular lengths and sizes suitable for centrals, lateral and cuspids. They can undergo heat sterilization without significant effect on their bond strength and color. Disadvantages of all preveneered crowns are fracture of veneers during crimping and they are expensive (Baker et al., 1996). It is a Stainlesssteel crown faced with high quality composite. It is claimed to be color stable, plaque resistant and suitable pedo-shades. It doesn’t cause wear of opposing teeth. It is available in upper and lower right & left central and lateral with 6 sizes (Suzan Sahana, et al., 2010).
Existing Metal Additive Manufacturing processes are fast approaching a matured stage in which a wide range of possibilities are available for the incorporation of the rapid fabrication technology to current industrial practices. In terms of design conventions, the limitless geometrical freedom allows complex structures including cellular internal grids and lattices to be formed without addi- tional tooling. Repair parts and leveraging components can also be produced on demand when required especially for military assets where large volume of inventory is constantly maintained to ensure operational readiness. In this exemplary work, a feasibility study on using stainlesssteel material with integrated cellular design to manufacture a guide bracket found on a military ve- hicle via Selective Laser Melting process was conducted. The results showed appreciably better mechanical performance in using a stainlesssteel honeycomb as compared to the aluminum alloy used for the original component together with a faster production route through SLM.
Baosteel is a top list steel company around the world and can deliver many kinds of duplex stainlesssteel (DSS in short) products, including the steel grade of S32101, S32205, S31803, S32507 etc. Every year Baosteel pro- duces duplex stainlesssteel tens of thousands tons. But duplex stainlesssteel is difficult to make. One challenge is inclusion defects in the billets; another is crack defect after hot working because of the precipitating of brittle phase. Figure 1 shows the inclusion defects on a plate. Figure 2 shows the cracks on a DSS plate. So in most of the steel companies, the yield rate of duplex stainlesssteel may be as low as 60% - 65%, compared to as high as that of 80% - 85% for austenite stainlesssteel. For Baosteel it’s also very important to understand why these de- fects occur and manage to decrease or even resolve these difficulties to improve the quality and increase the yield ratio to enhance Baosteel’s competence ability in DSS.
that find applications in marine settings: stainlesssteel 316 (SS316), nylon-6 (N-6), and poly(ether sulfone) (PES). Saccharides were immobilized via aryldiazonium chemistry; SS316 and N-6 samples were subjected to oxidative surface pre-treatments prior to saccharide immobilization, whereas PES was modified via direct reaction of pristine surfaces with the aryldiazonium cations. Functionalization was confirmed by a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle experiments and fluorescence imaging of lectin- saccharide binding. Saccharide immobilization was found to increase surface hydrophilicity of all materials tested, while laboratory tests demonstrate that the saccharide coating results in reduced protein adsorption in the absence of specific protein-saccharide interactions. The performance of all three materials after modification with aryldiazonium saccharide films was tested in the field via immersion of modified coupons in coastal waters over a 20 day time period. Results from combined infrared spectroscopy, light microscopy, scanning electron and He-ion microscopy and adenosine-triphosphate content assays show that the density of retained biomass at surfaces is significantly lower on carbohydrate modified samples with respect to unmodified controls. Therefore, functionalization and field test results suggest that carbohydrate aryldiazonium layers could find applications as fouling resistant coatings in marine environments.
Austenitic stainless steels are 200 arrangements or 300 arrangements. They are non-attractive and have high erosion protection. They can be solidified just by icy working - not by warm treatment. They are exceptionally formable. In any case, they are inclined to stretch erosion breaking. There are three subtypes: straight, L and H. Prominent straight sorts are grades are 201, 202, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 308, 309, 310, 314, 316, 317, 321, 347, 348 and 384. L sorts have higher erosion protection than the straight sorts. Cases incorporate 304L and 316L. H sorts are appropriate for use in high temperature situations. Austenitic stainless steels are utilized as a part of shafts, valves, screws, bushings, nuts, airplane fittings, substance gear, and nourishment handling hardware, fermenting hardware, cryogenic vessels and so forth.
Hot roll bonding is the general process used. In this process the clean plates of carbon steel and stainlesssteel are placed on each other, (single side cladding), or sandwiched between two stainlesssteel plates (double side cladding). The composite plates are hot rolled together. Stainlesssteel cladding process results bonding between the two metals. Another method of manufacturing includes explosive bonding. The bonding is produced by plastic deformation of metals because of intense collision during explosive bonding. Sometimes explosive bonding is followed by the hot rolling process to improve the bond between carbon steel and stainlesssteel. Clad carbon steel is used in the variety of applications such as chemical processes, oil refining, offshore oil production, etc. It is also used in power generation units, where there are high temperature and stress corrosion.
Total materials requirement (TMR) for the recycling of elements and materials (Urban Ore TMR) from end-of-life electric home appliances (cathode ray tube TV, liquid crystal display TV, refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner and microwave oven) have been estimated and evaluated. The estimation were carried out using scenario analyses, in which the number of recycled elements and/or materials was changed considering additional energy for advanced recycling. As the results of the estimation, the urban ore TMR of gold, silver, copper and stainlesssteel were lower than TMR when they are smelted from natural ore (natural ore TMR) for all the scenarios. The urban ore TMR for iron (steel), aluminum and die-casting aluminum were mainly aﬀected by the dilution ratio using pure element for the recycling. The recyclability of the elements and materials are discussed from the view point of TMR. [doi:10.2320/matertrans.MAW200908]
Dissimilar metal welding has gained its popularity and well-established in catering the requirement of transition in mechanical properties and/or variation of service environments (Lippold and Kotecki, 2005). This method is especially popular in pharmaceutical industry, in which the fabrication of pressure vessel involved joining of two different types of stainlesssteel material. Most of the time austenitic type is the primary choice for pharmaceutical equipment due to their remarkable properties, particularly corrosion resistance and weldability. For instance, vessels made from AISI 304 and AISI 316L are joined together but they work in different circumstances, where vessels AISI 316L have contact with working media, yet AISI 304 does not (SK Group, 2012).
not be determined. Unfortunately the results are unreliable and cannot provide a good indication of cleaning via ultrasounds. Thus, a series of cleaning tests were then performed on conven- tional mass produced stainlesssteel samples to see whether the same phenomena is observed. These samples did not lose any weight under ultrasound cleaning and thus it was concluded that the cooling jacket sample is faulty. To confirm this theory, the stainlesssteel cooling jacket was tested under microscope where large voids are seen in the surface of the sample. The other 3D printed samples (Aluminum pixel, stainlesssteel pipe fitting and steel plates [A15, A16]) were then received in the order stated.
EIS technique provides important mechanistic and kinetic information for an electrochemical system under investigation [46,47,54-59]. The method was successfully employed to explain the pitting and passivation phenomena on Al [46-50], copper [54-59] and iron [27,45,60] in chloride solutions. Typical Nyquist impedance plots obtained for (a) bare Al and (b) PVC coated Al electrodes at an open-circuit potential after 20 min immersion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions are shown in Fig. 6. The EIS spectra were also obtained at the same conditions on (a) bare and (b) PVC coated electrodes of steel and brass as respectively shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.
The transition loads vary widely with the sliding speed, composition and hardness of the steel; if these factors are selected arbitrarily one or more transitions may not appear within the range of load investigated and this is also observed in the later erosion-oxidation research . An increase of sliding speed lowers all the transition loads and, for a fixed load, there must be critical values of speed at which equivalent changes in the wear rate occur . Fig. 9(b) shows the wear rates of 0.52% C steel at 1 & 5Kg loads plotted as function of speed taken from the earlier Welsh work . Fig. 10 shows the variation of wear rate with sliding speed of brass sliding against steel at 20 o C in air taken from Lancaster . It is clear from the Fig. 9(b) and Fig. 10 that wear rate is increasing with sliding speed and there is sudden transition in wear mode i.e. from severe wear to mild wear, for a metal pair in sliding contact, at higher speeds.
Steel is common name for a large family of iron alloys which are easily malleable after the molten stage. Limestone, iron ore and coal is the material that produce steels. These three raw materials are put into the blast furnace and then the material is resulting as a “pig iron” which has a composition of iron, carbon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus and silicon. This pig iron is hard and brittle in its physical properties. So the “pig iron” must be refine by purifying it and then adding other elements to strengthen the material. The steel is next going through deoxidized process which is the steel is deoxidized by a carbon and oxygen reaction. The steel that strongly deoxidized is called killed, and a less deoxidized steels are called semi killed, capped and rimmed.
Fig. 2 (a) and 2 (b) represents the SEM images duplex stainlesssteel powder milled for 0h and 10h respectively. At 0h (before milling) elemental powder samples are large and random in size but after 10h of milling particles become spherical and very small. During milling, the powder particles becomes flat plate like structures due to the presence of ductile iron and two or more plate like structure weld together to form giant structure after few hours of milling. Further increase in milling time results in the work hardening and fragments in to very fine regular, uniform and spherical duplex stainlesssteel powders. Due to very fine particle morphology the surface area and surface energy of the particles increases. Therefore we studied the electrocatalytic properties of duplex stainlesssteel powders.
Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) are characterized by a two phase structure, which consists of approximately equal proportions of ferrite (BCC) and austenite (FCC), i.e. from 60/40 to 40/60 percent volume fractions of austenite/ferrite. DSSs combine the good mechanical properties of both austenitic and ferritic phases (high YS, UTs, work- hardening rate and ductility), some of them (YS, UTS) still increased by the small grain size, and progressively improved during recent years. Moreover, DSS possess a very good corrosion resistance. Today they are used as structural materials in large fields of industries, such as oil and gas, petrochemical, paper, and nuclear industries, also replacing even progressively the more costly 300’ series austenitic stainless steels. For many engineering applications in the petroleum and refining industry, duplex stainless steels (DSS) are the preferred material. Finally, their high mechanical properties permit thickness reductions, particularly appreciated in transportation industries for instance. 
www.ijsrp.org The Boundary Conditions are given Temperature of -173 degree C. Convection along with Inner pressure of 0.7 MPa also with Vacuum pressure along the inner and outer tubes. The deformation and Equivalent Stress reports for the steel Cryogenic Pressure Vesselwith Aluminium inner section are are as shown in the Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 respectively.
Arc welding process such as welding using stick electrodes is usually carried in joining underframe assembly earlier in the rail coaches. The floor assembly subjects to mechanical loads given by passengers and tends open to natural corrosive vironments such as rain water, atmospheric exposure etc. Using stick electrodes may be economical but structural stability and life of the weldment are not so expected, it also requires skilled labour for sound weld. Production rate is high lding process than by welding with stick factor of filler metal, wire feed rate, and studied by which the mechanical property welding between stainlesssteel (AISI 304) and steel is affected. Mechanical property and microstructure around heat affected zone (HAZ) were monitored due to dissimilar chemical composition of two materials for its effects in mechanical properties. Tensile test should prove that the penetration of weld metal acts as the main subject that contributed to the increasing of weldment With the assist of higher voltage and stable cooling (1.2mm), maximum stress is the ntributing by well penetration to be studied. This melting rate of filler wire will reduce the possibility of weldment failure. The result of hardness test proves that the filler wire size and arc voltage contribute ture of HAZ. This is because the existing of amount of heat during weldment according to filler wire size and arc voltage applied further increased of treatment process received by HAZ thus contributed in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH